Albert Simard Knowledge Manager Defence R&D Canada INFONEX Public Sector Human Resource Management January 31-Feb 1, 2012 ...
Social Networks Are Growing Exponentially 13 global networks with 100 million+ users
Social Networking Affects Everything… The “Arab Spring” Vancouver hockey riots
… Including Human Resources Manage social networks for the business  (long-term revolution)   Use social networks to manag...
Social Networks are  Technological <ul><li>Telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></...
Social Networks Are  Social   A social structure made up of individuals or organizations called &quot;nodes,&quot; which a...
Outline <ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Communities </li></ul><u...
Using Social Networks for Human Resource Activities <ul><li>Recruiting:  Advertise positions on social networks. </li></ul...
Advertising Positions
Finding Information
Enhancing Training Faster learning Greater retention Lower cost
Outline <ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Communities </li></ul><u...
Incentives <ul><li>Compliance   (you will) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay, job security, duty, penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
What is Engagement? <ul><li>Autonomy:  What to do, when to do it, where to do it, how to do it, and who to work with </li>...
Why Engage Knowledge Workers? <ul><li>Knowledge cannot be conscripted; it must be volunteered. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge...
Engagement Techniques <ul><li>Hire “engageable” employees </li></ul><ul><li>Match projects, passions, proficiency </li></u...
Engagement Signals <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual expectations  </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to ideas </li></ul><ul...
Tacit Knowledge <ul><li>Intangible personal knowledge gained through experience and self-learning; influenced by beliefs, ...
Eliciting from Individuals <ul><li>Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>In the minds of individuals   </li></ul><ul><li>Must be v...
Eliciting Methods <ul><li>Conversations, discussions, dialogue  (colleagues, peers) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions & answers,...
Sharing Barriers <ul><li>Trust and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and motiva...
Motivating Sharing <ul><li>Communicate sharing goals regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Train employees on using sharing tools </...
Outline <ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Communities </li></ul><u...
Community of Practice <ul><li>Government, department </li></ul><ul><li>Sector, branch, division staff </li></ul><ul><li>Sc...
Community Benefits Participants -   Help with   their work -  Solve problems -  Find experts -  Receive feedback -  Place ...
Community Characteristics  <ul><li>Self-governed:   norms and guidelines govern practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organize...
Community Attributes <ul><li>Size:   small to large; large communities need structure </li></ul><ul><li>Structure:   infor...
Community Roles <ul><li>Champion   – Ensure support, communicate purpose, promote the community, ensure impact </li></ul><...
Community Dynamics <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul>...
Harvesting from Communities <ul><li>Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>In-house knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Already validated <...
Harvesting Methods  <ul><li>Service Center:   repository  for community outputs;  i nterface with communities, minimize du...
Outline <ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Communities </li></ul><u...
Emerging HR Institutional Role <ul><li>HR holds the keys. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the context of Government policies: </l...
Policy Considerations <ul><li>Internal or external </li></ul><ul><li>What is social networking? </li></ul><ul><li>Encourag...
Counterproductive Practices <ul><li>Censoring social network sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging consensus or groupthink....
Emerging HR Business Role <ul><li>Human resources understands people </li></ul><ul><li>Understand communities &  networks ...
Types of Networks <ul><li>Personal   (family, friends, coworkers, neighbors: assistance, advice, fellowship) </li></ul><ul...
Network Structure <ul><li>Governance  – emerge & connect, identify & collaborate, organize & formalize, codify & document,...
Network Behavior <ul><li>Positive feedback  - The bigger the network, the bigger it gets. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological gro...
Building Communities & Networks <ul><li>Include internal and external perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Include different le...
Network Analysis - Business <ul><li>Purpose  – organizational goals, needs of participants, common purpose </li></ul><ul><...
Network Analysis Techniques <ul><li>Visualization  – maps or patterns of nodes and links show complex relationships. </li>...
The Future of Human Resources: Use social networks to manage people Manage social networks for the business
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Human Resources and Social Networks: The Future Has Arrived12

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Describes how human resources could shift from an administrative function that manages staff transactions to the center of an organization's business by managing communities and social networks.

