Session 3.1 cacao agroforestry system sulawesi janudianto


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Session 3.1 cacao agroforestry system sulawesi janudianto

  1. 1. Cacao Agroforestry System (CAS) improving productivity and profitability of smallholder cacao in Sulawesi Janudianto, James M Roshetko and Mahrizal The World Agroforestry Centre Southeast Asia Regional Office Jalan CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sindang Barang, Bogor 16115 Post: PO Box 161 Bogor 16001 West Java, Indonesia Web: Presenting on World Congress on Agroforestry Delhi - 2014
  2. 2. Foto: Anders Saxbol
  3. 3. Background (1) • Indonesia is the third largest producer of cacao in the world after Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. • Cacao production began in Sulawesi in the 1980s, even earlier when the Spanish introduced cacao in Minahasa in 1560 (ICCRI 2010) • It is now a major crop on the Sulawesi island, covering over 950 thousand ha, equaling 59% of Indonesia’s cacao growing area. • By 2010 Sulawesi accounted for 67% of Indonesia cacao production.
  4. 4. Background (2) As in other countries, smallholder production is the norm in Indonesia: approximately 2.2 million smallholder farmers cultivate 1.5 million ha of cacao, supplying 92% of the national production Key problems: • high incidence of pests and disease, • limited access to quality planting material, and • low level farm management low profit and caused farmers to begin to look for alternative crops.
  5. 5. Indonesia Cacao Area and Production 2010 Sulawesi, 5 9% Sumatra, 23 % Jawa, Bali and Nusa Tenggara, 1 0% Kalimantan, 3% Maluku and Papua, 6% Indonesia Cacao Area (2010) Sulawesi, 67 % Sumatra, 21 % Jawa, Bali and Nusa Tenggara, 6% Kalimantan, 1% Maluku and Papua, 5% Indonesia Cacao Production (2010) Source: BPS-Statistic Indonesia 2010
  6. 6. World Cacao Prices 2005-2013 (US$/tonne) 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 Jan-05 May-05 Sep-05 Jan-06 May-06 Sep-06 Jan-07 May-07 Sep-07 Jan-08 May-08 Sep-08 Jan-09 May-09 Sep-09 Jan-10 May-10 Sep-10 Jan-11 May-11 Sep-11 Jan-12 May-12 Sep-12 Jan-13 May-13 Sep-13 World Cacao Prices 2005-2013 (US$/tonne) Source: ICCO 2014
  7. 7. Objectives The objectives of proposed study are: • Identify the typologies of smallholders cacao or cacao agroforestry system (CAS) in Sulawesi • Develop a comprehensive study on the identified typologies – garden inventory, social-economy survey, etc • Develop a set of technology which is ease and more adoptable to smallholder farmers to improve the productivity.
  8. 8. Methods The following methods will be employed : • Scoping survey • Garden inventory • Group discussion • Socio-economic survey • Literature studies
  9. 9. Funded by: •The study is located in South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. •‘Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi: Linking Knowledge with Action’ (2011 - 2016)
  10. 10. Farming System context • South Sulawesi  producer of food crops: paddy, maize, cassava, sweet potato and peanut in the eastern part of Indonesia; and commodities: cacao, coconut, cloves and coffee. • Southeast Sulawesi  agriculture sector contributed to 38% of the region’s economic growth from cassava and maize crops; commodities such as cacao, coffee, coconut, cloves, cashew nut, pepper and oil palm.
  11. 11. • Cacao contributes Rp 5 million (14% of total revenue in a year) in South Sulawesi and Rp 14.5 million (52%) in the Southeast Sulawesi. • Land-use profitability study (both provinces)  cacao still has low return to land compared to other crops: cloves, teak, pepper, etc  farmers begin to look for alternative crops to be planted along with the cacao Baseline Socio-economic study (Source: Khususiyah et al. 2013, Janudianto et al. 2013; Rahmanullah et al. 2013). US$ 1.00 = IDR 9,608 (December 2012).
  12. 12. Foto: Anders Saxbol
  13. 13. Typology of four smallholder Cacao Agroforestry System (CAS) 1) Monocultures, 2) Cacao integrated with shade trees, 3) Cacao integrated with fruit and timber trees, 4) Homegardens. * Scoping survey found that cacao is the dominant species in all systems, except homegardens where it is a minor component
  14. 14. Monocultures • Cacao monoculture, which has on average two species (range 1–4 species) • Cacao planted with shade trees (Gliricidia or banana). In some extend, more widespread in both provinces, especially in young cacao. • Production around 700 kg/ha or more *Scoping survey and garden inventory were found different types of cacao agroforestry systems in 25 plots in two provinces using Rapid appraisal of agroforestry practices, systems and technology (Joshi et al 2013)
  15. 15. Monocultures (cacao with one or two shade tree species)
  16. 16. Cacao integrated with shade trees • Also called simple cacao agroforestry which has on average four species (range 2–5 species); • Cacao planted with fruit trees (durian, Lansium, coconut, rambutan, Parkia, banana), timber trees (teak and Toona) and/or other commodity species (clove and pepper). • Production around 700 kg/ha or more
  17. 17. Kebun Andi Baso Cacao integrated with shade trees (cacao more than 50% combined with up to 5 shade tree species
  18. 18. Cacao integrated with fruit and timber trees • Also called multistrata cacao agroforestry, with on average 10 species (range 6–13 species); • Cacao with timber trees (Toona, Gmelina, Paraserianthes, Antidesma, Pter ocarpus, Dalbergia, Shorea), fruit trees (mango, durian, Parkia, banana, avocado, coconu t), and/or commodity species (clove, candlenut, arenga, cashew, areca and coffee) • Production around 500-700 kg/ha
  19. 19. Cacao integrated with fruit and timber trees (cacao not dominant, less than 50% combined with 5-10 shade tree species)
  20. 20. Homegardens • Cacao as one minor component with more than 10 shade tree species; • Located in mosaics and patch area, not concentrated in large areas and usually came from an abandoned cacao plots which has more non-cacao species. • Fruits and timber tree species would be the main products of the system rather than cacao itself (cacao production less than 500 kg/ha)
  21. 21. Homegardens (cacao as one minor component with more than 10 shade tree species)
  22. 22. Need more research required (1) • Four types of Cacao Agroforestry Systems (CAS) are an entry point to formulated the improvements needed in term of productivity and profitability of smallholder cacao • Further comprehensive study on the identified typologies – garden inventory in some extend, farm management and production, social-economy survey still needed • Develop a set of field trials in collaboration with ICCRI and other potential R&D agencies to achieve ease and more adoptable technology to smallholder farmers to improve the productivity
  23. 23. Need more research required (2) • The technology should address each specific type of CAS. • In principles, in monocultures or less tree shade cacao system, introducing more economically benefit shade tree would be a first generic step • The second generic step, maintain and management of shade trees for the rest of typology, would be increase the productivity of smallholder cacao system
  24. 24. Thank You Y A N I (Yayasan Adudu Nantu International) Agroforestry & Forestry in Sulawesi: Linking knowledge with action Project