Knowledge agenda


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Describes a knowledge agenda that extends knowledger management beyond it's traditional boundaries in an organizational context. Considers the extent to which knowledge and knowledge work can be managed.

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  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • This is an organizational infrastructure that includes pretty much everything that is needed to run CSS. This applies to KM as well as anything else that we do. Simply put, people use tools and process within a governance structure to increase the value of content and services. It isn’t a matter of focussing on one or more parts of the infrastructure. All parts must be reflected in a task, project, or program if it is to succeed.
  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • Many departments are mandated to produce content and to use it to achieve sector outcomes. Knowledge services show the flow of departmental outputs from generation through final use. We can think of the flow of services as a value chain, with several stages. Each stage involves one of three processes – embedding, advancing, and extracting value Four stages embed value; three advance it along the value chain, and three stages extract value from knowledge services. As previously, all of the organizational infrastructure and hierarchy are involved in every stage. The first five stages of the value chain are internal to a department – what can be managed. The last four stages relate to the sector and society – these can only be influenced. Content management is a key part of the management stage. The provider/user market model is represented by the vertical line between the organization and the sector. As you can see, knowledge services involve a lot more than transferring content. It also involves more than service delivery. Achieving sector outcomes and results for Canadians requires that the services be actually used to fulfill a want or need.
  • There are many ways to organize knowledge, each with strengths and weaknesses. Librarians have been classifying knowledge since ancient times; departments do this through subject classification indexes. Every scientist is also familiar with discipline-specific thesauri for organizing terminology. These are, naturally, incompatible with departmental subject-based classification systems. Computers brought on automated keyword systems. Except that terms used by an author often don’t match those used by someone else. More recently, artificial intelligence has been used to developed “concept maps” of ideas rather than words. With Web 2.0 we are seeing “folksonomies,” where knowledge is organized by participants in social networks, based on popularity of usage. These are the bane of librarians and records managers. All of these methods are faced with interdisciplinary issues. For example, terms such as risk analysis have very specific meanings in the CFIA which differ from their meanings in other disciplines. And then there are familiar linguistic issues where terms don’t really have a counterpart in another language. The only solution is to provide multiple criteria for organizing and searching, so that regardless of a user’s perspective, they will find what they are looking for quickly and efficiently. Ultimately, if it isn’t easy, simple, and fast for people to organize their knowledge, the way they work , they won’t do it.
  • Managers won’t fund what they don’t understand. Managers won’t abandon what worked (or didn’t) before. Managers will oppose loss of resources. Managers want short-term-low-risk deliverables.
  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • Knowledge agenda

    1. 1. Albert Simard Knowledge Manager Defence R&D Canada Presented to 17 th Conference on Knowledge-Based organizations November 24-26, 2011 Becoming a Knowledge Organization
    2. 2. Knowledge-Based Organizations <ul><li>KBOs are in the knowledge business. </li></ul><ul><li>C reating and using knowledge is their core activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is a KBOs most valuable asset. They often spend 10 to 15 times more to create and use knowledge than on facilities, equipment, and infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>KBOs must become knowledge organizations to remain relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>They must create, manage , and use knowledge as a strategic resource. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Management Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Regimes </li></ul>
    4. 4. Knowledge Management Levels Levels Knowledge Assets Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Work Knowledge Transfer Knowledge Infrastructure Stock Flow Business National Defence, National Security, Public Safety Defence R&D Canada Markets Resources Government
    5. 5. Knowledge Infrastructure Levels Processes work routines lessons learned, best practices, People <ul><ul><li>learning, motivation, rewards, incentives, staffing, skills </li></ul></ul>Governance roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources Content, Services data, risk analysis, reports, monitoring, operations, policies Tools systems to capture, store, share, and process content
    6. 6. Knowledge Assets <ul><li>Capture : Represent explicit or tacit knowledge on reproducible media </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory : Find, list, and describe knowledge; map to business needs, value and prioritize </li></ul><ul><li>Needs : What needs to be known to accomplish organizational goals; identify core knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps : Difference between what is known and what needs to be known </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve : organize, store, search & retrieval, maintain and migrate throughout life-cycle </li></ul>Levels
