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Wherefore libraries


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Describes the need for 21st century libraries to shift their focus from managing collections to managing knowledge.

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Wherefore libraries

  1. 1. 11 The Knowledge Economy:The Knowledge Economy: Wherefore LibrariesWherefore Libraries Presented to: Eastern Canada Chapter Special Libraries Association Nov. 22, 2007 Ottawa, Ontario Albert Simard
  2. 2. 2 Libraries have a long history…Libraries have a long history… Librarians have been managing knowledge for about 2,500 years Library at Alexandria established in 283 BC Capture and store the worlds knowledge But… Library of Alexandria – artist’s concept
  3. 3. 3 Tradition is not enough…Tradition is not enough… “While they all make varying use of corporate libraries and information systems, few knowledge workers feel that these groups can be relied on for more than a modest amount of their information needs.” James McGee and Lawrence Prusak Managing Information Strategically (1993)
  4. 4. 4 Knowledge EconomyKnowledge Economy Success based on what you know, not what you own Value of goods based on knowledge, not material Creating and using knowledge is the key Organizations must evolve or become irrelevant
  5. 5. 5 OutlineOutline Knowledge AssetsKnowledge Assets PreservingPreserving KnowledgeKnowledge KnowledgeKnowledge MarketsMarkets Social NetworkingSocial Networking
  6. 6. 6 The Evolution of KnowledgeThe Evolution of Knowledge ManagementManagement KM Generation Knowledge Carrier Type of Knowledge Implications 1st Artifacts Explicit Infrastructure for acquiring, organizing, sharing & reusing knowledge 2nd Individuals Tacit Individual behavior, capturing & exchanging knowledge 3rd Networks Emergent Network connectivity, group collaboration & synergy (Patti Anklam, 2007)
  7. 7. 7 Knowledge AttributesKnowledge Attributes Knowledge is increasing; half-life is decreasing Knowledge can be in many places at one time Knowledge may be permanent or time sensitive Knowledge is used without being consumed Selling does not reduce supply nor ability to resell Once disseminated, knowledge cannot be recalled Thomas Stewart (1997)
  8. 8. 8 Explicit KnowledgeExplicit Knowledge  Books, publications, reports  Photos, diagrams, illustrations  Computer code, decision-support systems  Presentations, speeches, lectures  Stories, lessons learned, recordings  Laws, regulations, procedures, policies  Embedded into products
  9. 9. 9 Tacit KnowledgeTacit Knowledge Awareness Skills Mental models Expertise Judgement Wisdom Corporate memory The Thinker - Rodin
  10. 10. 10 Transferring KnowledgeTransferring Knowledge Conversations, discussions, dialogue Questions & answers Knowledge extraction Advice, briefings, recommendations Mentoring, teaching, examples Presentations, lectures, stories Documents, books, manuals Education, training, demonstration Meetings, workshops, conferences
  11. 11. 11 OutlineOutline Knowledge AssetsKnowledge Assets PreservingPreserving KnowledgeKnowledge KnowledgeKnowledge MarketsMarkets Social NetworkingSocial Networking
  12. 12. 12 Knowledge PreservationKnowledge Preservation Value ChainValue Chain Capture MaintainOrganize RetrieveStore accessinventory map capacity continuity Custodian ManagerCodifier ProviderSpecialist
  13. 13. 13 Capturing Knowledge AssetsCapturing Knowledge Assets • ObjectivesObjectives • IdentificationIdentification • EvaluationEvaluation • DocumentDocument • CodifyCodify • DigitizeDigitize • EnterEnter
  14. 14. 14 Briefing Note DatabaseBriefing Note Database
  15. 15. 15 Organizing KnowledgeOrganizing Knowledge Epistemology Cognitive approaches Automated methods Classification systems Thesauri, taxonomies Interdisciplinary issues Linguistic issues
  16. 16. 16 Storing Knowledge AssetsStoring Knowledge Assets • Information technology infrastructureInformation technology infrastructure • Systems for archiving and managing knowledgeSystems for archiving and managing knowledge • Interface for entry and administrationInterface for entry and administration • Data warehouse, distributed databasesData warehouse, distributed databases • Information repository, records managementInformation repository, records management • Knowledge repository, knowledge mapKnowledge repository, knowledge map • Digital libraries, traditional librariesDigital libraries, traditional libraries
  17. 17. 17 Retrieving Knowledge AssetsRetrieving Knowledge Assets Access to knowledge Browser interface Search engine Extraction tools Manipulation tools Assembly tools Retrieval system Relativity - Escher
  18. 18. 18 Maintaining Knowledge AssetsMaintaining Knowledge Assets • Content integrityContent integrity • System and content securitySystem and content security • Access to contentAccess to content • Service standardsService standards • Migrate technologyMigrate technology • Life cycle managementLife cycle management
