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  2. 2. SEQUENCE Character Child Development Developmental Psychology (Fundamental Issues) Sequence Of Development Parental Attetude Socialization in the Nursery School Teacher’s Role 2
  3. 3. CHARACTERChambers 21st Century Dictionary•The combination of qualities thatmakes up a person’s nature orpersonality•The combination of qualities thattypifies anything•Strong admirable qualities such asdetermination, courage honesty etc. 3
  4. 4. CURRENT SCENARIO Low Literacy Rate Efforts To Raise Literacy Rate Considered To Be The Responsibility Of Parents Child- Bent Under Weight Of ever Increasing Books-Left Open To Other Influences-Peer Groups, Dish Antenae- Pernicious Literature. Prime Aim Of Education Lost Sight Of 4
  5. 5. CHARACTER BUILDING Character-building should be the most important component of any effective system of education, for without character training, academic excellence and competencies in skills, more often than not, turn out to be counter productive and eventually do more harm than good both to the individual and the society at large. 5
  6. 6. CHARACTER IS NOT A MATTER OF KNOWLEDGEItis mostly an out-put of motivation, of inspiration, which comes from role models, from environment and the cultural norms 6
  7. 7. CHARACTER IS CAUGHT NOT TAUGHT To foster Character-Building, the greatest role is played by the role models and especially for the school going children the teacher is a most effective role model whose own character directly, though unconsciously, affects the children 7
  8. 8. CHILD DEVELOPMENTThe teacher needs to have an understanding of The fundamental and general principles of child development How to apply this knowledge to the individual child and so make appropriate decisions about teaching strategies in order to meet the child’s needs. 8
  9. 9. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES Environmental (Nurture) Vs Biological (Nature) Passive Vs Active nature of the child Continuity Vs Discontinuity of development Stability of change of behavior over a period of time Consistent or inconsistent behavior in different situation 9
  10. 10. ENVRONMETNAL VS BIOLOGICAL Whether environmental conditions or genetic inheritance have the most influence on development Born with a genetic inheritance which is a mixture of our parents’ genes-which is called a genotype. What we become is due entirely to environmental conditions 10
  11. 11. ENVRONMETNAL VS BIOLOGICAL Both extremes can be challenged Both variables contribute to development The behavior is the product of both biological and environmental determinants and what we actually become is called a phenotype 11
  12. 12. The Phenotype is the product ofThe genotypeEnvironmental influences, andThe interaction between the genotype and the environment 12
  13. 13.  Montessori is in line with modern psychologists who acknowledge the influence of both nature and nurture. She writes about the “inherited characteristics” and “pre-determined patterns of behavior”, but she also advocates the very strong influence of environmental conditions 13
  14. 14. PASSIVE VS ACTIVE NATURE OF THE CHILD CHILD AS PASSIVE- advocate that children enter the world ready to absorb whatever knowledge they encounter in the environment. The resulting teaching method is a carefully structured learning environment 14
  15. 15. PASSIVE VS ACTIVE NATURE OF THE CHILDCHILD AS ACTIVE- assumethat they learn best if they arepermitted to explore and selecttheir own activities. The resultingteaching approach is a relativelyunstructured learning environment 15
  16. 16.  Montessori recognize the passive nature of the child and maintain they pass through a period of absorbing from the environment and so she attaches great importance to the prepared environment. At the same time she recognizes the strong active nature of the child., allowing children the freedom to select their own activities spontaneously. 16
  17. 17. CONTINUITY VS DISCONTINUITY Development as continuous Development as discontinuous or happening in stages All psychologists agree that some changes occur continuously 17
  18. 18. Maria Montessori says children go through the following stages  A- Absorbent Mind  B-Childhood  C-Adolescence Montessori is more in line with the discontinuous school of thought in that she describes the above, qualitatively different, stages of development 18
  19. 19. STABILITY OF CHILDREN BEHAVIOUR Montessori held the view that children were born with either a strong or a weak will and , depending on the quality of early handling and environmental conditions, characteristics such as aggression, appeared. She maintained that it was possible to normalize children between the ages of 3 and 6 years and bring about changes in their behavior. Continue 19
  20. 20.  If this was achieved by the age of six for example, a child became less aggressive and this would be maintained between the stable periods from 6 to 12. However at 12 years, she believed, there is a kind of rebirth and the former behavior could reappear if the environmental conditions became unsatisfactory again. Thus, Montessori saw behavior in children as being relatively stable in that characteristics could reappear, but these were very much related to environmental interaction. 20
  21. 21. CONSISTENT ORINCONSISTENT BEHAVIOUR IN DIFFERENT SITUATION Those psychologists that favor the ‘nature’ interpretation of child development tend to believe behavior is consistent and those that favor the ‘nurture’ interpretation tend th say that environmental conditions have an influence on behavior and that it can be inconsistent 21
  22. 22. SEQUENCES OF DEVELOPMENT In 18 MonthsMonth 12 Months s 9 Months 6 Months 3 Months 4-6 Weeks 22
  23. 23. SEQUENCES OFDEVELOPMENT 5 4 Years 3 Years 2 Years Years In Years 23