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Human Resources and Social Networks: The Future Has Arrived12

  1. 1. Albert Simard Knowledge Manager Defence R&D Canada INFONEX Public Sector Human Resource Management January 31-Feb 1, 2012 Ottawa, ON Social Networking & Human Resources: The Future Has Arrived!
  2. 2. Social Networks Are Growing Exponentially 13 global networks with 100 million+ users
  3. 3. Social Networking Affects Everything… The “Arab Spring” Vancouver hockey riots
  4. 4. … Including Human Resources Manage social networks for the business (long-term revolution) Use social networks to manage people (near-term evolution)
  5. 5. Social Networks are Technological <ul><li>Telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Chat rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Bulletin boards </li></ul><ul><li>On-line forums </li></ul><ul><li>Web portal </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing sites </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration sites </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise locator </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs, microblogs </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul>Technology belongs to IT
  6. 6. Social Networks Are Social A social structure made up of individuals or organizations called &quot;nodes,&quot; which are connected by one or more interdependencies such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, beliefs, or knowledge. Wikipedia (2011) Social should belong to HR
  7. 7. Outline <ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging HR Roles </li></ul>
  8. 8. Using Social Networks for Human Resource Activities <ul><li>Recruiting: Advertise positions on social networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring: Find information about potential employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Training: Learn through interactive games & scenarios. </li></ul><ul><li>Position: Write through a Community of Practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Career: Increase visibility and recognition in CoPs. </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment: Transfer incumbent’s knowledge with blogs. </li></ul><ul><li>Succession: Evaluate candidates through dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>Departure: Invite former employees into CoPs. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Advertising Positions
  10. 10. Finding Information
  11. 11. Enhancing Training Faster learning Greater retention Lower cost
  12. 12. Outline <ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging HR Roles </li></ul>
  13. 13. Incentives <ul><li>Compliance (you will) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay, job security, duty, penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military, manufacturing, law, policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet quotas, minimum standards, no change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation (you’ll be rewarded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambition, challenges, bonuses, rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency, productivity, quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements, increases, evolutionary changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engagement (would you like to?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy, mastery, purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design, innovation, discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment, involvement, revolutionary changes </li></ul></ul>Individuals
  14. 14. What is Engagement? <ul><li>Autonomy: What to do, when to do it, where to do it, how to do it, and who to work with </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery: Want to excel, increase ability, practice, perseverance, obstacles, approach but not attain </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose : quality of life, meaning, social responsibility, stewardship, attitude and behavior, soul-stirring, ethics </li></ul>Daniel Pink (2009) Individuals
  15. 15. Why Engage Knowledge Workers? <ul><li>Knowledge cannot be conscripted; it must be volunteered. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge workers need to commit to and become truly involved in their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, they work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not because they are told to, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not because they expect something in return, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because they want to; they enjoy doing it. </li></ul></ul>Individuals
  16. 16. Engagement Techniques <ul><li>Hire “engageable” employees </li></ul><ul><li>Match projects, passions, proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify mutual goals and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Stress employee ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Earn trust continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Provide frequent feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Talk and listen often </li></ul>Wendy Fenci (2008) Individuals
  17. 17. Engagement Signals <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for help & advice </li></ul><ul><li>Jointly review progress </li></ul><ul><li>Freely share information </li></ul><ul><li>Work collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor closely </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t include in planning </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom interact </li></ul><ul><li>Withhold information </li></ul><ul><li>Control tightly </li></ul><ul><li>Approve all decisions </li></ul>Tosti & Nickols (2010) Individuals
  18. 18. Tacit Knowledge <ul><li>Intangible personal knowledge gained through experience and self-learning; influenced by beliefs, perspectives, and values. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate memory </li></ul></ul>Individuals The Thinker - Rodin
  19. 19. Eliciting from Individuals <ul><li>Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>In the minds of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Must be volunteered </li></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify experts </li></ul><ul><li>Engage them </li></ul><ul><li>Make their knowledge explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Validate knowledge </li></ul>Individuals
