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Scaling Up Climate-smart
Rice Production in
West Africa
Dr. Erika Styger, SRI-Rice, Cornell University
February 11, 2016
I...
• Domesticated ca 3500 years ago in the Niger Inner Delta
• Subsequently spread throughout West Africa
African Rice - Oryz...
Contribution of Rice to Calorific Intake in West Africa
Rice production in Sub-Saharan Africa
64%
32%
3%
1%
West Africa
Eastern Africa
Central Africa
Southern Africa
Each dot rep...
1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
Rice production and consumption in SSA from 1961-
2006
Production
Consum...
West African Rice Offensive
by ECOWAS Commission
Regional rice production
– In 1980: 3.2 million tons
– In 2010: 11.5-12.7...
Rice production basins
in West Africa
Bulletin club du sahel-AO: Enjeu Ouest Africain N°2 Juin 2011
Major Rice Systems
Slash-and-burn rainfed Rice
Rainfed Upland Rice Rainfed Lowland Rice
Irrigated Rice
Yield: 1-2.5 t/ha
A...
Plowing
How is irrigated conventional rice grown?
Plowing – puddling – leveling – bunding the fields
Conventionally managed rice nurseries
Plowing
Flooded nurseries – uprooting in the water, seedlings ready
for transport to...
Transplanting of seedlings
3-5 seedlings/hill, 30-60 days old,
15 cm distance between hills
Use chemical fertilizer Herbicide use / hand weedi
Continuous Flooding
(from planting time to harvest)
Climate-Smart Agriculture
Implemented through agro-ecological approaches:
• Conservation agriculture
• Agroforestry
• Syst...
What is SRI?
• The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is
an agro-ecological and climate-smart
methodology
– For increasi...
Young seedlings (8-12 days) 1 seedling/hill Wide spacing 25x25cm and more
Older seedlings (30-60 days) 3-5 seedlings/hill ...
Continuous flooding Use chemical fertilizer Herbicide use / hand weeding
Conventional rice practicees
SRI cultivation prac...
in IRAQ’s Al-Mishkhab Research Center, Najaf: SRI on left, Non-SRI on the right
SRI practices induce a
phenotypical change...
Roots are deeper, longer, double
the volume and weight/ hill
Non SRI - flooded SRI – AWD
conditions
Thakur, A.K et al (201...
Yield performance
• More/similar number
of panicles/ m2
• Longer panicles
(+20%)
• More grains/panicle
• Fewer empty grain...
Summary of Benefits
• Yield Increase: often >50%
• Water savings: 30-50%
• Seed reduction: > 90%
• Chemical fertilizer red...
Extension and Adoption of SRI in 2016
57 countries in 2016, 8-10 million farmers on 3.5 million hectares in 2013 or
2% of ...
Scaling up SRI in West Africa –
What is the experience so far?
1. Early work on SRI In West Africa
2001-2006
• Benin 2001: 1 farmer, Echo intern: SRI 7.5t/ha
• The Gambia 2002-2005: Res...
2. Mali Experience with SRI (2007-2010)
Africare Food Security
Project in Timbuktu in
2007
• Small-scale irrigation
scheme...
Mahamadou Hamadoun, Imam of Douegoussou village,
Circle of Goundam, Region of Timbuktu, Mali 2007
First SRI farmer trial i...
Timbuktu farming community
evaluates the first SRI test
• Africare and Government agriculture extension service
• 60 farmers in 12 villages in the Timbuktu region
60 farmers eval...
60 farmers evaluate and
adapt SRI in Timbuktu, 2008
Results from 60 farmers
• Yield increase: +66 % à 87%
• Less seed required: 85% à 90%:
Quantity used for SRI: 6.1 kg/ha
Qu...
Technical Manual Detailed Technical Report Blog of Field Activities
Sharing the knowledge and experience 2008
Ministry of ...
Expanding from 1 to 5 regions in Mali in 2009
• Timbuktu
NEW: 17 villages, 92 farmers
‘OLD’: 21 villages, 250
farmers
• Ga...
SRI yields Mali 2009
SRI Farmers' plot SRI increase over
t/ha t/ha farmers' plot
Africare farmers
240 farmers Timbuktu 7.7...
Expanding from 1 to 5 regions in Mali in 2009
• Timbuktu
NEW: 17 villages, 92 farmers
‘OLD’: 21 villages, 250
farmers
• Ga...
