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Knowledge agenda

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Describes a knowledge agenda that extends knowledger management beyond it's traditional boundaries in an organizational context. Considers the extent to which knowledge and knowledge work can be managed.

Published in: Business, Education
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Knowledge agenda

  1. 1. Albert Simard Knowledge Manager Defence R&D Canada Presented to 17 th Conference on Knowledge-Based organizations November 24-26, 2011 Becoming a Knowledge Organization
  2. 2. Knowledge-Based Organizations <ul><li>KBOs are in the knowledge business. </li></ul><ul><li>C reating and using knowledge is their core activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is a KBOs most valuable asset. They often spend 10 to 15 times more to create and use knowledge than on facilities, equipment, and infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>KBOs must become knowledge organizations to remain relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>They must create, manage , and use knowledge as a strategic resource. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Management Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Regimes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Knowledge Management Levels Levels Knowledge Assets Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Work Knowledge Transfer Knowledge Infrastructure Stock Flow Business National Defence, National Security, Public Safety Defence R&D Canada Markets Resources Government
  5. 5. Knowledge Infrastructure Levels Processes work routines lessons learned, best practices, People <ul><ul><li>learning, motivation, rewards, incentives, staffing, skills </li></ul></ul>Governance roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources Content, Services data, risk analysis, reports, monitoring, operations, policies Tools systems to capture, store, share, and process content
  6. 6. Knowledge Assets <ul><li>Capture : Represent explicit or tacit knowledge on reproducible media </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory : Find, list, and describe knowledge; map to business needs, value and prioritize </li></ul><ul><li>Needs : What needs to be known to accomplish organizational goals; identify core knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps : Difference between what is known and what needs to be known </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve : organize, store, search & retrieval, maintain and migrate throughout life-cycle </li></ul>Levels
  7. 7. Knowledge Sharing <ul><li>Exchange : Develop & implement internal systems to enable people to find and retrieve knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate : Combine diverse knowledge from many sources to create a holistic view of complex issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer : Disseminate knowledge from the organization to enable its use by partners, clients, and stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor : Acquire knowledge from the environment to identify events and developments of interest to the organization. </li></ul>Levels
  8. 8. DRDC Knowledge Work Levels Inputs Direction Monitoring Intelligence Needs Priorities Establishment Transformation Programs Services Acquire Create Develop Mobilize Learn Output Report Integration Innovation Mitigation Advice Adaptation Clients DND (management) (R & D)
  9. 9. Knowledge Transfer <ul><li>Communications : one-way dissemination of approved messages and positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction : two-way exchanges of knowledge products & services. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel : Transferring knowledge products & services from or to two or more providers or users. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential : Multiple organizations sequentially produce and transfer knowledge products & services. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclic : Knowledge service “value chains” continuously create and transfer new knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Network : Interactions among large numbers of participants in a “knowledge ecosystem.” </li></ul>Levels
  10. 10. Outline <ul><li>Management Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Regimes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Organizational Knowledge Flow Flow Creation Validation Organization Authorization
  12. 12. Incentives <ul><li>Compliance (you will) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay, job security, duty, work ethic, penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military, manufacturing, law, regulation, policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet quotas, minimum standards, routine tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation (you’ll be rewarded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambition, challenges, bonuses, rewards, recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency, productivity, quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases, improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engagement (would you like to?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningfulness, ownership, self-esteem, enjoyment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity, innovation, discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment, involvement, willingness, enjoyment </li></ul></ul>Flow-Creation
  13. 13. Engagement <ul><li>Autonomy: (agreed task, flexible schedule, select technique, choose team) </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery: (is a mindset, it takes time and effort, it is asymptotic) </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: (meaningful goals, words are important, policies) </li></ul>Daniel Pink (2009) Flow-Creation
  14. 14. Eliciting Methods <ul><li>Conversations, discussions, dialogue (colleagues, peers) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions & answers, problems & solutions (novice/expert) </li></ul><ul><li>After-action reviews, lessons learned (event/group) </li></ul><ul><li>Capture, document, interview, record (expert/facilitator) </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction, identify, codify, organize (expert/know engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Advising, briefing, recommending (subordinate/superior) </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching, educating, training (teacher/student) </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling, narratives, anecdotes (teller/listener) </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining, demonstrating, describing (technician/user) </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations, lectures, speeches (speaker/audience) </li></ul>Flow-Creation
  15. 15. Communities Create & Validate Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge exists in the minds of people. Experience is as important as formal knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit. Transferring tacit knowledge is more effective through human interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is social as well as individual. Today’s knowledge is the result of centuries of collective research. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate. It takes a community of people to keep up with new concepts, practices, and technology. </li></ul>Flow-Communities