  19. 19. 19 Migrating Knowledge AssetsMigrating Knowledge Assets PaperPaper Punch cardsPunch cards Paper tapePaper tape Magnetic tapeMagnetic tape Computer disksComputer disks Floppy disksFloppy disks Tape cassettesTape cassettes DiskettesDiskettes CD-ROMSCD-ROMS Gone With the Wind
  20. 20. 20 OutlineOutline Knowledge assetsKnowledge assets PreservingPreserving KnowledgeKnowledge KnowledgeKnowledge MarketsMarkets Social NetworkingSocial Networking
  21. 21. 21 A TransactionalA Transactional Knowledge MarketKnowledge Market Supply (Providers) Demand (Users) Providers and users connect through a virtual marketplace facilitated by knowledge brokers Government On-Line; Global Disaster Information Network
  22. 22. 22 Knowledge Market: AttributesKnowledge Market: Attributes Price – reciprocity, repute, altruism Trust – visible, ubiquitous, top-down Signals – position, education, reputation Inefficiencies – incomplete information, asymmetry, localness Pathologies – monopolies, artificial scarcity, trade barriers Adapted from Davenport (1998)
  23. 23. 23 Knowledge BrokersKnowledge Brokers Assist with search and retrieval Assist in adapting knowledge to user needs Maintain information repositories Provide digital infrastructure for exchange Manage the market infrastructure Assist with knowledge dissemination Increase awareness of knowledge availability
  24. 24. 24 Knowledge Sharing: MechanismsKnowledge Sharing: Mechanisms Talking (real, virtual) E-mail (individuals, list servers, distribution lists) Chat rooms, forums, discussion groups Communities of interest, social networks Groupware (teams, working groups) Symposia, conferences, workshops Data, information, & knowledge repositories Libraries (repositories, access, search, retrieval)
  25. 25. 25 CAB InternationalCAB International
  26. 26. 26 National Library of CanadaNational Library of Canada
  27. 27. 27 Canadian Forest ServiceCanadian Forest Service Libraries - MetaForeLibraries - MetaFore
  28. 28. 28 A Digital LibraryA Digital Library
  29. 29. 29 Digital Libraries: CharacteristicsDigital Libraries: Characteristics Documents are assembled on the fly Large collection of digital objects All types of digital material Stored in electronic repositories May be centralized or distributed Accessible through national networks
  30. 30. 30 Protecting Common E-DocumentsProtecting Common E-Documents Organizations (provider & user under one organizational mandate) Providers (generally not aligned with common good, societal needs and long-term preservation) Users (preservation tends to be user-centric) Community archives (most complex)  Purpose (historical, cultural, scholarly record)  Legal protection (from liability from open access)  Access rights & restrictions (sustainable business model) (Donald Waters, 2007)
  31. 31. 31 OutlineOutline Knowledge assetsKnowledge assets PreservingPreserving KnowledgeKnowledge KnowledgeKnowledge MarketsMarkets Social NetworkingSocial Networking
  32. 32. 32 Network GovernanceNetwork Governance Charter –Charter – Members agree to participate inMembers agree to participate in achieving common objectives, within aachieving common objectives, within a networknetwork structure, with participant recordsstructure, with participant records and accountability and common rights andand accountability and common rights and responsibilities to property.responsibilities to property. Nature:Nature: Flexible, dynamic, opportunistic,Flexible, dynamic, opportunistic, synergistic, unpredictable.synergistic, unpredictable. (unstructured,(unstructured, self-organized, maximizes reward)self-organized, maximizes reward)
  33. 33. 33 Network scaleNetwork scale Group:Group: few participants; elicit knowledge;few participants; elicit knowledge; unstructured; aggregating knowledgeunstructured; aggregating knowledge (knowledge services task group)(knowledge services task group) Communities:Communities: many participants; sharemany participants; share knowledge; self-directed; common interestknowledge; self-directed; common interest (organizational IM community)(organizational IM community) Networks:Networks: massive participants; peermassive participants; peer production; emergent processes; commonproduction; emergent processes; common ownershipownership (Linux developers)(Linux developers)
  34. 34. 34 Network StructureNetwork Structure
  35. 35. 35 Network PrinciplesNetwork Principles OpennessOpenness – collaboration based on candor,– collaboration based on candor, transparency, freedom, flexibility, andtransparency, freedom, flexibility, and accessibility.accessibility. PeeringPeering – horizontal voluntary meritocracy,– horizontal voluntary meritocracy, based on fun, altruism, or personal values.based on fun, altruism, or personal values. SharingSharing – increased value of common– increased value of common products benefits all participants.products benefits all participants. Acting GloballyActing Globally – value is created through– value is created through very large knowledge ecosystems.very large knowledge ecosystems.
