Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Critical Reflection


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Critical Reflection

  1. 1. Critical ReflectionDr Linda RushVice Dean (Teacher Education)
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes To critically explore the concept of reflection and its application within learning and teaching To appraise reflective frameworks which facilitate critical levels of reflection
  3. 3. Feelings about reflection What are your feelings about reflection ?
  4. 4. Concept AnalysisIn pairs Mindmap the term “reflection” From the mindmap create categories or emerging themes From the categories construct a sentence which offers your definition of reflection
  5. 5. Definitions of Reflection The consensus is that reflection is a term frequently used, but inadequately defined (Atkins and Murphy 1993, Reid 1993, James and Clarke 1994, Lyons 1999) Difficulties are caused by a lack of clarity and commonly understood terminology (Reid 1993, Teekman 2000, Carroll et al 2000) How easy did you find it?
  6. 6. Working definition….? “A process of reviewing an experience of practice in order to describe, analyse, evaluate and so inform learning about practice” (Reid 1995:305) It is both “a loosely used concept, easily assimilated into spontaneous everyday action” (How many of you feel you do it already?) and “a complex, difficult to explain and perplexing phenomenon” (Fitzgerald & Chapman in Burns & Bulman 2000:3)
  7. 7. Where did it come from? Dewey (1933) – viewed reflective thinking and reflection as an experiential learning technique. Defined reflection as : An active persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge, in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusion to which it tends Reflection or reflective thinking here is seen as problem solving
  8. 8. Hatton and Smith (1995) View reflective thinking as ‘an active and deliberative cognitive process, involving sequences of interconnected ideas which take account of underlying beliefs and knowledge. Reflective thinking generally addresses practical problems, allowing for doubt and perplexity before possible solutions are reached.’
  9. 9. Backbone philosophies’ ofreflection: Kolb & Schon
  10. 10. Aredefinitionsimportant?
  11. 11. The issues? Reflection is not a “panacea” (Scanlon and Chermonas 1997, Burns and Bulman 2000) but it is a way of learning more about our work (Kember at al 2001) Research tends to be small scale Schon’s work is attractive because it “focuses on practice and values experience” (Burns and Bulman 2000:1) Moral and ethical dimensions (Hargreaves 1997)
  12. 12. What can a reflectivestrategy do? Alter the focus from routinely doing to the development of an ability to look critically at practice (Driscoll 1994) Raising consciousness Perspective transformation Framing and reframing (Glaze 2001) as an innovative way of analysing problems Deconstruction and reconstruction (Ghaye and Lilleyman 1997) Knowing where you are on your internal map (Hunt 2001)
  13. 13. So, why can it be complex? Some people are more naturally reflective than others, but reflection is a skill which can be learnt, practised and refined … (L’Aiguille 1994) Verbal reflection is spontaneous, written reflection requires some practice (Gannon et al 2001) Frameworks help to structure reflections, challenge assumptions, transform perspectives
  14. 14. Critical reflection andcritical thinkingBrookfield (1987) key components of critical thinking:- Identifying and challenging assumptions Imagining and exploring alternative ways of thinking and actingAtkins (2000 in Burns and Bulman p30) Take place during the critical analysis element of a reflective framework
  15. 15. Reflective Frameworks Aid learning from experience Help to move from “tacit knowing, to more conscious and explicit knowing” (Ghaye and Lilleyman 1997:16) Movement away from “inertia” Adds “new and relevant” meaning to professional practice Have significance for future action
  16. 16. Types of Frameworks Structured -Johns guided reflection (1995) Smyth (1991) Hierarchical - Mezirow’s seven levels of reflection (1981), Goodman’s three levels (1984) Iterative - cyclical, Gibbs (1988), Atkins and Murphy (1994), Boud et al 1985) Synthetic - Louden (1991), Interests and Forms (outcomes and characteristics) Holistic - Ghaye et al (1996) 5 types of reflection- on-practice and 5 reflective cycles in a matrix
  17. 17. Using a reflective frameworkin reflective writing Description - demonstrates clear understanding of the relevant and important issues, well structured and concise Feelings - beneath the surface. Demands “emotional intelligence” The ability to recognise and manage emotions in yourself and others (Mortiboys 2002)
  18. 18. Critical Analysis Critical Analysis -Identify and illuminate existing knowledge of relevance, challenge assumptions, explore alternatives. Separate the whole into its component parts
  19. 19. Synthesis “The integration of the new knowledge, feelings or attitudes with previous knowledge, feelings or attitudes. This is necessary in order to develop a fresh insight or a new perspective on a situation and learn from it” (Atkins 2002:46) Martin (1999) suggests contemporary staff need to manage paradox and be constantly adaptive Evaluation: the ability to make a judgement about the value of something, looking back… but it is also future orientated
  20. 20. Reflection and teaching Scanlon and Chermonas (1997) suggest that to teach reflectively, we must be reflective ourselves Strategies? ALS (McGill and Beaty 1995) Reflective journals (Bolton 2001) Portfolio development Reflective conversations with peers (Richert 1990)
  21. 21. Problems with Reflection? “lack of motivation to complete what can be a time consuming task” “uncertainty in what was expected” “making practice visible to others carries a degree of risk of criticism and challenge that may not have been experienced before” (Stanley and Ramage 2004:95)
  22. 22. Reflection and teaching Scanlon and Chermonas (1997) suggest that to teach reflectively, we must be reflective ourselves Strategies? ALS (McGill and Beaty 1995) Reflective journals (Bolton 2001) Portfolio development Reflective conversations with peers (Richert 1990)
  23. 23. Now What? - Review The purpose of reflection is to learn and extend personal practice and knowledge base (Hull and Redfern 1996) What is your stance? Which reflective framework suits your learning style? Engage with opportunities for observations (think mirrors) Engage with the theory, be prepared to take on new perspectives and insights.
  24. 24. A thought for the future… A fully functioning person is an ever changing person….personal growth is marked by a degree of disorganisation followed by reorganisation which necessitates acceptance of self (based on Rogers, and Martin 1999)