3. SRI expands to West Africa Region
2010-2016
• Since 2010-2012: regional trainings by USAID
projects IICEM, Mali and reg...
Improving and Scaling Up SRI in West
Africa Project (2014-2016)
• Part of the West Africa Agriculture Productivity Program...
• National WAAPP coordination
• National Facilitator and focal Institution
• SRI Champions (can be anyone: farmers, techni...
Institutional set up and implementation
• National WAAPP program
• National research institute
• Ministry of agriculture
•...
Technical approach
Samuel Bimba, with his SRI field in Liberia, 2014
Climatic and agro-ecological
zones of the project
Arid
Semi-arid
Semi-humid
Humid
Climate
Group a: Experienced
Countries
•...
General SRI-WAAPP Manual Adapted manuals for technicians and
farmers
Year 1
Adapted manuals by climate zone
and rice cropp...
In Country Target Zones:
• Tracking of yields, number of farmers, surface area, income
• Trainings on SRI
• Institutional ...
www.sriafriqueouest.org
www.sriwestafrica.org
Project websites:Newsletter
Innovation Notes
Advocacy Notes
(in PDF and prin...
SRI Activities 2014: training and field sites
Improving and Scaling up SRI in West Africa
4.10
4.91
2.02
4.55
5.07 5.13
4.30
6.25
6.92
3.34
8.20
6.95
7.48
10.50
7.09
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
Burkina F...
5.77
2.72
3.50
1.81
2.44
1.83
1.32
2.07
3.17
2.74
9.37
3.74
4.57
3.24
4.62
3.77
2.60
5.92
4.85 4.74
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8....
First SRI plot in Liberia, Dec 2012
by Community of Hope Agriculture Project
(CHAP) Paynesville, Monrovia
First SRI test b...
SRI WAAPP Sites
in all rice ecologies
Consortium of four partners:
• ICAT: Ministry of Agriculture:
National facilitator
•...
SRI-WAAPP
• Focused project target zone: Fatick, Kaolack and Kaffrine regions – rainfed rice
• 5,163 farmers to be trained...
Some Difficulties with SRI-WAAPP project
• Multi-institutional collaboration within
countries
• Timely disbursement of fun...
Wider and long-term impact
• SRI to be included in the national rice
development strategies in Liberia, Sierra Leone,
The ...
Conclusions
• SRI practices can increase yields by >50% in irrigated
and rainfed rice systems across West Africa
• Broad r...
Thank you!
Contact Erika:
eds8@cornell.edu
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1602 - Scaling Up Climate Smart Rice Production in West Africa

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Author: Erika Styger
Title: Scaling Up Climate-smart Rice Production in West Africa
Date: February 11, 2016
Presented at the Issues in African Development Weekly Seminar Series
Venue: Uris Hall, Cornell University

Published in: Technology
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1602 - Scaling Up Climate Smart Rice Production in West Africa

  1. 1. Scaling Up Climate-smart Rice Production in West Africa Dr. Erika Styger, SRI-Rice, Cornell University February 11, 2016 Issues in African Development Weekly Seminar
  2. 2. • Domesticated ca 3500 years ago in the Niger Inner Delta • Subsequently spread throughout West Africa African Rice - Oryza glaberrima
  3. 3. Contribution of Rice to Calorific Intake in West Africa
  4. 4. Rice production in Sub-Saharan Africa 64% 32% 3% 1% West Africa Eastern Africa Central Africa Southern Africa Each dot represents 20,000 tons Data: FAO,2006 Rice production 2006 64% of rice is produced in West Africa Nigeria, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali Ref: Warda (2008) Africa rice trends 2007
  5. 5. 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 Rice production and consumption in SSA from 1961- 2006 Production Consumption 40% imported
