Knowledge Management Models


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Knowledge Management Models

  1. 1. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MODELS BY : Tilahun Deribe December 2015
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • The Nonaka and Takeuchi Knowledge Spiral Model • The von Krogh and Roos Model of Organizational Epistemology • The Choo Sense-Making KM Model • The Wiig Model for Building and Using Knowledge • Boisot KM model • Complex Adaptive System Models of KM • Conclusion • Recommendations
  3. 3. Introduction  Knowledge management  was defined as the process of applying a systematic approach to the capture, structuring, management, and dissemination of knowledge throughout an organization to work faster, reuse best practices, and reduce costly rework (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995).  A model  is defined as representation of a system that allows for investigation of the properties of the system and, in some cases, prediction of future outcomes.  A knowledge management model  gives us the representation of the KM for the investigation of its properties for better understanding and systematizing our knowledge about knowledge management.
  4. 4.  The first widely adopted KM model  was the SECI model (knowledge spiral model)  described how tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge can be transformed in an organization.  it has been extended, modified, and alternative KM models have been
  5. 5. Major Knowledge Management Models  The Nonaka and Takeuchi Knowledge Spiral Model (1995) The Von Krogh and Roos Model of Organizational Epistemology (1995)  The Choo Sense-Making KM Model (1998)  The Wiig Model for Building and Using Knowledge (1993)  The Boisot I-Space KM Model (1998)  Complex Adaptive System Models of KM
  6. 6. The Nonaka and Takeuchi Knowledge Spiral Model  The Nonaka and Takeuchi model of KM  has its roots in a holistic model of knowledge creation.  The tacit/explicit spectrum of knowledge  forms (the epistemological dimension) and  the individual/group/organizational or three- tier model of knowledge sharing and diffusion  Forms the ontological dimension  both needed to create knowledge and produce innovation (Dalkir, 2011, p.64).
  7. 7. Two Types of Knowledge:  explicit knowledge,  contained in manuals and procedures, and  tacit knowledge,  learned only by experience, and communicated only indirectly, through metaphor and analogy.   The SECI model is a well known conceptual model  describes how explicit and tacit knowledge is generated, transferred, and recreated in organizations  Making personal knowledge available to others in the company  is at the core of this KM model.  knowledge creation process takes place continuously and it occurs at all levels of the organization  In many cases, the creation occurs in an unexpected or unplanned way (Dalkir, 2011, p.65).
  8. 8. Four Modes of Knowledge Conversion  Socialization (tacit to tacit),  Externalization (tacit to explicit),  Combination (explicit to explicit), and  Internalization (explicit to tacit).
  9. 9. The von Krogh and Roos Model of Organizational Epistemology  the first model that clearly distinguishes between individual knowledge and social knowledge  the following aspects are analyzed:  why and how the knowledge gets to the employees of a company  why and how the knowledge reaches the organization  what does it mean knowledge for the employee/organization  What are the barriers for organizational knowledge management (Cristea and Căpaţînă, 2009).
  10. 10. The von Krogh and Roos Model cont..  The cognitive perspective states that  a cognitive system, no matter if it’s human or artificial, creates representations (models) of the reality, and  process of learning appears when this representations are somehow manipulated (used in different inferences).  A cognitive epistemology sees  organizational knowledge as a system with self-organization characteristics, where people are transparent to the information coming from the exterior.  The information it is not just taken from the exterior environment, it can be generated also internally.  The familiarity and practice are leading to learning.  The employees form nodes of an organizations system, with relative weak links – knowledge represents an emergent phenomenon which comes from the social interaction of these persons
  11. 11. The Choo Sense-Making KM Model  stresses sense making, knowledge creation and decision making.  “knowing organizations” are those which use information strategically in (a) sense making, (b) knowledge creation and (c) decision making.  Sense making  long term goal is the warranty that organizations will adapt and continue to prosper in a dynamic and complex environment through activities of prospecting and interpretation of relevant information enabling it to understand changes, trends and scenarios about clients, suppliers, competitors and other external environment actors.  the reduction of uncertainty and the management of ambiguity (Neto et al, 2009).
  12. 12. The Choo Sense-Making KM Model cont..  Knowledge Creation  is a process that allows an organization to create or acquire, organize and process information in order to generate new knowledge through organizational learning  The new knowledge generated, in its turn, allows the organization to develop new abilities and capabilities, create new products and new services, improve the existing ones and redesign its organizational processes.  Decision-Making.  The organization must choose the best option among those that are plausible and presented and pursue it based on the organization’s strategy.  Decision making process in organizations is constrained by the bounded rationality principle
  13. 13. The Wiig Model for Building and Using Knowledge  highlights the following principle:  in order for knowledge to be useful and valuable, it must be organized.  Dimensions the Wiigs KM model are:  completeness,  connectedness,  congruency, and  Perspective and purpose (Dalkir, 2011, pp.76-77).
