Revolt of 1857


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Revolt of 1857

  1. 1. R.Sonal VIII A
  2. 2. The out burst •On 9th May 1857, on the parade ground of Meerut, 85 Indian troopers were court . martial led. •Their Crime: -These troopers had refused to load their rifles with the new cartridges.
  3. 3. About the new cartridge •A rumor had spread that the new cartridge contained the fat of cow and pig. HINDUS  COW WAS SACRED MUSLIMS  PIG MEAT WAS FOBIDDEN BY QURAN
  4. 4. Causes of the Revolt of 1857 •Political Causes •Social Causes •Religious Causes •Economic Causes •Administrative Causes •Military Causes
  5. 5. Political Causes •Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation and the Doctrine of lapse had made the Indian rulers angry and insecure. •The Rani of Jhansi Laxmibai was not allowed to adopt a son. •In case of disputed interpretation, the decision of the East India Company was binding & that of the court of the Directors was final.
  6. 6. •Regal titles of the Nawab of Carnatic & Tanjore were abolished. The imperial title of the Moghul Emperor was discontinued after Bahadur Shah II. •The pension of Nana Saheb (Peshwa Baji Rao II’s adopted son) was stopped.
  7. 7. Nana Sahib
  8. 8. Social Causes •The British were rude and used abusive and insultive language. •The practice of sati was abolished. Child marriage, infanticide and polygamy were not allowed. •The European juries allowed European criminals with little or no punishment.
  9. 9. Religious Causes •Hindus and Muslims were forced into Christianity. •British Officers abused the name of Ram and Muhammad.
  10. 10. Economic Causes •The British had drained India of all wealth and natural resources by selfish economic policies.
  11. 11. Administrative Causes •Lord Dalhousie confiscated thousands of jagirs in the Deccan. •After Oudh was annexed, the estates of Zamindars and Taluqdars were confiscated. •High posts and salaries were given to the British. This caused frustration among Indians.
  12. 12. • Military Causes •Immense discrimination between the Indians and the British. •The Indian sepoys were deprived of high salaries and promotions. The highest post for an Indian was that of the Subedar.
  13. 13. •New recruits had to travel across the sea. It was forbidden as per Hindu belief. •The British army exposed its vulnerability in the First Afghan war, the Sikh war and the Crimean war. •The Indian sepoys were required to work far off without extra Bhatta or payment.
  14. 14. Important centres of Revolt * Meerut *Delhi *Oudh *Kanpur *Jhansi *Gwalior
  15. 15. Meerut •9 May 1857, 85 Sepoys were court martial led. •They had refused to use new cartridges. •Next day their companions attacked the jail. •Sepoys were freed. •Officers & Europeans were killed. •Revolters headed towards Delhi.
  16. 16. Delhi •On 12th May 1857, Delhi was seized by rebels. •Some Europeans were shot dead. •Bhahadur Shah II was persuaded to support. •Loss of Delhi was a prestige loss for British. •On 14th September 1857, British attacked. •On 20th September 1857, British regained Delhi. •Bahadur Shah & Zeenat Mahal fled to Humayun’s tomb. •But were followed & captured by General Hudson. •3 sons killed & the king & queen exiled to Rangoon. •The king died in 1862.
  17. 17. Red Fort , Delhi
  18. 18. Zeenat Mahal
  19. 19. Oudh (Lucknow) •Oudh annexed by Lord Dalhousie. •The Nawab of Oudh exiled to Calcutta. •But his wife Begum Hazrat Mahal and 11 year old son continued to live in Oudh but in very poor condition. •So people of Oudh were angry. th June 1857. •The revolt broke out on 4
  20. 20. •Henry Lawrence, the British Resident, with some Europeans with some hundred sepoys took refuge in a Residency. •Begum seized Residency and killed Henry & some others. •In November, Sir Colin Campbell (Commander-inChief) attacked with Gorkha regiment. •In March 1858, the city was finally recaptured. •The rebels driven to Nepal border to die in bad climate or captured by Gorkhas.
  21. 21. Colin Campbell
  22. 22. Kanpur •Nana Sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao was proclaimed the Peshwa. •He led the revolt in Kanpur with Tantia Tope, his assistant. •Nana Saheb assured safe passage of British to Allahabad. •General James O’Neil inhumanly illtreated Indians.
  23. 23. •Angry Indians killed the passing British citizens. •In June 1857, The General defeated Nana Sahib. •In November 1857, Nana Sahib & Tantia Tope recaptured Kanpur back. •On 6th December 1857 General Campbell reoccupied Kanpur. •Nana fled to Nepal (died there) and Tantia joined Rani Laxmibai.
  24. 24. Other centres of Revolt •Bareilly: Khan Bahadur Khan proclaimed himself the ruler. •Bihar: Zamindar Kunwar Singh raised the revolt •Banaras: Banarasis organised a rebellion. (All were subsequently suppressed by British)
  25. 25. Outcome •The revolt was completely suppressed and crushed by July 1858.
  26. 26. Causes of failure of the Revolt •The revolt was localized and was poorly organized. •The British had better resources than the rebels. •The revolt was feudal in character. •The leaders lacked military skills. •The native princes did not join the revolt.
  27. 27. The Last Mughal Emperor