aims2 introduce the UK PSF the concept of reflective practice and continuing professional development within HE peer observation
intended learning outcomes3 By the end of this week, you will have had the opportunity to: • discuss experiential learning and learning through reflection to enhance practice • recognise the importance of peer observation and discuss key characteristics of how to conduct effective peer observations • examine the UK Professional Standards Framework (PSF) and recognise its importance for own professional development • explain the importance of reflective practice, including reflection on- and in-action • explore the use of portfolios and different media to record reflection • develop a strategy to embed reflection in own practice
Who are we?4 Let‟s play and test each other on the content of the module guide!
6Linking and thinking about learning 1. Think about 2. Think of something something you are about yourself you good at. feel good about. Write in this box how Write here the you became good at it. evidence it is based on. 3. Think of 4. Think of something you are something that you not good at, perhaps did learn as a result of a bad successfully, but at learning experience. the time you didn’t really want to do it. What went wrong? Add it to this box. What kept you going, so that you did succeed in learning it? a Phil Race activity
Reflective journal (60%, equiv. of 3000 words)7 A critical ongoing reflective commentary based on teaching practice and a set of observations of your teaching/supporting learning: mentor observation, reciprocal peer observation and an observation by a member of the PGCAP Team. Please refer explicitly to the Dimensions of the UK PSF Framework and the specific areas of activities, core knowledge and professional values (see http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/ukpsf). The commentary will need to be underpinned by relevant literature on student learning, educational theory and teaching practice as well as giving a critical account of your approach to the design, planning and management of student learning activities and your approach to teaching and learning. You are also required to demonstrate how diverse student learning needs have been met and inclusively supported in the context of Quality Assurance, Quality Enhancement and the changing HE environment.
Reflective journal:8 1/6 Educational autobiography Start your reflective journal by capturing your educational autobiography and outline your understanding of your own approach to learning, your own learning journey and experiences. Your educational autobiography will conclude with a needs analysis and an action plan: to describe existing skills and areas for further development through the module (eg from an analysis aligned to the module’s learning outcomes). You might ask yourself the following questions: What personal learning experiences have influenced my thoughts about teaching? How do I learn? How do my students learn? What does university teaching and learning mean to me? What do I want my students to learn? What do I love about teaching? What are my strengths as a teacher? What areas do I need to develop further? What will I do and by when? Complete this by next week!
Good practice10 What does good practice look like for teaching in HE? Discuss and create a poster in your action learning sets. (10min)
UK Professional Standards Framework11 (UK PSF) • A framework for standards! • for teaching and supporting learning in HE • proposed in the White Paper The Future of Higher Education (2003) • areas of activity, core knowledge and professional values derived from the Higher Education Academy‟s existing Accreditation Scheme • professionalisation of teaching and supporting learning in HE • for Fellowship of HEA & PGCert need to engage with all of these http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/ukpsf/ukpsf.pdf
Good practice and UK PSF12 What does good practice look like for teaching in HE? Compare your posters against the the UK PSF (5min)
Needs analysis and action plan13 Where am I now? What are my strengths? On what am I going to work on during this module What am I going to do and why? Use the UK PSF diagnostic proforma (week 2) The Wheel of Teaching (week 1)
What is reflection?17 “Reflection is a form of mental processing – like a form of thinking – that we may use to fulfil a purpose or to achieve some anticipated outcome or we may simply „be reflective‟ and then an outcome can be unexpected. Reflection is applied to relatively complicated, ill-structured ideas for which there is not an obvious solution and is largely based on the further processing of knowledge and understanding that we already possess.” Moon (2004, p. 82) What 3 words in this quote stand out as most important to you?
Who?19 “Sharing your professional and personal skills and experiences with another promotes growth and development that might not otherwise be possible. It is based upon encouragement, constructive comments, openness, mutual trust, respect and the willingness to learn and share”. (Schulte, 2008, p. 1) Moran & Dallat (1995) see a danger in practising monopolised self-reflection and recommend the use of reflection as a collegial activity.
How? Reflective Cycle (Gibbs, 1988)20 Turning experience into learning! 6. Action plan If it arose 1. Description again, what What would you happened? do? •The role of emotions •Emotional reactions 5. Conclusion 2. Feelings •Emotions can distort events What else What were could you you thinking have done? and feeling? (Moon, 2004) http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=leIPj3SIbNU music and 4. Analysis 3. Evaluation emotions What sense What was can you make good and bad of the about the situation? experience? http://www.hcc.uce.ac.uk/dpl/nursing/Placement %20Support/Model%20of%20Reflection.htm
Goal •What do you want to achieve? •What would achieving this lead to long term? •How would that feel? •When would you like to achieve this?Reality •What is the current situation? •What have you done so far? •What stops you from moving on?Options •What could you do? •What else could you do? •What else? • ... and what else?Will •What will you do? •How committed are you? •What will be the first step? •By when?
