aims2 introduce the UK PSF the concept of reflective practice and continuing professional development within HE peer observation
intended learning outcomes3 By the end of the session, you will have had the opportunity to: • discuss experiential learning and learning through reflection to enhance practice • recognise the importance of peer observation and discuss key characteristics of how to conduct effective peer observations • examine the UK Professional Standards Framework (PSF) and recognise its importance for own professional development • explain the importance of reflective practice, including reflection on- and in-action • explore the use of portfolios and different media to record reflection • develop a strategy to embed reflection in own practice
Who are we?4 Let‟s play and test each other on the content of the module guide!
6Sharing learning journeys Discuss with the person who is sitting opposite to you: • A memorable learning experience you have had in the past; something that has influenced your thinking about teaching & learning. • Why do you still remember it?
Educational autobiography7 You are required to capture your educational autobiography and outline your understanding of your own approach to learning, your own learning journey and experiences (including in formal and non-formal contexts) and how this understanding has impacted upon your teaching and support of learners. Your educational autobiography will conclude with a needs analysis and an action plan: to describe existing skills and areas for further development through the module (eg from an analysis aligned to the module‟s learning outcomes).
revisiting your educational8 autobiography What personal learning experiences have influenced my thoughts about teaching? How do I learn? How do my Personal Learning Environment (PLE) and Personal Learning Network (PLN) look like? How do my students learn? What does university teaching and learning mean to me? What do I want my students to learn? What strategies and techniques do I employ in helping students to learn? What do I love about teaching? What are my strengths as a teacher? What areas do I need to develop further? What do I want to know more about? What are my options? What could I try? What will I do and by when? Make your ed. bio. available to peers and tutor by the 10 Oct
Good practice10 What does good practice look like for teaching in HE? Discuss and create a poster in your action learning sets. (10min)
UK Professional Standards11 Framework (UK PSF) • A framework for standards! • for teaching and supporting learning in HE • proposed in the White Paper The Future of Higher Education (2003) • areas of activity, core knowledge and professional values derived from the Higher Education Academy‟s existing Accreditation Scheme • professionalisation of teaching and supporting learning in HE
UK Professional Standards12 Framework (UK PSF) The standards framework aims to act as: • an enabling mechanism to support the professional development of staff engaged in supporting learning • a means by which professional approaches to supporting student learning can be fostered through creativity, innovation and continuous development • a means of demonstrating to students and other stakeholders the professionalism that staff bring to the support of the student learning experience • a means to support consistency and quality of the student learning experience.
Good practice and UK PSF14 What does good practice look like for teaching in HE? Compare your posters against the the UK PSF (5min)
action plan15 Where am I now? What are my strengths? On what am I going to work on? ...
What is reflection?20 “Reflection is a form of mental processing – like a form of thinking – that we may use to fulfil a purpose or to achieve some anticipated outcome or we may simply „be reflective‟ and then an outcome can be unexpected. Reflection is applied to relatively complicated, ill- structured ideas for which there is not an obvious solution and is largely based on the further processing of knowledge and understanding that we already possess.” Moon (2004, p. 82) What 3 words in this quote stand out as most important to you?
Who?23 “Sharing your professional and personal skills and experiences with another promotes growth and development that might not otherwise be possible. It is based upon encouragement, constructive comments, openness, mutual trust, respect and the willingness to learn and share”. (Schulte, 2008, p. 1) Moran & Dallat (1995) see a danger in practising monopolised self-reflection and recommend the use of reflection as a collegial activity.
