The out burst
•On 9th May 1857, on the parade ground of
Meerut, 85 Indian troopers were court
•Their Crime: -These troopers had refused to
load their rifles with the new cartridges.
About the new cartridge
•A rumor had spread that the new
cartridge contained the fat of cow
COW WAS SACRED
PIG MEAT WAS FOBIDDEN BY QURAN
Causes of the Revolt of 1857
•Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation and
the Doctrine of lapse had made the Indian
rulers angry and insecure.
•The Rani of Jhansi Laxmibai was not
allowed to adopt a son.
•In case of disputed interpretation, the
decision of the East India Company was
binding & that of the court of the Directors
•Regal titles of the Nawab of Carnatic
& Tanjore were abolished. The imperial
title of the Moghul Emperor was
discontinued after Bahadur Shah II.
•The pension of Nana Saheb (Peshwa
Baji Rao II’s adopted son) was
•The British were rude and used abusive
and insultive language.
•The practice of sati was abolished. Child
marriage, infanticide and polygamy were not
•The European juries allowed European
criminals with little or no punishment.
•Hindus and Muslims were forced
•British Officers abused the name of
Ram and Muhammad.
•The British had drained
India of all wealth and
natural resources by selfish
•Lord Dalhousie confiscated thousands of jagirs in
•After Oudh was annexed, the estates of Zamindars
and Taluqdars were confiscated.
•High posts and salaries were given to the British.
This caused frustration among Indians.
•Immense discrimination between the
Indians and the British.
•The Indian sepoys were deprived of
high salaries and promotions. The
highest post for an Indian was that of
•New recruits had to travel across the sea. It was
forbidden as per Hindu belief.
•The British army exposed its vulnerability in the
First Afghan war, the Sikh war and the
•The Indian sepoys were required to work far off
without extra Bhatta or payment.
Important centres of Revolt
•9 May 1857, 85 Sepoys were court
•They had refused to use new cartridges.
•Next day their companions attacked the jail.
•Sepoys were freed.
•Officers & Europeans were killed.
•Revolters headed towards Delhi.
•On 12th May 1857, Delhi was seized by rebels.
•Some Europeans were shot dead.
•Bhahadur Shah II was persuaded to support.
•Loss of Delhi was a prestige loss for British.
•On 14th September 1857, British attacked.
•On 20th September 1857, British regained Delhi.
•Bahadur Shah & Zeenat Mahal fled to Humayun’s tomb.
•But were followed & captured by General Hudson.
•3 sons killed & the king & queen exiled to Rangoon.
•The king died in 1862.
•Oudh annexed by Lord Dalhousie.
•The Nawab of Oudh exiled to Calcutta.
•But his wife Begum Hazrat Mahal and 11
year old son continued to live in Oudh but in
very poor condition.
•So people of Oudh were angry.
th June 1857.
•The revolt broke out on 4
•Henry Lawrence, the British Resident, with some
Europeans with some hundred sepoys took refuge in a
•Begum seized Residency and killed Henry & some
•In November, Sir Colin Campbell (Commander-inChief) attacked with Gorkha regiment.
•In March 1858, the city was finally recaptured.
•The rebels driven to Nepal border to die in bad
climate or captured by Gorkhas.
•Nana Sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa
Baji Rao was proclaimed the Peshwa.
•He led the revolt in Kanpur with Tantia
Tope, his assistant.
•Nana Saheb assured safe passage of
British to Allahabad.
•General James O’Neil inhumanly illtreated Indians.
•Angry Indians killed the passing British
•In June 1857, The General defeated Nana
•In November 1857, Nana Sahib & Tantia Tope
recaptured Kanpur back.
•On 6th December 1857 General Campbell
•Nana fled to Nepal (died there) and Tantia
joined Rani Laxmibai.
Other centres of Revolt
Khan Bahadur Khan proclaimed himself
Zamindar Kunwar Singh raised the revolt
Banarasis organised a rebellion.
(All were subsequently suppressed by British)
•The revolt was completely
suppressed and crushed by
Causes of failure of the Revolt
•The revolt was localized and was poorly
•The British had better resources than the
•The revolt was feudal in character.
•The leaders lacked military skills.
•The native princes did not join the revolt.