So What? deepening reflection22 describing feeling analysing reasoning stepping back challenging own ideas being self-critical linking to theory exploring options linking to action Kolb (1984), Gibbs (1988); Moon (2004)
When?23 Schön D A (1987) reflection reflection in on action action
reflection and positionality What am I bringing to the situation? What is my view of the students? Of myself?(Schön, 1983)Reflective practice has something confessional(McFarlane and Gourlay, 2009)
reflection-on-action25 This reflection takes place later. It’s usually a more mature process in which we can consider different aspects of the situation and possibilities.
reflection-in-action26 Is about ‘thinking on your feet’. Quick reflection whilst your are interacting with others is almost automatic – you act on the basis of your experience and intuition to deal with situations which arise.
1 picture is worth 1000 words27 Direct link: http://www .youtube.c om/watch ?v=R7aL WbSv0Dg
Action learning set activity29 Giving feedback Read the reflection carefully and make some notes. Write feedback on the reflection. Use the classification model to help determine the „depth‟ of reflection initially and then Criteria 3: Reflection of the PGCAP. Share and compare your feedback with another action learning set.
a comparison 30 Essay/report Reflective writingMoon, J (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning. Theory The subject matter is likely to be clearly defined. The subject matter may be diffuse and ill-structured. The subject matter is not likely to be personal. The subject matter may be personal. The subject matter is likely to be given. The subject matter may be determined by the writer. The purpose of this kind of writing is set in advance, usually fairly precisely in a There may be purpose, but it is more of the nature of a „container‟ or direction, title/topic. not a precise title that predicts the outcome. Most of the ideas drawn into an essay/report will be predictable and will be Ideas will be drawn into reflective writing from anywhere that the writer determined by the subject matter. believes to be relevant. What is drawn in will be determined by the sense beingand Practice, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 190-191. forged by the writer. There will be a conclusion. There may be a conclusion in that something has been learnt, or there may be a recognition of further areas for reflection. Essays/reports are more likely to be „one off‟ – finished and handed in. Reflective writing may be a part of a process that takes place over a period of time. There is likely to be a clear structure of introduction, discussion and conclusion. There is not necessarily a clear structure other than some description at the beginning and some identification of process made. Structures, such as questions to prompt reflective activity may be given. The writing style is likely to be relatively objective – probably without use of the The writing style is likely to be relatively subjective, using the first person. first person. An essay or report is usually intended to be a representation of learning. The intention underlying reflective writing is likely to be for the purpose of learning. An essay/a report is likely to be the product of a thinking process, tidily Reflective writing usually involved the process of thinking and learning, and it is ordered. therefore not necessarily „tidy‟ in its ordering.
PGCAP Assessment criteria31 Competence and engagement within an area(s) of relevance to the module (and, as appropriate, to the UK Professional Standards Framework) Engagement with, and application of, relevant research literature and theory Reflection on your learning and the development of your practice
Classification, a model for32 assessment abbreviation/title characteristics 3 CritR Critical exploration and reasoning of practice in a wider Critical Reflection context, link to theory and thinking about the effects upon others of ones actions. 2 DialR Stepping back, practice analysed, reasoning well developed, Dialogic Reflection linking own viewpoints with these of other, exploring problem solving. 1 DescR Own practice is analysed, some reasoning for decisions and Descriptive Reflection actions, limited to own viewpoints and perspective. 0 RepoR0 Accounts limited to reporting events sporadic evidence of Reporting, no reflection reflection. criteria based on Hatton‟s and Smith‟s (1995), also adapted by Moon (2004)
Criteria 3: Reflection33 Pass (excellent) - There is rich evidence of deep and appropriate reflection including critical exploration and reasoning about your practice within the wider HE context. Your work provides a clear picture of the impact of your learning on your practice. Your self-analysis is good. You provided a clear and precise action plan for further development. Your plan is completely informed by the reflection. You indicate how your ongoing actions will be assessed for impact. Pass (good) - Your reflections are a mix of surface (tending towards descriptive) and deep levels of critical reflection. There is evidence of self-analysis and your learning during the module. You provide an action plan with some specific details. Some clear linkage between your ongoing plan and your reflections is evident. Pass - Your reflections are mainly surface or descriptive reflections, rather than analytical. You have started to make sense of your learning during the module and there is some self-analysis. You have put an action plan together but this lacks specific detail and is not always linked to the reflection. Fail - There is limited reflection and primarily a descriptive reporting of events, or no reflection. There is no or only limited self-analysis and your action plan is not linked to reflections or there is no action plan.
reflections, sharing with others34 www.wordpress.com critical friend my tutor students? My eportfolio personal mentor tutor peers
Using reflection for action research35 A learning activity based on reflection on experience to enhance/change an element of own practice 6. Action plan 1. Description If it arose What again, what happened? would you do? 5. Conclusion 2. Feelings What else What were you could you thinking and have done? feeling? 4. Analysis 3. Evaluation What sense What was can you make good and bad of the about the situation? experience? http://www.hcc.uce.ac.uk/dpl/nursing/Placement %20Support/Model%20of%20Reflection.htm
Something to think about!40 “Though we teach in front of students, we almost always teach solo, out of collegial sight – as contrasted with surgeons or trial lawyers, who work in the presence of others who know their craft well. Lawyers argue cases in front of other lawyers, where gaps in their skills and knowledge are clear for all to see. Surgeons operate under the gaze of specialists who notice if a hand trembles, making malpractice less likely. But teachers can lose sponges or amputate the wrong limp with no witness except the victims.” Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher‟s life, San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, p. 146.