How? Reflective Cycle (Gibbs, 1988)24 Turning experience into learning! 6. Action plan If it arose 1. Description again, what What would you happened? do? •The role of emotions •Emotional reactions 5. Conclusion 2. Feelings •Emotions can distort What else What were events could you you thinking have done? and feeling? (Moon, 2004) http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=leIPj3SIbNU music and 4. Analysis 3. Evaluation emotions What sense What was can you good and bad make of the about the situation? experience? http://www.hcc.uce.ac.uk/dpl/nursing/Placement %20Support/Model%20of%20Reflection.htm
Goal •What do you want to achieve? •What would achieving this lead to long term? •How would that feel? •When would you like to achieve this?Reality •What is the current situation? •What have you done so far? •What stops you from moving on?Options •What could you do? •What else could you do? •What else? • ... and what else?Will •What will you do? •How committed are you? •What will be the first step? •By when?
So What? deepening reflection26 describing feeling analysing reasoning stepping back challenging own ideas being self-critical linking to theory exploring options linking to action Kolb (1984), Gibbs (1988); Moon (2004)
When?27 Schön D A (1987) reflection reflection in on action action
reflection and positionality What am I bringing to the situation? What is my view of the students? Of myself?(Schön, 1983)Reflective practice has something confessional(McFarlane and Gourlay, 2009)
reflection-on-action29 This reflection takes place later. It’s usually a more mature process in which we can consider different aspects of the situation and possibilities.
Listen!30 The time-factor, former PgCert participant shares her thoughts
reflection-in-action31 Is about ‘thinking on your feet’. Quick reflection whilst your are interacting with others is almost automatic – you act on the basis of your experience and intuition to deal with situations which arise.
1 picture is worth 1000 words32 Direct link: http://www .youtube.c om/watch ?v=R7aL WbSv0Dg
Action learning set activity34 Giving feedback Read the reflection carefully and make some notes. Write feedback on the reflection. Use the classification model to help determine the „depth‟ of reflection. Share and compare your feedback
a comparison 35 Essay/report Reflective writingMoon, J (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning. Theory The subject matter is likely to be clearly defined. The subject matter may be diffuse and ill-structured. The subject matter is not likely to be personal. The subject matter may be personal. The subject matter is likely to be given. The subject matter may be determined by the writer. The purpose of this kind of writing is set in advance, usually fairly There may be purpose, but it is more of the nature of a „container‟ or precisely in a title/topic. direction, not a precise title that predicts the outcome. Most of the ideas drawn into an essay/report will be predictable and will Ideas will be drawn into reflective writing from anywhere that the writer be determined by the subject matter. believes to be relevant. What is drawn in will be determined by the senseand Practice, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 190-191. being forged by the writer. There will be a conclusion. There may be a conclusion in that something has been learnt, or there may be a recognition of further areas for reflection. Essays/reports are more likely to be „one off‟ – finished and handed in. Reflective writing may be a part of a process that takes place over a period of time. There is likely to be a clear structure of introduction, discussion and There is not necessarily a clear structure other than some description at conclusion. the beginning and some identification of process made. Structures, such as questions to prompt reflective activity may be given. The writing style is likely to be relatively objective – probably without use The writing style is likely to be relatively subjective, using the first person. of the first person. An essay or report is usually intended to be a representation of learning. The intention underlying reflective writing is likely to be for the purpose of learning. An essay/a report is likely to be the product of a thinking process, tidily Reflective writing usually involved the process of thinking and learning, ordered. and it is therefore not necessarily „tidy‟ in its ordering.