  20. 20. Eliciting Methods <ul><li>Conversations, discussions, dialogue (colleagues, peers) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions & answers, problems & solutions (novice/expert) </li></ul><ul><li>After-action reviews, lessons learned (event/group) </li></ul><ul><li>Capture, document, interview, record (expert/facilitator) </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction, identify, codify, organize (expert/know engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Advising, briefing, recommending (subordinate/superior) </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching, educating, training (teacher/student) </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling, narratives, anecdotes (teller/listener) </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining, demonstrating, describing (technician/user) </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations, lectures, speeches (speaker/audience) </li></ul>Individuals
  21. 21. Sharing Barriers <ul><li>Trust and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of explaining </li></ul><ul><li>Different expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Security and privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Control and hoarding </li></ul><ul><li>Large distances </li></ul><ul><li>Different languages </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate technology </li></ul>Individuals
  22. 22. Motivating Sharing <ul><li>Communicate sharing goals regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Train employees on using sharing tools </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the benefits of sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight sharing success stories </li></ul><ul><li>Practice good sharing behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reward good sharing behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage poor sharing behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage community development </li></ul>Stan Garfield (2010) Individuals
  23. 23. Outline <ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging HR Roles </li></ul>
  24. 24. Community of Practice <ul><li>Government, department </li></ul><ul><li>Sector, branch, division staff </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists, engineers, lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Policy analysts, regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Finance, purchasing officers </li></ul><ul><li>Information, communication specialists </li></ul>People who share common expertise, skill, or profession (position, work, colleagues) Communities
  25. 25. Community Benefits Participants - Help with their work - Solve problems - Find experts - Receive feedback - Place to learn - Latest information - Enhance reputation Management - Connect isolated experts - Coordinate activities - Fast problem solving - Reduce development time - Quickly answer questions - Standardize processes - Develop & retain talent <ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>- Tangible : documents, reports, manuals, recommendations, reduced innovation time and cost </li></ul><ul><li>- Intangible : increased skills, sense of trust, diverse perspectives, cross-pollinate ideas, capacity to innovate, relationships, spirit of enquiry </li></ul>Communities
  26. 26. Community Characteristics <ul><li>Self-governed: norms and guidelines govern practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organized: purpose, direction, and management. </li></ul><ul><li>Productive enquiry: answer questions based on practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate: synchronous and asynchronous channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate knowledge: new knowledge is created. </li></ul><ul><li>Support members: provides a forum for mutual support. </li></ul>Saint-Onge & Wallace (2003) Communities
  27. 27. Community Attributes <ul><li>Size: small to large; large communities need structure </li></ul><ul><li>Structure: informal, semi-structured, structured </li></ul><ul><li>Life-Span: few months to permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Location: co-located or dispersed </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment: informal or formal </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries: often cross boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity: homogeneous to heterogeneous </li></ul>Wenger et. al. (2002) Communities
  28. 28. Community Roles <ul><li>Champion – Ensure support, communicate purpose, promote the community, ensure impact </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor – Bridge between the CoP and the organization; communicate support, remove barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Leader – Provide leadership, identify emerging trends, prioritize issues, approve membership, resolve conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator – communicate, encourage participation, ensure that views are heard, organize meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Service Center – Interface with communities, ensure lack of duplication, inform communities about activities </li></ul><ul><li>Members – Provide knowledge, expertise, and experience; participate in discussions, raise issues, alert members to change, increase community effectiveness </li></ul>Communities
  29. 29. Community Dynamics <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Meritocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Outliers </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Debating </li></ul><ul><li>Arguing </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming </li></ul><ul><li>Majority </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Groupthink </li></ul>Communities
  30. 30. Harvesting from Communities <ul><li>Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>In-house knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Already validated </li></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Collect knowledge </li></ul>Communities
