• August 14, 1947- plan for the partition was put into
• finalized - July 18, 1947 and was putforth a month
• India formed- Hindu regions
• Pakistan formed-Muslim regions.
• Pakistan was formed in two dominions- East
Pakistan and West Pakistan, which were separated
geographically by India.
• The partition of India -Aug. 15, 1947 & Aug.
14, 1947 into Pakistan.
• India was separated on the day of
independence due to tensions between the
Hindus and the Muslims
The radical nationalists were the leaders of a
study nationalist movementbelieved that for
any success, boldness was required.
Important Leaders of Radical Nationalists:
Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lajpat Rai
attempted to bring into the Congress the mass
of the population,i.e., the workers, peasants
• The Famine and Plague:
• Worsening of the Economic Conditions
• ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa
• Repressive Policy of Lord Curzon
• In 1906, All India Muslim League was set up
under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab
Salimullab of Dacca and Nawab Mohsin-ul-
• The League supported the partition of Bengal,
opposed the Swadeshi Movement, and demanded
special safeguards for its community and a
separate electorates of Muslims.
• This led to communal differences between Hindus
• Muhammad Ali Iqbal, was the first to ask for a
• Great Urdu poet and philosopher
• Muslim League said that a separate nation for
Muslims was essential in an otherwise Hindu-
• At the Allahabad session of the Muslim League,
Iqbal justified the Muslims demanded for the
creation of Muslim India (Punjab, North-Werst
Frontier Province, Sind, Baluchistan).
• In 1946 February, the Cabinet Mission was sent to India
by the British Government to hold discussions with Indian
• The Cabinet Mission proposed the formation of a Union of
India in which provinces would be grouped in four zones
with their own constitution.
• The Congress accepted the Cabinet Mission in order to
avoid the delay of independence.
• In July, the elections to the Constitutional Assembly were
• Congress won 201 out of 210 general seats reserved for
• The Muslim League boycotted the assembly and pressed
on with its demand for a separate state.
• Mountbatten Plan.
• Radcliffe Line.
• Resettlement of refugees in India: 1947–1957.
• Resettlement of refugees in Pakistan: 1947–1957.
• Rehabilitation of women.
• Independence, population transfer, and violence.
• Loss of sovereignty by Muslim Rulers.
• British policy Divide and Rule.
• Rise of radical Nationalism.
• Partition of Bengal.
• The East India Company had established its control
over almost all parts of India by the middle of the
• There were numerous risings in the first hundred
years of British rule in India. They were, however,
local and isolated in character.
• Some of them were led by the nobility who were
refusing to accept the changing patterns of the time
and wanted the past to be restored. But the risings
developed a tradition of resistance of foreign rule,
culminating in the 1857 revolt.
• The Revolt of 1857, which was called a
“Sepoy Mutiny” by British historians
and their imitators in India but described as
"the First War of Indian Independence" by
many Indian historians, shook the British
authority in India from its very foundations.
• The Revolt of 1857, an unsuccessful but heroic
effort to eliminate foreign rule, had begun.
• The capture of Delhi and the proclamation of
Bahadurshah as the Emperor of Hindustan are
a positive meaning to the Revolt and provided
a rallying point for the rebels by recalling the
past glory of the imperial city.
• On May 10, 1857, soldiers at Meerut refused to touch the
new Enfield rifle cartridges.
• The soldiers along with other group of civilians, went on a
rampage shouting 'Maro Firangi Ko'.
• They broke open jails, murdered European men and
women, burnt their houses and marched to Delhi.
• The appearance of the marching soldiers next morning in
Delhi was a signal to the local soldiers, who in turn
revolted, seized the city and proclaimed the 80-year old
Bahadurshah Zafar, as Emperor of India.
Rani Lakshmi Bai
Hazrat Mahal in
• Within a month of the capture of Delhi, the Revolt
spread to the different parts of the country. Kanpur,
Lucknow, Benaras, Allahabad, Bareilly,
Jagdishpur and Jhansi.
• In the absence of any leader from their own ranks,
the insurgents turned to the traditional leaders of
• At Kanpur, NanaSaheb, the adopted son of last
Peshwa, Baji Rao II, led the forces.
• Rani Lakshmi Bai in Jhansi, Begum Hazrat
Mahal in Lucknow and Khan Bahadur in Bareilly
were in command.
• The British succeeded in suppressing the 1857
Revolt but they could not stop the growth of
political awareness in India.