  6. 6. West African Rice Offensive by ECOWAS Commission Regional rice production – In 1980: 3.2 million tons – In 2010: 11.5-12.7 m t – Needs in 2020: 21-24.5 million tons (350 m consumers) • Goal of Rice Offensive: double rice production (2010-2020) • Built around National Rice Development Strategies (NRDS) Strategic Policy Paper on the Regional Offensive for Sustainable Rice Production in West Africa 2012
  7. 7. Rice production basins in West Africa Bulletin club du sahel-AO: Enjeu Ouest Africain N°2 Juin 2011
  8. 8. Major Rice Systems Slash-and-burn rainfed Rice Rainfed Upland Rice Rainfed Lowland Rice Irrigated Rice Yield: 1-2.5 t/ha Area: 31% Production: 24% Yield: 1 t/ha Area: 44% Production: 21% Yield: 5-6 t/ha Area: 12-14 % Production: 38%
  9. 9. Plowing How is irrigated conventional rice grown? Plowing – puddling – leveling – bunding the fields
  10. 10. Conventionally managed rice nurseries Plowing Flooded nurseries – uprooting in the water, seedlings ready for transport to field to be transplanted – 30-60 days old
  11. 11. Transplanting of seedlings 3-5 seedlings/hill, 30-60 days old, 15 cm distance between hills
  12. 12. Use chemical fertilizer Herbicide use / hand weedi Continuous Flooding (from planting time to harvest)
  13. 13. Climate-Smart Agriculture Implemented through agro-ecological approaches: • Conservation agriculture • Agroforestry • System of Rice Intensification • others http://www.fao.org/climatechange/climatesmart/en/ Triple Win Productivity Adaptation Mitigation
  14. 14. What is SRI? • The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is an agro-ecological and climate-smart methodology – For increasing the productivity of rice and other crops – By changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients, while reducing external inputs • Developed in Madagascar in the 1980s • SRI provides principles, guidelines and ideas – to be adapted to local environment http://sririce.org
  15. 15. Young seedlings (8-12 days) 1 seedling/hill Wide spacing 25x25cm and more Older seedlings (30-60 days) 3-5 seedlings/hill Close hill spacing 10x15 cm Conventional rice cultivation SRI cultivation practices
  16. 16. Continuous flooding Use chemical fertilizer Herbicide use / hand weeding Conventional rice practicees SRI cultivation practices Alternate wetting and drying Organic matter as base Mechanical weeding, IPM
  17. 17. in IRAQ’s Al-Mishkhab Research Center, Najaf: SRI on left, Non-SRI on the right SRI practices induce a phenotypical change in rice SRI Conventional SRISRI Conventional Conventional
  18. 18. Roots are deeper, longer, double the volume and weight/ hill Non SRI - flooded SRI – AWD conditions Thakur, A.K et al (2011) Effects for rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated mgt practices of SRI and their implications for crop performance, PAWE 9:13-24 Thiyagarajan et al. (2009) Principles and Practices of SRI in Tamil Nadu
  19. 19. Yield performance • More/similar number of panicles/ m2 • Longer panicles (+20%) • More grains/panicle • Fewer empty grains • 1000 grain weight is heavier Non-SRI SRI Increased Yields (often >50%) Non-SRI SRI
  20. 20. Summary of Benefits • Yield Increase: often >50% • Water savings: 30-50% • Seed reduction: > 90% • Chemical fertilizer reduction: 20-40% (-100%) • Improved tolerance: pests and diseases, drought, storms • Often production cost reduction • Income increase (>30-100%) http://sririce.org Sheath blight disease Mali
  21. 21. Extension and Adoption of SRI in 2016 57 countries in 2016, 8-10 million farmers on 3.5 million hectares in 2013 or 2% of global rice area
  22. 22. Scaling up SRI in West Africa – What is the experience so far?