    7. 7. Knowledge Sharing <ul><li>Exchange : Develop & implement internal systems to enable people to find and retrieve knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate : Combine diverse knowledge from many sources to create a holistic view of complex issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer : Disseminate knowledge from the organization to enable its use by partners, clients, and stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor : Acquire knowledge from the environment to identify events and developments of interest to the organization. </li></ul>Levels
    8. 8. DRDC Knowledge Work Levels Inputs Direction Monitoring Intelligence Needs Priorities Establishment Transformation Programs Services Acquire Create Develop Mobilize Learn Output Report Integration Innovation Mitigation Advice Adaptation Clients DND (management) (R & D)
    9. 9. Knowledge Transfer <ul><li>Communications : one-way dissemination of approved messages and positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction : two-way exchanges of knowledge products & services. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel : Transferring knowledge products & services from or to two or more providers or users. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential : Multiple organizations sequentially produce and transfer knowledge products & services. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclic : Knowledge service “value chains” continuously create and transfer new knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Network : Interactions among large numbers of participants in a “knowledge ecosystem.” </li></ul>Levels
    10. 10. Outline <ul><li>Management Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Regimes </li></ul>
    11. 11. Organizational Knowledge Flow Flow Creation Validation Organization Authorization
    12. 12. Incentives <ul><li>Compliance (you will) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay, job security, duty, work ethic, penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military, manufacturing, law, regulation, policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet quotas, minimum standards, routine tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation (you’ll be rewarded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambition, challenges, bonuses, rewards, recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency, productivity, quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases, improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engagement (would you like to?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningfulness, ownership, self-esteem, enjoyment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity, innovation, discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment, involvement, willingness, enjoyment </li></ul></ul>Flow-Creation
    13. 13. Engagement <ul><li>Autonomy: (agreed task, flexible schedule, select technique, choose team) </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery: (is a mindset, it takes time and effort, it is asymptotic) </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: (meaningful goals, words are important, policies) </li></ul>Daniel Pink (2009) Flow-Creation
    14. 14. Eliciting Methods <ul><li>Conversations, discussions, dialogue (colleagues, peers) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions & answers, problems & solutions (novice/expert) </li></ul><ul><li>After-action reviews, lessons learned (event/group) </li></ul><ul><li>Capture, document, interview, record (expert/facilitator) </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction, identify, codify, organize (expert/know engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Advising, briefing, recommending (subordinate/superior) </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching, educating, training (teacher/student) </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling, narratives, anecdotes (teller/listener) </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining, demonstrating, describing (technician/user) </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations, lectures, speeches (speaker/audience) </li></ul>Flow-Creation
    15. 15. Communities Create & Validate Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge exists in the minds of people. Experience is as important as formal knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit. Transferring tacit knowledge is more effective through human interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is social as well as individual. Today’s knowledge is the result of centuries of collective research. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate. It takes a community of people to keep up with new concepts, practices, and technology. </li></ul>Flow-Communities
    16. 16. Community Benefits Participants - Help with their work - Solve problems - Find experts - Receive feedback - Place to learn - Latest information - Enhance reputation Management - Connect isolated experts - Coordinate activities - Fast problem solving - Reduce development time - Quickly answer questions - Standardize processes - Develop & retain talent <ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>- Tangible : documents, reports, manuals, recommendations, reduced innovation time and cost </li></ul><ul><li>- Intangible : increased skills, sense of trust, diverse perspectives, cross-pollinate ideas, capacity to innovate, relationships, spirit of enquiry </li></ul>Flow-Communities
    17. 17. Harvesting Methods <ul><li>Service Center: repository for community outputs; i nterface with communities, minimize duplication, inform communities </li></ul><ul><li>Leader: transfer community outputs; I dentify emerging trends, prioritize issues </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor: endorse community outputs; bridge between the community and the organization, provide support, minimize organizational barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Champion: ensure adoption of community outputs; communicate purpose, promote the community </li></ul>Flow-Communities