…41 “When we walk into our workplace, the classroom, we close the door on our colleagues. When we emerge, we rarely talk about what happened or what needs to happen next, for we have no shared experience to talk about. Then, instead of calling this the isolationism it is and trying to overcome it, we claim it as a virtue called „academic freedom‟: my classroom is my castle, and the sovereigns of other fiefdoms are not welcome here.” Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher‟s life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 147.
“If…42 … I want to teach well, it is essential that I explore my inner terrain. But I can get lost in there, practising self- delusion and running in self-serving circles. So I need the guidance that a community of collegial discourse provides – to say nothing of the support such a community can offer to sustain me in the trials about this craft that can be found in every faculty worth its salt.” Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher‟s life, San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, p. 146.
Empowering (being observed)46 Be prepared! Make a session plan Establish a focus for the session. What does the observer want to see? Prepare the rationale/narrative for the session Engage with relevant literature before the session to link theory and practice around your focus. Forward the completed pre-observation proforma to the observer in advance Check your plan. Remember! Tutor support available if needed.
Listen!47 The time-factor, former PgCert participant shares her thoughts
peer observation checklist (observing)48 What went well Achievement of the aims and learning outcomes The observer Effectiveness of teaching methods used comments on these! Meeting of learner needs You might want to record the Use of resources conversation Assessment/feedback considerations Opportunities for student interaction Adherence to the timed session plan Comment on focus/aspect given Reflection on observation should include reflection on feedback conversation with observer
Observations – the process49 • Pre-observation form (in e-portfolio/Blackboard – Need to share with observer • Observation • Feedback from observer • Reflective Account (including links to literature) • What is assessed? – The reflective account based on the 3 assessment criteria
intended learning outcomes51 By the end of the session, you will have had the opportunity to: • Discuss experiential learning and learning through reflection to enhance practice • understand the concept of peer observation and key characteristics of how to conduct effective peer observations • be aware of the UK Professional Standards Framework (PSF) and understand its importance for own professional development • develop an understanding of reflective practice, including reflection on- and in-action • explore the use of portfolios and different media to record reflection • develop a strategy to embed reflection in own practice
references Brown M, Fry H & Marshall S (2006) Reflective Practice, in: Fry H, Ketteridge S & Marshall S (2006) A Handbook for Teaching & Learning in Higher Education. Enhancing Academic Practice, Oxon: RoutledgeFalmer, pp. 215-225. Ghaye T & Lillyman S (1997) Learning Journals and Critical Incidents: Reflective Practice for Health Care Professionals, London: Mark Allan Publishing. Gibbs G (1988) Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods, Further Education Unit, Oxford: Oxford Brookes University. Hatton, N & Smith, D (1995) Reflection in teacher education – towards definition and implementation, Teaching and Teacher Education,11 (1), pp 33-49. Imel, S (1992) Reflective Practice in Adult Education, Columbus OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education, ERIC Digest No. 122 Kolb D A (1984) Experiential Learning, Prentice Hall, New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Lisewski, B & Cove, G (2007) Peer Observation for Teaching Code of Conduct University of Salford. McFarlane, B & Gourlay, L (2009) The reflection game: enacting the penitent self, Teaching in Higher Education 14/4, pp. 455-459. Moon, J (2005) Learning through Reflection, available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resource_database/id69_guide_for_busy_academics_no4_moon [accessed 15 September 2010] Moon, J (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning. Theory and Practice, Oxon: Routledge. Moon, J (2004a) Reflection and employability, available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resource_database/id331_Reflection_and_employability [accessed 15 September 2010] Moran A & Dallat J (1995) Promoting reflective practice in initial teacher training, International Journal of Educational Management, MCB University Press Limited, Vol. 9 No. 5, pp. 20-26. Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher‟s life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Peel, D (2005) Peer Observation as a Transformatory Tool? Teaching in Higher Education, 10 (4) 489-504 Ramsden, P (1992) Learning to Teach in Higher Education London: Routledge. Schön D A (1987) „Educating the Reflective Practitioner‟ , San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Schön, D A )1983= The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action, Ashgate. Schulte, J (2008) Give Back – Be a Mentor!, www.ezinearticles.com [accessed 10 September 2010] UK Professional Standards Framework, HEA available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/rewardandrecog/ProfessionalStandardsFramework.pdf [accessed 9 Sep 2010]