Partition of india final ppt


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Partition of india final ppt

  1. 1. • August 14, 1947- plan for the partition was put into action. • finalized - July 18, 1947 and was putforth a month later. • India formed- Hindu regions • Pakistan formed-Muslim regions. • Pakistan was formed in two dominions- East Pakistan and West Pakistan, which were separated geographically by India.
  2. 2. • The partition of India -Aug. 15, 1947 & Aug. 14, 1947 into Pakistan. • India was separated on the day of independence due to tensions between the Hindus and the Muslims
  3. 3. The radical nationalists were the leaders of a study nationalist movementbelieved that for any success, boldness was required. Important Leaders of Radical Nationalists: Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lajpat Rai attempted to bring into the Congress the mass of the population,i.e., the workers, peasants and youths.
  4. 4. • The Famine and Plague: • Worsening of the Economic Conditions • ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa • Repressive Policy of Lord Curzon
  5. 5. • In 1906, All India Muslim League was set up under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullab of Dacca and Nawab Mohsin-ul- Mulk. • The League supported the partition of Bengal, opposed the Swadeshi Movement, and demanded special safeguards for its community and a separate electorates of Muslims. • This led to communal differences between Hindus and Muslims.
  6. 6. Aga Khan Nawab Salimullab of Dacca Nawab Mohsin-ul- Mulk
  7. 7. Muslim league Swadeshi Movement
  8. 8. • Muhammad Ali Iqbal, was the first to ask for a separate state. • Great Urdu poet and philosopher • Muslim League said that a separate nation for Muslims was essential in an otherwise Hindu- dominated subcontinent. • At the Allahabad session of the Muslim League, Iqbal justified the Muslims demanded for the creation of Muslim India (Punjab, North-Werst Frontier Province, Sind, Baluchistan).
  9. 9. • In 1946 February, the Cabinet Mission was sent to India by the British Government to hold discussions with Indian leaders. • The Cabinet Mission proposed the formation of a Union of India in which provinces would be grouped in four zones with their own constitution. • The Congress accepted the Cabinet Mission in order to avoid the delay of independence. • In July, the elections to the Constitutional Assembly were completed. • Congress won 201 out of 210 general seats reserved for Muslims. • The Muslim League boycotted the assembly and pressed on with its demand for a separate state.
  10. 10. • Mountbatten Plan. • Radcliffe Line. • Resettlement of refugees in India: 1947–1957. • Resettlement of refugees in Pakistan: 1947–1957. • Rehabilitation of women. • Independence, population transfer, and violence. • Loss of sovereignty by Muslim Rulers. • British policy Divide and Rule. • Rise of radical Nationalism. • Partition of Bengal.
  11. 11. • The East India Company had established its control over almost all parts of India by the middle of the 19th century. • There were numerous risings in the first hundred years of British rule in India. They were, however, local and isolated in character. • Some of them were led by the nobility who were refusing to accept the changing patterns of the time and wanted the past to be restored. But the risings developed a tradition of resistance of foreign rule, culminating in the 1857 revolt.
  12. 12. • The Revolt of 1857, which was called a “Sepoy Mutiny” by British historians and their imitators in India but described as "the First War of Indian Independence" by many Indian historians, shook the British authority in India from its very foundations.
  13. 13. • The Revolt of 1857, an unsuccessful but heroic effort to eliminate foreign rule, had begun. • The capture of Delhi and the proclamation of Bahadurshah as the Emperor of Hindustan are a positive meaning to the Revolt and provided a rallying point for the rebels by recalling the past glory of the imperial city.
  14. 14. • On May 10, 1857, soldiers at Meerut refused to touch the new Enfield rifle cartridges. • The soldiers along with other group of civilians, went on a rampage shouting 'Maro Firangi Ko'. • They broke open jails, murdered European men and women, burnt their houses and marched to Delhi. • The appearance of the marching soldiers next morning in Delhi was a signal to the local soldiers, who in turn revolted, seized the city and proclaimed the 80-year old Bahadurshah Zafar, as Emperor of India.
  15. 15. Rani Lakshmi Bai in Jhansi Hazrat Mahal in Lucknow
  16. 16. NanaSaheb, Kanpur Khan Bahadur
  17. 17. • Within a month of the capture of Delhi, the Revolt spread to the different parts of the country. Kanpur, Lucknow, Benaras, Allahabad, Bareilly, Jagdishpur and Jhansi. • In the absence of any leader from their own ranks, the insurgents turned to the traditional leaders of Indian society. • At Kanpur, NanaSaheb, the adopted son of last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, led the forces. • Rani Lakshmi Bai in Jhansi, Begum Hazrat Mahal in Lucknow and Khan Bahadur in Bareilly were in command.