    18. 18. Organizational Structure Flow-Organization Technology support Manage Interface Content Research Social Common Governance direction
    19. 19. Knowledge Services Value Chain Flow-Organization Use Internally Use Professionally Use Personally Generate Transform Add Value Transfer Evaluate Manage Extract Advance Embed Legend S&T Partners Centre for Security Science Practitioners & Stakeholders
    20. 20. Knowledge Creation Process Flow-Organization Statistical Apps. Store Analyze Body of knowledge Review Literature Experimental design Test Experiment inadequate adequate Write Review Publish Edit Hypothesis Data Tacit Explicit Product Gap Legend: Work Output Service Library, Web, Search Expertise Office App. Data management Analysis Apps. Interface Collaboration
    21. 21. Organizing Knowledge <ul><li>Classification systems </li></ul><ul><li>Indexes, catalogues </li></ul><ul><li>Thesauri, Taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologies, Mind maps </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Automated methods </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary issues </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic issues </li></ul>Flow-Organization
    22. 22. Service Governance Framework Flow-Authorization Negotiation Negotiation Negotiation Direction, Authority, Resources Program Governance Project Governance Work Systems Reports, Advice, Issues Corp. Service Governance Centre Service Governance KIT Services Technology Content Reports, Advice Issues Other services: science, HR, finance, purchasing… Mandate Resources Constraints Authority Responsibility Accountability Budget Staff Capacity Laws TB Policies DND Policies Corporate Governance
    23. 23. Authorization <ul><li>Understanding – Keep it simple ; one message with stories and multiple analogies from different perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience – Do your homework ; pre-brief decision makers, solicit opinions, negotiate objections (to a point). </li></ul><ul><li>Resources – Pick low-hanging fruit ; plan low cost, small effort, low impact activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Management – Think big, start small ; divide into small projects with measurable, high-impact deliverables. </li></ul><ul><li>Submission – Leadership is essential ; bypass unjustified objections, accept majority vote, authorize work. </li></ul>Flow-Authorization
    24. 24. Sustainability <ul><li>Leadership – Outputs must be delivered within a leader’s tenure; preferably, get them institutionalized. </li></ul><ul><li>Governance – Representative, federated decision making is the only sustainable governance for knowledge work. </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganization – Align a project/activity with the organizational business model. </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities – Align the project/activity with the organization’s long-term strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Support – Deliver initial outputs when & as promised; be prepared to adapt to changing priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture – Develop favorable policies, reward desired behavior, leverage work, implement helpful systems. </li></ul>Flow-Authorization
    25. 25. Outline <ul><li>Management Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Regimes </li></ul>
    26. 26. Management Regimes Regimes Dialogue Agreements Work Process Hierarchy Interactions Innate Tacit Explicit Authoritative Knowledge Create Collaborate Organize Authorize Purpose (Why) Engage people Connect Communities Capture & Structure Decide & Act Process (How) Environment & Interests People & Connectivity Objects & Tasks Decisions & Actions Entity (What) Responsible Autonomy Negotiated Agreement Organizational Structure Authoritative Hierarchy Knowledge Authority
    27. 27. Definitions <ul><li>Authoritative Hierarchy: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be completely, totally, or entirely mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Structure: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be predominantly, generally, or mostly mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated Agreement: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be partly, nominally, or incompletely mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible Autonomy: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be slightly, minimally, or not mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. </li></ul>Regimes
    28. 28. DRDC Knowledge Agenda Management Regimes Regimes Self-interest Agreement Structure Mandate Knowledge Work Knowledge markets Exchange Products & Services Promulgate Knowledge Transfer Create Collaborate Organize Authorize Knowledge Infrastructure Open source Joint IP rights Sole IP rights Embed Knowledge Assets Vertical Authoritative Hierarchy Network Community Horizontal Knowledge Sharing Responsible Autonomy Negotiated Agreement Organizational Infrastructure Management levels
    29. 29. Management Regimes and Strategic Trends Regimes Authoritative Hierarchy Organizational Structure Partnership Agreement Responsible Autonomy knowledge assets generation capacity structured processes individual abilities Relative Importance high low Management Regime Competitiveness Sustainability
    30. 30. Key Messages Management authorizes the use of knowledge to enable action. A knowledge organization engages people to enhance creativity Community collaboration validates individual knowledge Community knowledge must be put into an organizational context.