  36. 36. 36 Network - ExamplesNetwork - Examples BlogsBlogs – Individuals can easily publish anything on– Individuals can easily publish anything on the Web without specialized knowledge.the Web without specialized knowledge. YouTubeYouTube – enables easy publishing and viewing of– enables easy publishing and viewing of video clips on the clips on the Web. SlideShareSlideShare – Enables easy publishing and sharing– Enables easy publishing and sharing of PowerPoint presentations on the Web.of PowerPoint presentations on the Web. InnocentiveInnocentive – A global “Ideagora” where those who– A global “Ideagora” where those who need solutions and those with solutions can meet.need solutions and those with solutions can meet. WikisWikis – Rapid collaborative development of– Rapid collaborative development of products; anyone can revise anythingproducts; anyone can revise anything
  37. 37. 37 Network SuccessesNetwork Successes WikipediaWikipedia –2 Million English entries; 165 Languages;–2 Million English entries; 165 Languages; 10 times larger then Encyclopedia Britannica10 times larger then Encyclopedia Britannica LinuxLinux – open-source operating system developed by– open-source operating system developed by thousands of programmers around the worldthousands of programmers around the world GoldCorpGoldCorp – released geological data in an open– released geological data in an open contest to find gold; increased reserves by factor of 4.contest to find gold; increased reserves by factor of 4. Procter & GambleProcter & Gamble – uses network of 90,000 external– uses network of 90,000 external scientists to leverage internal research capacity.scientists to leverage internal research capacity. LeggoLeggo – uses imagination and creativity of worldwide– uses imagination and creativity of worldwide toy owners to create new products.toy owners to create new products.
  38. 38. 38 Natural Resources Canada WikiNatural Resources Canada Wiki
  39. 39. 39 Capturing ValueCapturing Value Bring it inside the organization Stabilize it; make it work
  40. 40. 40 Knowledge As a CommonsKnowledge As a Commons Prerequisites  Virtual (digitized, on an Internet server)  Economic (no cost to user; who pays cost?)  Legal (flexible copyright, license restrictions) Primacy of authors  Facilitate (digitize, metadata, administration)  Remove disincentives (prepublication, no reward)  Create incentives (OA recognition, prestige) Intellectual property  Constrictive (excludes imitation, restricts entry)  Facilitating (protects disclosure, dissemination)  Irrelevant (not air tight, grey areas) (Hess and Ostrom, 2007)
  41. 41. 41 Knowledge Commons PrinciplesKnowledge Commons Principles An open, collective, and self-governed knowledgeAn open, collective, and self-governed knowledge ecosystem is more sustainable than restrictedecosystem is more sustainable than restricted knowledge held as a resource and property.knowledge held as a resource and property. Imitation is important for transmitting social and culturalImitation is important for transmitting social and cultural knowledge.knowledge. Markets are important for organizing a knowledgeMarkets are important for organizing a knowledge commons, but need to be well regulated to maintaincommons, but need to be well regulated to maintain open access. Open systems of recording and preserving knowledgeOpen systems of recording and preserving knowledge are important to democratic societies.are important to democratic societies. Hess and Ostrom (2007)
  42. 42. 42 A final thought…A final thought… “The Internet allows users to become their own librarians, able to research, study, and investigate anything with nothing more than a mouse and a keyboard.” Francis Cairncross The Death of Distance (1997)