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Critical Reflection And The Reflective Practitioner


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Critical Reflection in Action

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Critical Reflection And The Reflective Practitioner

  1. 1. Critical Reflection and the Reflective Practitioner By Yannis Karaliotas MAODE (Open) Full Text:
  2. 2. The meaning of 'Critical Reflection' <ul><li>C ritical reflection can be defined as thinking about what we are thinking , acting upon rather than reacting to a stimulus . </li></ul><ul><li>It is inter-related with social constructivist practice s and openness to change , and it enables reflective practice </li></ul><ul><li>( Donald Schön , 1983 & 1987 ) . </li></ul>
  3. 3. The “Critical” in Reflection <ul><li>T he term ' critical ' broadens the perspective on Schön's and Eraut's 'reflection' by bringing into focus sociocultural context and historical events . </li></ul><ul><li>C ritical R eflection is in itself a learning process </li></ul><ul><li>(Allen, 1992) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reflection On and In Action <ul><li>Reflection on action describes the process of reflection which takes place after the event where the practitioner makes explicit and evaluates the theories of action used to solve a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection in action describes interaction with a 'live' problem as it unfolds. The capacity to reflect in action assumes that the problem-solver has the capacity to surface their 'knowing in action', that is, the hidden or tacit knowledge which we use to deal with particular tasks . </li></ul><ul><li>( Schön , 1987 - Hawkridge, 2000 ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. R eflective P racticum <ul><li>R eflective P racticum is a safe learning environment where learners may put their rule-based knowledge into action and develop a repertoire of responses and judgements which become progressively more complex and sophisticated as they develop to cover a wider range of experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>( Schön, 1983 ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Critical R eflective Practice <ul><li>Critical R eflective practice constitutes an attempt to break with positivist 'technical rationality‘ . </li></ul><ul><li>It requires diagnosis, testing and belief in personal causation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnosis is the ability to frame or 'make sense of' a problem through use of professional knowledge, past experience, the uniqueness of the setting and people involved, and expectations held by others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once framed, the practitioner engages in on-the-spot experimentation and reflection to test alternative solutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F inally, the practitioner accept s responsibility for action - has the courage to act in situations of uncertainty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Kirby and Paradise 1992: 70 ) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. &quot;The focus goes beyond simple understanding or identification of issues: its primary concern is with change, achieving a more equitable society through informed social practice .... These new understandings become the basis for decision making which has equity as a fundamental goal“ ( Hawkridge, 2000).
  8. 8. Action Reflection <ul><li>Action reflection, as an outcome of critical thinking, seems to help practitioners develop the habits of mind in which &quot;change is regarded as the fundamental reality, forms and structures are perceived as temporary, relationships are held to involve developmental transformations and openness is welcomed“ </li></ul><ul><li>( Brookfield, 1987, p. 13 ). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bibliography <ul><li>Brookfield, S. (1987) Developing Critical Thinkers: challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>Eraut, M (1994) Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence (Lewes: Falmer Press). </li></ul><ul><li>Eraut, M (1995) 'Schön shock: a case for reframing reflection-in-action', Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 9-22. </li></ul><ul><li>George, R. (2000). Block 1 Section 2 part 2 in the Study Guide. H801, MAODE, IET, OUUK. </li></ul><ul><li>Hawkridge, D. (2000). Block 1 Section 2 part 1 in the Study Guide. H801, MAODE, IET, OUUK. </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy, C. (1988). Evaluation of the management of change in ELT projects. Applied Linguistics 9(4): 329-342. </li></ul><ul><li>Kirby, P C & Paradise, L V (1992) 'Reflective Practice and Effectiveness of Teachers' 70 Psychological Reports 1057 </li></ul><ul><li>Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology London; Routledge </li></ul><ul><li>Markee, N.P.P. (1997). Managing Curricular Innovation. New York: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Maturana, H. & Varela, F.J. (1980). Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Dordrecht: Reidel. </li></ul><ul><li>Maturana, H. & Varela, F.J (1987). The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding Boston: Shambhala, 1987. (Revised Edition: same publisher, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Mezirow, J. et al. (1991). Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood: A Guide to Transformative and Emancipatory Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan, A. (1999). Block 2 Section 3 in the Study Guide. H801, MAODE, IET, OUUK. </li></ul><ul><li>Putnam, H. (1988). Representation and reality. Cambridge: Bradford Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Schön, D A (1983) The Reflective Practitioner (Aldershot: Avebury). </li></ul><ul><li>Schön, D A (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner (San Francisco: Jossey Bass) </li></ul><ul><li>Thorpe, M. (1995). 'Reflective learning in distance education', European Journal of Psychology of Education, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 153-77. </li></ul>