• The Indian National Congress was founded in
• Its founder was an Englishman, Allan
Octavian Hume, a retired member of the
Indian Civil Service.
First President of the Congress -W.C.
• Promotion of friendship and cooperation amongst
the nationalist political workers from the different
parts of the country.
• Eradication of racial, creed or provincial
• Promotion of national unity
• Formulation of popular demands and their
presentation before the Government.
• Training and organisation of public opinion in the
• Lajpat Nagar was developed in 1950s and most of its
early residents were Hindus and Sikhs moving east
from newly formed Pakistan following the partition of
India in 1947.
• Initially refugee camps were set up in Purana Quila.
Plots and the people were allotted plots in areas like
Lajpat Nagar, Patel Nagar, Rajendra Nagar.
• The plots were of 15x60 feet constructed like army
barracks .The houses were all single storey, with
asbestos roofs, in the beginning, but now most of the
houses are multistoried.
• The colony also housed a refugee camp for
Bengali widows which came up much later
known as Kasturba Ashram.
• In 1960, Servants of the People Society,
founded by Lala Lajpat Rai in 1921 in
Lahore, after functioning for many years since
partition of India, from the residence of MP
Lala Achint Ram, also shifted to the new
building known as Lajpat Bhawan, Lajpat
• Ulhasnagar is a municipal town and the headquarters
of the Tahsil bearing the same name.
• Ulhasnagar was set up especially to accommodate
6,000 soldiers and 30,000 others during World War II.
• There were 2,126 barracks and about 1,173 housed
• camp had a deserted look at the end of the war and
served as a ready and commercial ideal ground for
• After the partition of India, over 100,000 Sindhi-
speaking refugees from the newly created West
Pakistan were relocated to deserted military camps
five kilometres from Kalyan.
• On December 30, 1898, Lord Curzon took
over as the new Viceroy of India.
• The partition of Bengal came into effect on
October 16, 1905, through a Royal
Proclamation, reducing the old province of
Bengal in size by creating a new province of
East Bengal, which later on became East
Pakistan and present day Bangladesh.
• The main objective of Government was to
'Divide and Rule' the most advanced region of
the country at that time.
• Muhammad Ali Jinnah who lead the Muslim
League claimed that “India consisted of two
separate nations Hindus and Muslims.”
• Jinnah had begun to despair of the fate of minority
communities in a united India and had begun to
argue that mainstream parties such as the Congress,
of which he was once a member, were insensitive to
• Lord Mountbatten presented a plan on 3rd June 1947.
• It offered a key to the political and constitutional deadlock
created by the refusal of the Muslim League to join the
• Mountbatten's formula was to divide India but retain
• The country would be partitioned but so would be Punjab
and Bengal, so that the limited Pakistan that emerged would
meet both the Congress and the League's position to some
• The ceremony for the transfer was held on 14th August
1947 in Karachi and 15th August 1947 in Delhi.
• Two self governing countries legally came into existence at
the stroke of midnight on 15 August 1947.
• The plan's main points were:
• Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims in Punjab and
Bengal legislative assemblies would meet and vote
for partition. If a simple majority of either group
wanted partition, then these provinces would be
• Sindh was to take its own decision.
• India would be independent by 15 August 1947.
• The separate independence of Bengal was ruled
• A boundary commission to be set up in case of
• Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
• Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
• Sino-Indian War
• Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
• 1999 Kargil Conflict
• The partition of India left both India and Pakistan
devastated. Riots erupted, and looting broke out
• Women were raped and battered by both the
Hindus and Muslims, and trains full of battered
women and children would arrive between the
borders of India and Pakistan daily.
• Over 15 million refugees were forced into
regions completely new to themThe provinces
of Bengal and Punjab were divided causing
outrage in many Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs
• The two countries are still arguing over the
landlocked region of Kashmir. Many believe
the partition not only broke the unity of India,
but also took away the sense of belonging to
many people who were tore apart from their
• Modern Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 after
achieving independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh Liberation
War.The history of the region is closely intertwined with the history of
Bengal and the history of India.
• The borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the partition
of Bengal and India n August 1947, when the region became East
Pakistan as a part of the newly formed State of Pakistan following the
• However, it was separated from West Pakistan by 1,600 km (994 mi)
of Indian territory.
• Due to political exclusion, ethnic and linguistic discrimination, as
well as economic neglect by the politically dominant westerin-wing,
popular agitation and civil disobedience led to the war of
independence in 1971. After independence, the new state endured
famine, natural disasters and widespread poverty, as well as political
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