Internship was conducted at mango research institute
multan. The institute was anounced to be established in
2011 by the Govt. of Punjab. It was completed in 2012-
13 at old shujabad road agricultural farm Multan. Total
area of MRI is 32.5 acres. From which 2.5 acres have
laboratories. 8 acres for residential colony. 20 acres for
research purpose and 2 acres are available for raising of
To conduct research on mango comprising of
Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, Post
Harvest & Plant Nutrition discipline.
• The successful implementation of this project will
surely increase per acre yield of the mango growers
by adopting improved and updated research based
• This institute will increase the level of awareness
and acceptance of standardized technology by
making the capacity building of mango growers.
• By the improvement in production technology and its
post-harvest curing, the interest of the growers will
be increased to produce high quality mango fruits
acceptable by meeting the protocols of the national
and international market.
• Previously an ADP-creation of physical infrastructure
on mango under corporate mode at Multan was
approved for the period July 2007 to June 2011.
Under the scope of this project, it was decided by
the Govt. that first, only the funds for the purchase
of necessary machinery and equipment and for the
construction of the office cum laboratory buildings
be provided then after the completion of physical
infrastructure, the operation funds would be
provided for the functioning of the institute.
• To workout nutrient response & formulate economic
fertilizer recommendations, by adopting integrated
plant nutrition system OPNS.
• To find appropriate time & method of fertilizer
• To correlate mango responses with soil test value of
• To develop technology for amelioration of
salinity/sodicity menace by the use of amendments.
• To determine the effect of plant growth regulators on
mango growth and yield.
The mango tree, are native
to Southeastern Asia, where they have been
grown for more than 4,000 years.
Mango is an excellent source of vitamin A, B and
C and contains water, proteins, Sugar, fats, fibers
and iron etc.
Mango cultivation has now spread to many parts
of the tropical and sub-tropical world, where they
Mangoes were carried to Africa during the 16th
century and later found their way aboard
Portuguese ships to Brazil in the 1700s. Later, in
1742, mangoes were found growing in the West
In 1860, mangoes were successfully introduced
to Florida along the east coast, where only a few
varieties were grown. In 1889, the United States
Department of Agriculture introduced a grafted
variety from India called the "Mulgoa," also
known as "Mulgoba" in the United States.
Pakistan is an agricultural country and
production of fruits is the part and parcel of this
sector. Mango ( is The king
of fruits and one of the most important fruit crop
in the world as well as in Pakistan.
There are more than 1300 varieties of the
mango, which are cultivated in the Indo-Pak Sub-
There are around 400 known varieties of
Mangoes in Pakistan.
It comes in market early in the May and remains
in market till August/September.
Pakistan is ranked after big producers i.e.,
India, China, Thailand and Mexico.
It’s a tropical, climacteric fruit liked by all due to
its taste, flavour and excellent nutritional
It is a delicious fruit being grown in more than
100 countries of the world.
Rest of the world
Chemical fertilizers have been the key elements
in enhancing the fruit production in Pakistan.
Fertilizer is the macro-micro nutrients carrier
which when applied judiciously to soil or foliage
meets the nutrient need of the crop. From the
point of view of environmental protection the
word judicious is very relevant in the nutrient
For efficient fertilizer management, split
application, appropriate timing, proper
placement etc need to be adopted.
Role of Copper
• It is important for reproductive growth.
• Copper aids in root metabolism and helps in
the utilization of proteins.
• It is a constituent part of several enzyme
• Copper have a role in the synthesis and/or
stability of chlorophyll and other plant
• Copper also used as a fungicide.
Deficiency Symptoms of Copper
• Deficiency symptoms are not common,
probably due to the use of copper based
fungicidal sprays but may be expressed as poor
production, shoots do not mature and bark
• Narrow, twisted leaves and pale white shoot
tips are apparent due to Copper deficiency.
• In areas of persistent copper fungicide use,
toxicity has been reported and results in
decreased levels of other essential elements (P,
Fe and Zn) in plant tissue.
• Copper deficiency caused die back of the
terminal growth and leaves appear mottled.
• Copper deficiency in mango orchards causes
long, tender and “S”- shaped branches and
leaves with downward curls, both on the
lamina and the central vein.
Sources of Copper
• Copper Sulphate CuSO4.5H2O (24 percent Cu)
• CuSO4.H2O (35 percent Cu)
• Copper Chelate Na2Cu-EDTA (13 percent Cu)
• Copper Oxychloride (for foliar sprays)
Doses of Copper
• Avoid excessive use of phosphorous as it
adversely affects utilization of zinc, iron and
• Excess of copper induces molybdenum
deficiency in crops. Thus application of copper
should be within recommended doses.
Age of Plant (in years) Copper Sulphate (g)