  18. 18. • The British succeeded in suppressing the 1857 Revolt but they could not stop the growth of political awareness in India. • The Indian National Congress was founded in December 1885. • Its founder was an Englishman, Allan Octavian Hume, a retired member of the Indian Civil Service.
  19. 19. First President of the Congress -W.C. Bannerjee.
  20. 20. • Promotion of friendship and cooperation amongst the nationalist political workers from the different parts of the country. • Eradication of racial, creed or provincial prejudices • Promotion of national unity • Formulation of popular demands and their presentation before the Government. • Training and organisation of public opinion in the country.
  21. 21. • Lajpat Nagar was developed in 1950s and most of its early residents were Hindus and Sikhs moving east from newly formed Pakistan following the partition of India in 1947. • Initially refugee camps were set up in Purana Quila. Plots and the people were allotted plots in areas like Lajpat Nagar, Patel Nagar, Rajendra Nagar. • The plots were of 15x60 feet constructed like army barracks .The houses were all single storey, with asbestos roofs, in the beginning, but now most of the houses are multistoried.
  22. 22. • The colony also housed a refugee camp for Bengali widows which came up much later known as Kasturba Ashram. • In 1960, Servants of the People Society, founded by Lala Lajpat Rai in 1921 in Lahore, after functioning for many years since partition of India, from the residence of MP Lala Achint Ram, also shifted to the new building known as Lajpat Bhawan, Lajpat Nagar.
  23. 23. • Ulhasnagar is a municipal town and the headquarters of the Tahsil bearing the same name. • Ulhasnagar was set up especially to accommodate 6,000 soldiers and 30,000 others during World War II. • There were 2,126 barracks and about 1,173 housed personals. • camp had a deserted look at the end of the war and served as a ready and commercial ideal ground for Partition victims. • After the partition of India, over 100,000 Sindhi- speaking refugees from the newly created West Pakistan were relocated to deserted military camps five kilometres from Kalyan.
  24. 24. • On December 30, 1898, Lord Curzon took over as the new Viceroy of India. • The partition of Bengal came into effect on October 16, 1905, through a Royal Proclamation, reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating a new province of East Bengal, which later on became East Pakistan and present day Bangladesh. • The main objective of Government was to 'Divide and Rule' the most advanced region of the country at that time.
  25. 25. Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  26. 26. • Muhammad Ali Jinnah who lead the Muslim League claimed that “India consisted of two separate nations Hindus and Muslims.” • Jinnah had begun to despair of the fate of minority communities in a united India and had begun to argue that mainstream parties such as the Congress, of which he was once a member, were insensitive to Muslim interests.
  27. 27. • Lord Mountbatten presented a plan on 3rd June 1947. • It offered a key to the political and constitutional deadlock created by the refusal of the Muslim League to join the Constituent Assembly. • Mountbatten's formula was to divide India but retain maximum unity. • The country would be partitioned but so would be Punjab and Bengal, so that the limited Pakistan that emerged would meet both the Congress and the League's position to some extent. • The ceremony for the transfer was held on 14th August 1947 in Karachi and 15th August 1947 in Delhi. • Two self governing countries legally came into existence at the stroke of midnight on 15 August 1947.
  28. 28. • The plan's main points were: • Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims in Punjab and Bengal legislative assemblies would meet and vote for partition. If a simple majority of either group wanted partition, then these provinces would be divided. • Sindh was to take its own decision. • India would be independent by 15 August 1947. • The separate independence of Bengal was ruled out. • A boundary commission to be set up in case of partition.
  29. 29. • Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 • Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 • Sino-Indian War • Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 • 1999 Kargil Conflict
  30. 30. Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
  31. 31. Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
  32. 32. Sino-Indian War
  33. 33. Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
  34. 34. 1999 Kargil Conflict
  35. 35. • The partition of India left both India and Pakistan devastated. Riots erupted, and looting broke out widespread. • Women were raped and battered by both the Hindus and Muslims, and trains full of battered women and children would arrive between the borders of India and Pakistan daily.
  36. 36. • Over 15 million refugees were forced into regions completely new to themThe provinces of Bengal and Punjab were divided causing outrage in many Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs alike. • The two countries are still arguing over the landlocked region of Kashmir. Many believe the partition not only broke the unity of India, but also took away the sense of belonging to many people who were tore apart from their native regions.
  37. 37. • Modern Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 after achieving independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh Liberation War.The history of the region is closely intertwined with the history of Bengal and the history of India. • The borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the partition of Bengal and India n August 1947, when the region became East Pakistan as a part of the newly formed State of Pakistan following the RadcliffeLine. • However, it was separated from West Pakistan by 1,600 km (994 mi) of Indian territory. • Due to political exclusion, ethnic and linguistic discrimination, as well as economic neglect by the politically dominant westerin-wing, popular agitation and civil disobedience led to the war of independence in 1971. After independence, the new state endured famine, natural disasters and widespread poverty, as well as political