PGCAP Assessment criteria36 Competence and engagement within an area(s) of relevance to the module (and, as appropriate, to the UK Professional Standards Framework) Engagement with, and application of, relevant research literature and theory Reflection on your learning and the development of your practice
Classification, a model for37 assessment abbreviation/title characteristics 3 CritR Critical exploration and reasoning of practice in a wider Critical Reflection context, link to theory and thinking about the effects upon others of ones actions. 2 DialR Stepping back, practice analysed, reasoning well Dialogic Reflection developed, linking own viewpoints with these of other, exploring problem solving. 1 DescR Own practice is analysed, some reasoning for decisions Descriptive Reflection and actions, limited to own viewpoints and perspective. 0 RepoR0 Accounts limited to reporting events sporadic evidence of Reporting, no reflection reflection. criteria based on Hatton‟s and Smith‟s (1995), also adapted by Moon (2004)
Criteria 3: Reflection38 Pass (excellent) - There is rich evidence of deep and appropriate reflection including critical exploration and reasoning about your practice within the wider HE context. Your work provides a clear picture of the impact of your learning on your practice. Your self-analysis is good. You provided a clear and precise action plan for further development. Your plan is completely informed by the reflection. You indicate how your ongoing actions will be assessed for impact. Pass (good) - Your reflections are a mix of surface (tending towards descriptive) and deep levels of critical reflection. There is evidence of self-analysis and your learning during the module. You provide an action plan with some specific details. Some clear linkage between your ongoing plan and your reflections is evident. Pass - Your reflections are mainly surface or descriptive reflections, rather than analytical. You have started to make sense of your learning during the module and there is some self-analysis. You have put an action plan together but this lacks specific detail and is not always linked to the reflection. Fail - There is limited reflection and primarily a descriptive reporting of events, or no reflection. There is no or only limited self-analysis and your action plan is not linked to reflections or there is no action plan.
Dance Lesson 239 I want to consider a situation that arose in a potentially unsettled mixed ability class where I was teaching dance. The focus of the situation was Ben, one of two statemented pupils. The situation left me feeling guilty and inadequate as a teacher. I began the lesson with slightly uneasy feelings. I noticed that there were several absences. The pupils had been creating their dance in pairs with some of the partners absent, they would have to co-operate in new pairings. Co-operation was a problem for some. The children are mixed in their abilities and I had already been thinking that I need to develop strategies both to help individuals when they work outside their friendship groups and also where they need to create new material quickly. I began the lesson with these concerns and thoughts in mind. I started the warm-up when the learning support assistant came in to work with Jade, the other statemented pupil. It might have been helpful if she had come in just a few minutes before. Generally, however, things went well in the warm-up. I felt that I had got that right with simple and fun activities and because the skill level was low, everyone could join in and enjoy it. It really engaged them and this good start probably helped later when things got distracting…. (incomplete slide, see handout)
reflections, sharing with others41 www.wordpress.com critical friend personal module tutor tutor My eportfolio peers mentor
Using reflection for action42 research A learning activity based on reflection on experience to enhance/change an element of own practice 6. Action plan 1. Description If it arose What again, what would you do? happened? 5. Conclusion 2. Feelings What else What were you could you thinking and have done? feeling? 4. Analysis 3. Evaluation What sense What was can you make good and bad of the about the situation? experience? http://www.hcc.uce.ac.uk/dpl/nursing/Placement %20Support/Model%20of%20Reflection.htm
Something to think about!47 “Though we teach in front of students, we almost always teach solo, out of collegial sight – as contrasted with surgeons or trial lawyers, who work in the presence of others who know their craft well. Lawyers argue cases in front of other lawyers, where gaps in their skills and knowledge are clear for all to see. Surgeons operate under the gaze of specialists who notice if a hand trembles, making malpractice less likely. But teachers can lose sponges or amputate the wrong limp with no witness except the victims.” Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher‟s life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 146.
…48 “When we walk into our workplace, the classroom, we close the door on our colleagues. When we emerge, we rarely talk about what happened or what needs to happen next, for we have no shared experience to talk about. Then, instead of calling this the isolationism it is and trying to overcome it, we claim it as a virtue called „academic freedom‟: my classroom is my castle, and the sovereigns of other fiefdoms are not welcome here.” Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher‟s life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 147.
“If…49 … I want to teach well, it is essential that I explore my inner terrain. But I can get lost in there, practising self-delusion and running in self-serving circles. So I need the guidance that a community of collegial discourse provides – to say nothing of the support such a community can offer to sustain me in the trials about this craft that can be found in every faculty worth its salt.” Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher‟s life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 146.