  31. 31. Harvesting Methods <ul><li>Service Center: repository for community outputs; i nterface with communities, minimize duplication, inform communities </li></ul><ul><li>Leader: transfer community outputs; I dentify emerging trends, prioritize issues </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor: endorse community outputs; bridge between the community and the organization, provide support, minimize organizational barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Champion: ensure adoption of community outputs; communicate purpose, promote the community </li></ul>Communities
  32. 32. Outline <ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging HR Roles </li></ul>
  33. 33. Emerging HR Institutional Role <ul><li>HR holds the keys. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the context of Government policies: </li></ul><ul><li>Policies that promote collaborative behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Work processes that focus on relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Management guides that facilitate interactions. </li></ul>HR Roles
  34. 34. Policy Considerations <ul><li>Internal or external </li></ul><ul><li>What is social networking? </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking examples </li></ul><ul><li>Safe social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Security considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Misuse of social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking resources </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking glossary </li></ul>HR Roles
  35. 35. Counterproductive Practices <ul><li>Censoring social network sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging consensus or groupthink. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative feedback for honest postings. </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting postings to only positive material. </li></ul><ul><li>Imposing authority on social network sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Discouraging diverse views or perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling / structuring social network sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Confusing social networking with committees. </li></ul><ul><li>Argumentative members or pejorative postings. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring delays between postings and responses. </li></ul>HR Roles
  36. 36. Emerging HR Business Role <ul><li>Human resources understands people </li></ul><ul><li>Understand communities & networks </li></ul><ul><li>Build communities & networks </li></ul><ul><li>Manage communities & networks </li></ul>HR Roles
  37. 37. Types of Networks <ul><li>Personal (family, friends, coworkers, neighbors: assistance, advice, fellowship) </li></ul><ul><li>Idea (innovation, advocacy: creative dialogue builds ideas) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning (professional: increase skill, expertise, vocation, or knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Mission (social good: arts, culture, education, environment, health, religion, justice) </li></ul><ul><li>Business (suppliers, alliances, consumers: production, revenuer, returns) </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership (dialogue among managers: diverse ideas, joint problem solving </li></ul>Anklam (2007) HR Roles
  38. 38. Network Structure <ul><li>Governance – emerge & connect, identify & collaborate, organize & formalize, codify & document, evolve & sustain </li></ul><ul><li>Management – leadership, agreements, growth, membership </li></ul><ul><li>Geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Texture – density, distance, centrality, openness </li></ul><ul><li>Strength – strong & weak ties, hubs & connectors </li></ul>Patti Anklam (2007) HR Roles
  39. 39. Network Behavior <ul><li>Positive feedback - The bigger the network, the bigger it gets. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological growth - Crossing a “threshold” yields self-sustaining, exponential growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Synergy & emergence – Networks can yield more than any individual can accomplish. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Linear response – A small effort can be leveraged by orders of magnitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Impermanence – A network leader can be displaced by disruptive technology overnight. </li></ul><ul><li>Volatility – an issue can unpredictably “go viral” and grow explosively. </li></ul>HR Roles
  40. 40. Building Communities & Networks <ul><li>Include internal and external perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Include different levels of participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop public and private spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on value to the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Combine familiarity and novelty. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a community rhythm. </li></ul><ul><li>Design for evolution. </li></ul>Wegner, et. al. (2002) HR Roles
  41. 41. Network Analysis - Business <ul><li>Purpose – organizational goals, needs of participants, common purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Structure - relationships support purpose, speed of decision making, transaction costs, adequate diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Style – place, space & pace appropriate for members, support dialogue & inquiry, provide trust and reciprocity, continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Value – adequate resources, producing appropriate value, sustainability, value to participants </li></ul>HR Roles
  42. 42. Network Analysis Techniques <ul><li>Visualization – maps or patterns of nodes and links show complex relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural metrics – density, distance, centrality, openness, diversity, bridging, clustering, </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction metrics – membership, participation, transactions, exchanges, tasks, node prestige, collaboration, </li></ul>HR Roles
  43. 43. The Future of Human Resources: Use social networks to manage people Manage social networks for the business

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