  16. 16. Community Benefits Participants - Help with their work - Solve problems - Find experts - Receive feedback - Place to learn - Latest information - Enhance reputation Management - Connect isolated experts - Coordinate activities - Fast problem solving - Reduce development time - Quickly answer questions - Standardize processes - Develop & retain talent <ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>- Tangible : documents, reports, manuals, recommendations, reduced innovation time and cost </li></ul><ul><li>- Intangible : increased skills, sense of trust, diverse perspectives, cross-pollinate ideas, capacity to innovate, relationships, spirit of enquiry </li></ul>Flow-Communities
  17. 17. Harvesting Methods <ul><li>Service Center: repository for community outputs; i nterface with communities, minimize duplication, inform communities </li></ul><ul><li>Leader: transfer community outputs; I dentify emerging trends, prioritize issues </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor: endorse community outputs; bridge between the community and the organization, provide support, minimize organizational barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Champion: ensure adoption of community outputs; communicate purpose, promote the community </li></ul>Flow-Communities
  18. 18. Organizational Structure Flow-Organization Technology support Manage Interface Content Research Social Common Governance direction
  19. 19. Knowledge Services Value Chain Flow-Organization Use Internally Use Professionally Use Personally Generate Transform Add Value Transfer Evaluate Manage Extract Advance Embed Legend S&T Partners Centre for Security Science Practitioners & Stakeholders
  20. 20. Knowledge Creation Process Flow-Organization Statistical Apps. Store Analyze Body of knowledge Review Literature Experimental design Test Experiment inadequate adequate Write Review Publish Edit Hypothesis Data Tacit Explicit Product Gap Legend: Work Output Service Library, Web, Search Expertise Office App. Data management Analysis Apps. Interface Collaboration
  21. 21. Organizing Knowledge <ul><li>Classification systems </li></ul><ul><li>Indexes, catalogues </li></ul><ul><li>Thesauri, Taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologies, Mind maps </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Automated methods </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary issues </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic issues </li></ul>Flow-Organization
  22. 22. Service Governance Framework Flow-Authorization Negotiation Negotiation Negotiation Direction, Authority, Resources Program Governance Project Governance Work Systems Reports, Advice, Issues Corp. Service Governance Centre Service Governance KIT Services Technology Content Reports, Advice Issues Other services: science, HR, finance, purchasing… Mandate Resources Constraints Authority Responsibility Accountability Budget Staff Capacity Laws TB Policies DND Policies Corporate Governance
  23. 23. Authorization <ul><li>Understanding – Keep it simple ; one message with stories and multiple analogies from different perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience – Do your homework ; pre-brief decision makers, solicit opinions, negotiate objections (to a point). </li></ul><ul><li>Resources – Pick low-hanging fruit ; plan low cost, small effort, low impact activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Management – Think big, start small ; divide into small projects with measurable, high-impact deliverables. </li></ul><ul><li>Submission – Leadership is essential ; bypass unjustified objections, accept majority vote, authorize work. </li></ul>Flow-Authorization
  24. 24. Sustainability <ul><li>Leadership – Outputs must be delivered within a leader’s tenure; preferably, get them institutionalized. </li></ul><ul><li>Governance – Representative, federated decision making is the only sustainable governance for knowledge work. </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganization – Align a project/activity with the organizational business model. </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities – Align the project/activity with the organization’s long-term strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Support – Deliver initial outputs when & as promised; be prepared to adapt to changing priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture – Develop favorable policies, reward desired behavior, leverage work, implement helpful systems. </li></ul>Flow-Authorization
  25. 25. Outline <ul><li>Management Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Regimes </li></ul>
  26. 26. Management Regimes Regimes Dialogue Agreements Work Process Hierarchy Interactions Innate Tacit Explicit Authoritative Knowledge Create Collaborate Organize Authorize Purpose (Why) Engage people Connect Communities Capture & Structure Decide & Act Process (How) Environment & Interests People & Connectivity Objects & Tasks Decisions & Actions Entity (What) Responsible Autonomy Negotiated Agreement Organizational Structure Authoritative Hierarchy Knowledge Authority
  27. 27. Definitions <ul><li>Authoritative Hierarchy: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be completely, totally, or entirely mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Structure: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be predominantly, generally, or mostly mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated Agreement: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be partly, nominally, or incompletely mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible Autonomy: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be slightly, minimally, or not mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. </li></ul>Regimes
  28. 28. DRDC Knowledge Agenda Management Regimes Regimes Self-interest Agreement Structure Mandate Knowledge Work Knowledge markets Exchange Products & Services Promulgate Knowledge Transfer Create Collaborate Organize Authorize Knowledge Infrastructure Open source Joint IP rights Sole IP rights Embed Knowledge Assets Vertical Authoritative Hierarchy Network Community Horizontal Knowledge Sharing Responsible Autonomy Negotiated Agreement Organizational Infrastructure Management levels
  29. 29. Management Regimes and Strategic Trends Regimes Authoritative Hierarchy Organizational Structure Partnership Agreement Responsible Autonomy knowledge assets generation capacity structured processes individual abilities Relative Importance high low Management Regime Competitiveness Sustainability
  30. 30. Key Messages Management authorizes the use of knowledge to enable action. A knowledge organization engages people to enhance creativity Community collaboration validates individual knowledge Community knowledge must be put into an organizational context.

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