Reflections on a peer50 observation “The whole purpose of the lecture was to introduce the module and the first assignment, which involved a business plan for a pizza restaurant. The song „That‟s Amore‟ played and one of the lecturer‟s came out of a side room wearing an apron and carrying an empty pizza box. I thought this was a good mix of technical and visual information to help the student make a link with the assignment and when I think back to this lecture that‟s the element I remember most. This experience had an impact on my own lecturing.” (cohort 1 participant)
Empowering (being observed)54 Be prepared! Make a session plan Establish a focus for the session. What does the observer want to see? Prepare the rationale/narrative for the session Engage with relevant literature before the session to link theory and practice around your focus. Forward the completed pre-observation proforma to the observer in advance Check your plan. Remember! Tutor support available if needed.
peer observation checklist (observing)55 What went well Achievement of the aims and learning outcomes The observer Effectiveness of teaching methods used comments on these! Meeting of learner needs You might want to record the Use of resources conversation Assessment/feedback considerations Opportunities for student interaction Adherence to the timed session plan Comment on focus/aspect given Reflection on observation should include reflection on feedback conversation with observer
Observations – the process56 • Pre-observation form (in e-portfolio/Blackboard – Need to share with observer • Observation • Feedback from observer • Reflective Account (including links to literature) • What is assessed? – The reflective account based on the 3 assessment criteria
intended learning outcomes58 By the end of the session, you will have had the opportunity to: • Discuss experiential learning and learning through reflection to enhance practice • understand the concept of peer observation and key characteristics of how to conduct effective peer observations • be aware of the UK Professional Standards Framework (PSF) and understand its importance for own professional development • develop an understanding of reflective practice, including reflection on- and in-action • explore the use of portfolios and different media to record reflection • develop a strategy to embed reflection in own practice
references Brown M, Fry H & Marshall S (2006) Reflective Practice, in: Fry H, Ketteridge S & Marshall S (2006) A Handbook for Teaching & Learning in Higher Education. Enhancing Academic Practice, Oxon: RoutledgeFalmer, pp. 215-225. Ghaye T & Lillyman S (1997) Learning Journals and Critical Incidents: Reflective Practice for Health Care Professionals, London: Mark Allan Publishing. Gibbs G (1988) Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods, Further Education Unit, Oxford: Oxford Brookes University. Hatton, N & Smith, D (1995) Reflection in teacher education – towards definition and implementation, Teaching and Teacher Education,11 (1), pp 33-49. Imel, S (1992) Reflective Practice in Adult Education, Columbus OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education, ERIC Digest No. 122 Kolb D A (1984) Experiential Learning, Prentice Hall, New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Lisewski, B & Cove, G (2007) Peer Observation for Teaching Code of Conduct University of Salford. McFarlane, B & Gourlay, L (2009) The reflection game: enacting the penitent self, Teaching in Higher Education 14/4, pp. 455-459. Moon, J (2005) Learning through Reflection, available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resource_database/id69_guide_for_busy_academics_no4_moon [accessed 15 September 2010] Moon, J (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning. Theory and Practice, Oxon: Routledge. Moon, J (2004a) Reflection and employability, available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resource_database/id331_Reflection_and_employability [accessed 15 September 2010] Moran A & Dallat J (1995) Promoting reflective practice in initial teacher training, International Journal of Educational Management, MCB University Press Limited, Vol. 9 No. 5, pp. 20-26. Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher‟s life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Peel, D (2005) Peer Observation as a Transformatory Tool? Teaching in Higher Education, 10 (4) 489-504 Ramsden, P (1992) Learning to Teach in Higher Education London: Routledge. Schön D A (1987) „Educating the Reflective Practitioner‟ , San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Schön, D A )1983= The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action, Ashgate. Schulte, J (2008) Give Back – Be a Mentor!, www.ezinearticles.com [accessed 10 September 2010] UK Professional Standards Framework, HEA available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/rewardandrecog/ProfessionalStandardsFramework.pdf [accessed 9 Sep 2010]