  24. 24. 2 YEARS STAGE Runs On Whole Foot: Walks up and downstairs two feet to step. Build Tower Of 6 Cubes: Imitates circular scribble Gives First Name: Talk continuously to self at play Put Two or More Words Together To Form Simple Sentences: But much of speech unintelligible even to familiar as Enjoys Picture Books: Naming objects on request Turns Pages Singly: 24
  25. 25. 3 YEARS STAGE Stands on one (preferred) foot momentarily Goes upstairs with alternating feet. Downstairs two feet too Build tower of 9 cubes Imitates (3 years) and copies (3 and half years) Bridge of 3 cubes from models Copies circle Give full name and sex Large Vocabulary Can undress when fastening undone and take self to toilet Eats with fork and spoon 25
  26. 26. 4 YEARS STAGE Stands on one foot 3 to 5 seconds. Hops on one foot Goes up and down stairs one foot ot step Builds 3 steps with 6 cubes after demonstration or sometime from model. Copies cross. Names three primary colors Knows full name, age, sex and (usually) address. Speech wholly intelligible, shows only a few infantile substitutions. Can dress and undress alone except for back fastenings and laces. 26
  27. 27. 5 YEARS STAGE Stands on one foot with arms folded 3 to 5 seconds Skips on alternative feet Builds 3 steps with 6 cubes from model (sometimes 4 steps with 10 cubes) Copies square (5 years) and triangle (5 and half years) Counts five fingers on one hand (touching) Knows full name, age address and (usually birthday) Dresses without assistance. Washes and dries hands and face 27
  29. 29. SOCIALIZATION IN THE NURSERY SCHOOL A limited degree of social competence developed an important milestone in a young child’s social development The new social experiences and educational stimulation has to consider the wishes, needs and demands of other children and adults The “rules” learnt during the first formative years can be tried out Acceptable behavior is rewarded and unacceptable behavior ignored or punished 29
  31. 31. Stage-1, Unconscious Mind (0-3 months) Absorbs impressions from the environment without awareness of the process. Completely dependent on the adults The faculties of thinking, willing, imagination and memory are being created The child is in a kind of Spiritual Embryo--- a period of transformation 31
  32. 32. Stage-2 Conscious Mind (3-6 years) Still absorbs from the environment but by approximately three years the memory is formed and the child gradually becomes conscious Become susceptible to adult influence A strong desire to master his environment He develops the power of concentration Language continues to develop great powers of imagination The hand becomes the instrument of the brain 32
  33. 33. Stage-3 Childhood (6-12 years) This is the period of stability This is a suitable period to teach the child many new skills He is keen and interested in many areas It is a period of consolidation rather than transformation The child’s horizons open geographically, socially and intellectually Montessori wrote that a visitor from another planet seeing a child of this age would think they were observing an adult 33
  34. 34. Stage-4 Puberty (12-15 years) The child goes through a period of rapid bodily change There are psychological changes as well as physical Montessori compares this period with the first period from birth to 3 years Montessori felt the child should not be subjected to too much academic pressure at this stage and should be given plenty of rest 34
  35. 35. Stage-5 Adolescence (15-18 years)This is period of consolidation of interest 35
  36. 36. TEACHER’S ROLE 36
  37. 37. On the stage of lifeThere are None isMore than So divineOne role As thatThat one play Of a teacherBut 37
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  40. 40. A LESSON FROM LIFE A child that  A child thatlives with ridicule Lives with antagonismLeans to be timid Learns o be hostile A child that  A child thatLives with criticism Lives with affectionLearns to condemn Learns to love A child that  A child thatLives with distrust Lives with sharingLearns to be deceitful Learns to be considerate 40
  41. 41. LESSON FROM LIFE  A child that Lives with knowledge Learns wisdom  A child that Lives with patience Learns to be tolerant  A child that Lives with happiness Learns love and beauty 41
  42. 42. TAKE TIME Take time to laugh It is the music of the soul Take time to think It is the source of perpetual youth Take time to read It is the foundation of wisdom Take time to pray It is the greatest power on earth 42
  43. 43. TAKE TIME Take time to love and be loved It is a God given privilege Take time to be friendly It is the road to happiness Take time to give It is too short a day to be selfish Take time to work hard It is the price of success 43
  44. 44. THE UNKNOWN TEACHER Sing the praise of the unknown teacher. Great general win campaign, but it is the unknown soldier who wins the war. Famous educators plan new systems of pedagogy, but it is unknown teacher who directs and guides the young. He lives in obscurity and contends with hardship. For him no trumpets blare, no chariots wait, no golden decorations are decorated. Continue 44
  45. 45.  He keeps the watch along the borders of darkness and makes the attack on the trenches of ignorance and folly. Patient in his daily duty, he strives to conquer the evil powers which are the enemies of youth. He awakes sleeping spirits. He quickens the indolent, encourages the eager, and steadies the unstable. Continue 45
  46. 46.  He communicates his own joy in learning and shares with boys and girls the best treasures of his mind. He lights many candles which, in later years, will shine back to cheer him. This is his reward. Knowledge may be gained from books; but the love of knowledge is transmitted only by personal contact. No one has never deserved better of the republic than the unknown teacher. No one is more worthy to be enrolled in a democratic aristocracy, “king of himself and servant of mankind”. 46
  47. 47. THANK YOU 47