  23. 23. 1. Early work on SRI In West Africa 2001-2006 • Benin 2001: 1 farmer, Echo intern: SRI 7.5t/ha • The Gambia 2002-2005: Research with farmers: SRI 5.4-8.3 t/ha • Guinea 2003: Chinese SRI research with hybrids: 9 t/ha • Senegal 2003-2009: Rodale Institute; Dissertation with AfricaRice • Sierra Leone 2004: World vision, USAID, CRS: SRI 5.3t/ha vs 2.5t/ha • Burkina 2006: 6 farmers: SRI 7t/ha vs 3.5t/h a SRI field trials remain isolated with no expansion beyond local level
  24. 24. 2. Mali Experience with SRI (2007-2010) Africare Food Security Project in Timbuktu in 2007 • Small-scale irrigation schemes at village level • First test with SRI with one volunteer farmer First SRI test in Mali in 2007
  25. 25. Mahamadou Hamadoun, Imam of Douegoussou village, Circle of Goundam, Region of Timbuktu, Mali 2007 First SRI farmer trial in Timbuktu, Mali, 2007 Side-by-side comparison – 1 field only Conventional (6.7 t/ha) – SRI practices (9 t/ha)
  26. 26. Timbuktu farming community evaluates the first SRI test
  27. 27. • Africare and Government agriculture extension service • 60 farmers in 12 villages in the Timbuktu region 60 farmers evalute and SRI in Timbuktu in 2008
  28. 28. 60 farmers evaluate and adapt SRI in Timbuktu, 2008
  29. 29. Results from 60 farmers • Yield increase: +66 % à 87% • Less seed required: 85% à 90%: Quantity used for SRI: 6.1 kg/ha Quantity used under usual farmer practice: 40-60 kg/ha • Reduced fertilizer use: 30% • Reduced irrigation water use: 10% • Reduced production costs / kg paddy: 30% • Increased revenue per hectare: more than double (Styger, 2008)
  30. 30. Technical Manual Detailed Technical Report Blog of Field Activities Sharing the knowledge and experience 2008 Ministry of Agriculture, National Research Institution, USAID, World Bank, NGOs followed the blog, visited the farmers, read the reports, used the manual following year
  31. 31. Expanding from 1 to 5 regions in Mali in 2009 • Timbuktu NEW: 17 villages, 92 farmers ‘OLD’: 21 villages, 250 farmers • Gao – 8 villages, 39 farmers • Mopti – 6 villages, 44 farmers • Segou – 2 villages, 37 farmers • Sikasso – 3 villages, 10 farmers 57 villages, 472 farmers Africare, IICEM (USAID funded), Syngenta Foundation, IER (Nat. Research), Min Agriculture First National SRI Conference in Bamako, February 2010
  32. 32. SRI yields Mali 2009 SRI Farmers' plot SRI increase over t/ha t/ha farmers' plot Africare farmers 240 farmers Timbuktu 7.7 4.5 . +72% IICEM farmers 38 farmers Gao 7.8 5.6 . +40% 28 farmers Mopti 7.8 4.8 . +64% 36 farmers Timbuktu (other areas) 7 4.2 . +68% 342 farmers 3 regions 7.6 4.8 . +58%
  33. 33. Expanding from 1 to 5 regions in Mali in 2009 • Timbuktu NEW: 17 villages, 92 farmers ‘OLD’: 21 villages, 250 farmers • Gao – 8 villages, 39 farmers • Mopti – 6 villages, 44 farmers • Segou – 2 villages, 37 farmers • Sikasso – 3 villages, 10 farmers 57 villages, 472 farmers Africare, IICEM Project (USAID funded), Syngenta Foundation, IER (National Research), Ministry of Agriculture First National SRI Conference in Bamako, February 2010
  34. 34. 3. SRI expands to West Africa Region 2010-2016 • Since 2010-2012: regional trainings by USAID projects IICEM, Mali and regional E-ATP in Nigeria, Senegal, Ghana, Benin, Togo • 1st West Africa ECHO Conference in Burkina Faso, 2010: followed by new SRI initiatives, e.g. Togo • Increasing numbers of contacts between interested and SRI practicing West Africans and SRI-Rice • 2012 SRI-Rice trip to West Africa to develop regional initiative: World Bank showed interest through West Africa Agriculture Productivity Program (WAAPP)
  35. 35. Improving and Scaling Up SRI in West Africa Project (2014-2016) • Part of the West Africa Agriculture Productivity Program (WAAPP) • Coordinated by Regional Rice Center in Mali (CNS-Riz) • SRI-Rice, Cornell: Technical partner to regional coordination • Project developed through participatory process over 1.5 years with representatives from research, extension, farmers from 13 countries – First workshop in Ouagadougou, July 2012
  36. 36. • National WAAPP coordination • National Facilitator and focal Institution • SRI Champions (can be anyone: farmers, technicians etc) SRI-WAAPP organizational structure (NY, USA) CORAF CNS-Riz Funded by the World Bank Each country has its own plan and funding for implementation through WAAPP
  37. 37. Institutional set up and implementation • National WAAPP program • National research institute • Ministry of agriculture • National NGOs • Farmer organizations • Bilateral projects (USAID, JICA) • International NGOs • Private sector companies • Peace Corps • Others
