• Is an ongoing process through which teachers and students
interact to promote greater learning
• The assessment process emphasizes data collection of student
performance to diagnose learning problems, monitor
progress, and give feedback for improvement.
• Involves using multiple methods in order to obtain student
information through a variety of assessment strategies.
Characteristics of Classroom Assessment
• Learner-Centered- its focus is on observing and improving
learning , rather than on observing and improving teaching.
• Teacher-Directed- the individual teacher decides what to
assess, how to assess, and how to respond to the information
gained through the assessment
• Mutually Beneficial- students reinforce course content and
strengthen their self-assessment skills
• Formative- its purpose is to improve the quality of student
learning ,not to provide evidence for evaluating or grading
students; it provides information on what, how much , and how
well students are learning.
• Context – Specific – the assessment technique is chosen to fit
the subject matter and the needs of the particular class
• Ongoing – the creation and maintenance of a classroom
• are used to monitor students progress during instruction
• Purpose – to make judgments about individual student
achievement and assign grades
• Example : quizzes, tests, exams, term papers, lab
• Comprehensive, typically given at the end of a program and
provide for accountability (burns)
• Purpose – to inform teaching and improve learning used as
• Examples – pose questions, listen to students questions and
comments, monitor body language and facial
expressions, Classroom Assessment Techniques
A Set of Guiding Principles
• Assessment require clear thinking and effective
communication- Those who develop and use high quality
assessments must share a highly refined focus.
• Classroom assessment is the key- Teachers direct the
assessments that determine what students learn and how those
students feel about the learning.
• Students are assessment users- Students are the most
important users of assessment results.
• Clear and appropriate targets are essential- The quality of
any assessment depends first and foremost on the clarity and
appropriateness of our definition of the achievement targets to
• High quality assessment is a must- High quality assessment
is essential in all assessment contacts.
• Five specific quality standards
• Clear targets
• Focused purpose
• Proper method
• Sound sampling
• Accurate assessment free of bias and distortion
• Understand the personal implications –Assessment is an
• Assessment as teaching and learning
Types of Achievement Targets
• Knowledge Targets- Teachers expect students to master some
• Reasoning Targets- Its virtually always the case we want
students to be able to use the information to reason and solve
certain kinds of problems.
• Skill Targets- In most classrooms there are things teachers
want their students to be able to do .
• Product Targets- another way for students to succeed
academically is through creating quality products
• Dispositional Targets- This final category of valued targets is
quite broad and complex and includes those characteristics that
go beyond the academic into the realms of the effective and
personal feeling states, such as attitudes toward
something, sense of academic self-confidence or interest in
something that motivationally predisposes a person to do or not
to do something.
• Selected Response Assessment- This category includes all of
the objectively scored paper and pencil tests formats.
• Essay Assessment- In this case, the respondent is provided
with an exercise that calls for the preparation of an extended
• Performance Assessment- In this case, the respondent
actually carries out a specified activity under the watchful eye of
the evaluator who observes performance and makes judgment
as to the quality of achievement demonstrated .
• Personal Communication Assessment- One of the most
common ways teachers gather information about day to day
student achievement in the classroom is to talk to them.
Matching Methods with Targets
• The challenge for the professional is the to address all seven
guiding principles of quality classroom assessment; by
developing a quality Assessment Plan which matches the
appropriate assessment method with the desired achievement
• Is a deliberately attempt to acquire information about
themselves or others(Anastasi 1988)
• Usually used to describe a systematic procedure for obtaining a
sample of student behavior.
• They provide information that are useful for improvement of
• In making administrative decisions
• Fro guidance purposes
3 basic concepts
• A Test Focuses on a Particular Domain- A test domain can
represent something as simple as 4th Mathematics or a more
abstracts construct such as “intellegence”
• A Test a Sample of Behavior, Products, Answer, or
Performances from the Domain- A test is a sample of
behavior , products, or performances from a larger domain of
• A Test is Made up of Items- Items sampled from a domain
represent the basic building blocks of a test.
Two Main Types of Items
• Selection Types- require the students to select the correct or
the best answer from the given options
• Supply Types- are fill-in – blanks, or essay types.
• Oral and written reports- Students research a topic and then
present either orally or in written form.
• Teacher observation- The teacher observes students while
they work to make certain the students understand the
assignment and are on task.
• Journal – Students write daily on assigned or personal topics.
• Portfolio of student’s work- Teacher collects samples of
student’s work and saves for determined amount of time.
• Slates or hand signals- Students use slates or hand signals as
a means of signaling answers to the teacher
• Games – Teachers utilize fun activities to have students
practice and review concepts.
• Projects- The students research a topic and present it in a
• Debates – The students take opposing positions on a topic and
defend their position.
• Checklist- The teacher will make a list of objectives that
students need to master and then check off the skill as the
student masters it.
• Cartooning – Students will use drawings to depict situation and
• Models – The students produce a miniature replica of a given
• Notes- Students write a summary of a lesson.
• Daily assignments- The student completes work assigned on
a daily basis to be completed at school or home.
• Panel- A group of students verbally present information.
• Learning Centers- Students use teacher provided activities for
• Demonstrations – Students present a visual enactment of a
particular skill or activity.
• Problem solving- Student follow a step by step solution of a
• Discussions – Students in a group verbally interact on a given
• Organized note sheets and study guides- Students collect
information to help pass a test