  14. 14. Degrees of Internalization Level Type Description 1 Novice Extremely low consciousness (even not at all) about knowledge and the way it can be used 2 Beginner He knows about knowledge existence and where it can be obtained, but he doesn’t know the way it can be used 3 Competent Knows, but the possibility of using knowledge is limited 4 Expert He keeps the knowledge in mind, understands where can be applied, works with knowledge without extern intervention 5 Master Completely internalization of knowledge; a master has a profound understanding about the events in his environment Table 1: Degrees of Internalization in Wiig Model
  15. 15. Four Types of Knowledge:  based on facts, conceptual knowledge, methodological knowledge and expectation knowledge.  Knowledge based on facts  is about data, causal links, measures and readings – having an observable content, directly measurable.  Conceptual knowledge  implies systems, concepts and perspectives.  Methodological knowledge  is used by strategies, methods for decision refining and other techniques.  Example - situations when the company is learning from previous mistakes or has the ability to make forecasts based on events analysis  Expectation knowledge refers to  judgments, hypothesis and expectations of the persons that possess them.  As examples- intuitions, suppositions and heuristics that we use while making decisions.  forms of knowledge, combined with the perspectives proposed by Wiig, form a matrix which constitutes  the core of Wiig knowledge management model
  16. 16. The Wiig matrix
  17. 17. Boisot KM model  The Boisot KM model is based on the key concept of  an "information good“ that differs from a physical asset.  Boisot distinguishes information from data by emphasizing that  information is what an observer will extract from data as a function of his or her expectations or prior knowledge.  Boisot (1998) proposes the following two key points:  The more easily data can be structured and converted into information, the more diffusible it becomes.  The less data that has been so structured requires a shared context for its diffusion, the more diffusible it
  18. 18. Boisot KM model cont…  Boisot's model can be visualized as three dimensional cube with the following dimensions:  from uncodified to codified,  from concrete to abstract,  from undiffused to diffused.
  19. 19. Boisot Cont ..  He proposes a Social Learning Cycle (SLC) that uses the I-Space to model the dynamic flow of knowledge through a series of six phases.  Name Characteristics 1 Scanning Identifying threats and opportunities for the discovery of new visions. 2 Problem solving process which offers structure and coherence 3 Abstractio n Generalization of applying new codified visions 4 Diffusion Sharing new visions with a certain number of persons 5 Absorptio n Applying new codified visions to different situations 6 Impact Including knowledge in real practices
  20. 20. Complex Adaptive System Models of KM  sees organization as an adaptive, complex system.  models contain series of functions  based on cybernetics principles,  using communications and control mechanisms in order to understand, describe and predict what should do a viable organization.  contain lots of independent agents which are interacting.  There is no general authority to manage the way in which these agents should work.  A general model of a complex behavior will be the result of all the interactions.
  21. 21. Fig 4: Bennet (ICAS) model
  22. 22. Conclusion  Several models of KM were introduced.  The first widely adopted KM model was the SECI model  KM models helps us get a deeper understanding  A model-driven KM approach enables not only a better description but also helps to provide a better prescription for meeting organizational goals.  Each model has its strength and weakness and  no one model fully represents all dimensions and entire spectrum of Knowledge management.
  23. 23. Coverage Area/Model TheNonakaandTakeuchi KnowledgeSpiralModel ThevonKroghandRoosModel ofOrganizationalEpistemology TheChooSense-MakingKM Model TheWiigModelforBuilding andUsingKnowledge TheBoisotI-SpaceKMModel ComplexAdaptiveSystem ModelsofKM Acquisition and creation of knowledge √ √ √ √ Codification sharing of knowledge √ √ Levels of interaction of knowledge (individual/ group/ organizational/ inter- organizational, individual/public) √ √ √ √ √ Processes in the use of knowledge (knowledge creation, sense making, decision making etc.) √ √ √ √ Levels of internalization of knowledge √ Types of knowledge and conversion (tacit/explicit,fact/concept etc) √ √ √ √ Qualities and dimensions of knowledge √ √
  24. 24. Recommendations  Organizations and knowledge management experts  need to use the km models for  better understanding and  effective implementation of km systems.  However, as no one model is complete  for representing the complex nature of knowledge management,  organizations need to use a combination of models to suit their organizational setting and business goals for the effective implementation of knowledge management systems.