  38. 38. Technical approach Samuel Bimba, with his SRI field in Liberia, 2014
  39. 39. Climatic and agro-ecological zones of the project Arid Semi-arid Semi-humid Humid Climate Group a: Experienced Countries • Mali • Benin • Burkina Faso Group B: Intermediate Countries • Ghana • Nigeria • Togo • Senegal • Sierra Leone Group C: Countries with little/no experience • Niger • Guinea • Gambia • Liberia • Cote-d’Ivoire In 2014
  40. 40. General SRI-WAAPP Manual Adapted manuals for technicians and farmers Year 1 Adapted manuals by climate zone and rice cropping system Year 2 and 3
  41. 41. In Country Target Zones: • Tracking of yields, number of farmers, surface area, income • Trainings on SRI • Institutional capacity development • Publications • Participation in national rice innovation platforms Monitoring and Evaluation System Online data collection and mapping platform
  42. 42. www.sriafriqueouest.org www.sriwestafrica.org Project websites:Newsletter Innovation Notes Advocacy Notes (in PDF and print) Closed Facebook group, WhatsApp group SRI-WAAPP Regional Communication
  43. 43. SRI Activities 2014: training and field sites Improving and Scaling up SRI in West Africa
  44. 44. 4.10 4.91 2.02 4.55 5.07 5.13 4.30 6.25 6.92 3.34 8.20 6.95 7.48 10.50 7.09 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 Burkina Faso Côte d'Ivoire Ghana Mali Niger Nigeria Sénégal Average Conv. Yield (t/ha) SRI Yield (t/ha) 52 % 41 % 65 % 80 % 37% 105% 65% tons/ha Average rice yields (t/ha) per country Irrigated Systems, West Africa SRI WAAPP Project Data from 2014 22 Sites
  45. 45. 5.77 2.72 3.50 1.81 2.44 1.83 1.32 2.07 3.17 2.74 9.37 3.74 4.57 3.24 4.62 3.77 2.60 5.92 4.85 4.74 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 Bénin Burkina Faso The Gambia Ghana Guinée Nigeria Sénégal Sierra Leone Togo Average Conv. Yield (t/ha) SRI Yield (t/ha) SRI WAAPP Project Data from 2014 74 Sites 62 % 38 % 31 % 79 % 106% 89% 186% 53% 73% 97% tons/ha Average Rice Yields (t/ha) per country Lowland Rainfed Systems, West Africa
  46. 46. First SRI plot in Liberia, Dec 2012 by Community of Hope Agriculture Project (CHAP) Paynesville, Monrovia First SRI test by Robert Bimba President Ellen Johnson SIRLEAF opens a SRI field day, 2014 Paynesville, Monrovia Liberia
  47. 47. SRI WAAPP Sites in all rice ecologies Consortium of four partners: • ICAT: Ministry of Agriculture: National facilitator • ITRA: national research institution • National NGO Graphe • National NGO ETD SRI started in Togo in 2011 by Graphe • working in 4 villages 2014: 815 farmers trained 2015: 1502 farmers trained in 60 villages through the Consortium Togo
  48. 48. SRI-WAAPP • Focused project target zone: Fatick, Kaolack and Kaffrine regions – rainfed rice • 5,163 farmers to be trained in 2015 • Exchange visits to PRODAM in Sep 2015 • Trainings in Casamance and SRI-WAAPP target zone in Feb / Mar 2015 Senegal PRODAM Casamance SRI-WAAPP • SRI activities since 2002 • PRODAM – Large irrigated IFAD project in NE; increasing to 2,000 hectares in 2015/16; yields 10-13 t/ha SRI, vs. 5.5-6 conv. • Peace Corps • Cornell MPS students • Limited trials in Casamance
  49. 49. Some Difficulties with SRI-WAAPP project • Multi-institutional collaboration within countries • Timely disbursement of funding for field activities • Data collection and reporting • Demand for SRI surpasses current capacity and funding
  50. 50. Wider and long-term impact • SRI to be included in the national rice development strategies in Liberia, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Ghana and Mali • ECOWAS: SRI to be included in the Rice Offensive • Network of Farmers' and Agricultural Producers' Organizations of West Africa for rice (ROPPA): committed to actively scale up SRI in West Africa
  51. 51. Conclusions • SRI practices can increase yields by >50% in irrigated and rainfed rice systems across West Africa • Broad range of actors in 13 ECOWAS countries acquired capacity and expertise to adapt the SRI practices to their national rice systems • Ministries of Agriculture in all countries are on board • Large geographic coverage achieved - but SRI adoption still needs to go to scale • Political commitment is further needed • Diversified technical and financial partnerships are needed
  52. 52. Thank you! Contact Erika: eds8@cornell.edu

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