Group Powerpoint - Assessment for Learning


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Group Powerpoint - Assessment for Learning

  1. 1. Assessment for Learning Mr Bean, “The Exam”
  2. 2. What is Assessment for Learning? Purpose for Assessment Giving Feedback Principles of Learning: Learning to Learn Principles of Assessment Assessment & Culture Building Assessment Capabilities Self & Peer Assessment Engagement & Motivation Assessment in the Classroom Overview
  3. 3. Assessment "Comes from the Latin verb ‘assidere’ meaning ‘to sit with’. In assessment, one should sit with the learner. This implies it is something we do with and for students and not to students (Green, 1998)“ Green, J. M. (1998, February). Constructing the way forward for all students. A speech delivered at “Innovations for Effective Schools” OECD/New Zealand joint follow-up conference, Christchurch, New Zealand. Assessment for Learning is.. • The interaction & dialogue between teachers and pupils. • Help students understand what they need to do next in order to improve. • Thoughtful improvement rather than getting it right the first time
  4. 4. Assessment Mr Bean, “The Exam”
  5. 5. Inside The Black Box By Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam Process • A survey of research was conducted. • A total of 580 articles or chapters were reviewed. Including, books, journals. • A wide range of experts from different parts of the world. Research • Is there evidence that improving formative assessment raises standards? • Is there evidence that there is room for improvement ? • Is there evidence about how to improve formative assessment? Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 86 #1, pp. 8-21,2004
  6. 6. Ministry of Education Timeline The New Zealand curriculum has shifted away from summative assessment and towards "Assessment for Learning". 1990 The first review focused on two key areas:" •Identifying student's stengths and guide improvement. •Review on the quality of educaton programmes. 1994 In 1994 "Policy for Practice" was released: •Improve student learning •Improve the quality of learning programmes. 1995 In 1995 "NEMP" The National Education Monitoring Programme: •To provide an understanding of knowledge, skill and attitudes through each curriculum area nationwide (year 4-8). 1998 In 1998 "NEPM" was released by the ministry of education with a key focus on primary schools: •Developing diagnostic assessment tools & diagnostic tests. •Providing national exemplar material & external referenced tests (performance at national group levels) •Introduction of the "National Education Monitoring Programme“ 1999 In 1999 A Assessment Strategy was introduced, its key focus was: Building availability of assessment tools. Building professional learning within assessment capability. 2004-2009 In 2004-2009 "Kei Tua o te Pae Assessment for Learning: Early Childhood Exemplars" Early childhood resource books were published to: •Underpin assessment for learning in an early childhood environment via examples to inform assessment practice. •Exemplars in Maori context was later introduced in 2009. 2006 In 2006 a review began of the National Assessment Strategy began in two phases: Phase one. How well the current strategy was working. Phase two. Developing a new assessment strategy. In 2009 a resulting paper was released "Directions for Assessment in New Zealand (DANZ)" •Enable students to assess their own learning. •To enable students to become autonomous learners and lead their own learning •Create a system that learns
  7. 7. Ministry of Education, “Assessment Position Paper”[2011] MoE Vision
  8. 8. Purpose of Assessment for Learning
  9. 9. Purpose of Assessment for Learning “the primary purpose of assessment is to improve students’ learning and teachers’ teaching” NZ Curriculum “There is no better way of raising achievement standards than formative assessment.” Assessment for learning should • Alert students to their present position • Inform them of the desired goal • Give students some understanding of how to close any gap Black and Wiliams
  10. 10. Formative verses Summative Assessment • Assessment for Learning • Assessment of Learning Sort the pairs of assessment ideas into their headings.
  11. 11. Looking Backwards Looking Forwards Measuring Learning Assessment of Learning After Learning During Learning Nurturing Learning Assessment for Learning Assessment point Feedback Looking forward Go over/ review Learning continuum Looking back Measuring a tree Leave/ignore Grade work Review work Results orientated Improvement orientated Watering a tree Feed-forward Chief tastes soup Customer tastes soup
  12. 12. Purpose of Assessment for Learning Information from assessment can be used to: • Plan and modify learning programmes for individual students, groups of students, and/or the class as a whole • Identify and then address the learning needs of each student in a clear and constructive way • Involve and engage parents, families, whānau, and communities in their child's learning • The Ministry of Education can undertake policy review and target funding and intervention
  13. 13. Effective Feedback
  14. 14. Effective Feedback Should: -Be focused: Learning Intentions (being learnt) and success criteria (desired goal) -Be given in the right time -Provide guidance and strategies to improve
  15. 15. Typology of feedback (P. Tunstall, C. Gipps, 1996) • Evaluative – involving judgment and can affect how students feel about themselves • Descriptive – what the student did and providing guidance for improvement. It is critical in ‘closing the gap’ for students
  16. 16. Types of descriptive feedback (Clarke, 2003) Based on the needs of the student and focused around learning intention of the task, can be: 1-Reminder - calling back what was the lesson about. Ex: Remember the rule about… 2-Scaffold – giving possibilities. Ex: Why don’t you try using… 3-Example – giving clear examples. Ex: why don’t you use a simile word as…
  17. 17. Written feedback Some student could: • have difficulty understanding the points you want to make. • be unable to read your writing. • can’t process the feedback/what next To check this out: ask them to tell you what you are trying to say.
  18. 18. Marks versus comments Research showed that: • Only marks-no gain • Only comment scored 30% higher (average) • Marks and comment – cancel beneficial effects of the comments Research conclusion: If you mark or grade a piece of work, it means waste of time adding diagnostic comments.
  19. 19. Comment only • provides students with a focus for progression instead of a reward or punishment for their ego (as a grade does). • should make it clear how the student can improve. • Plan activities and work with feedback in mind, let the design assist the process.
  20. 20. Too many comments (Clarke,2001) • makes difficult for specific feedback to be given • Overwhelming and difficult to take in Clarke suggest that: When giving writing feedback, highlight 2 or 3 successes and 1 area where improvement is necessary
  21. 21. Strategies for effective formative feedback
  22. 22. Feedback sandwich 1. -Positive comment -Constructive criticism with explanation of how to improve -Positive comment 2. Contextual statement – I liked….because…. - Now - Next time… Interactive statement e.g. a question based on the work
  23. 23. Allow student to act on feedback • Use lesson time to redraft work. • allow students time to focus on the feedback for improvement . • reinforce the value of the feedback and working in a supportive environment.
  24. 24. Follow-up • time in the lesson to talk individually. • Have a written dialogue in the students’ book. • Use a comment tracker or target sheet to formalise the dialogue in a workbook Learning Journal • Create a learning journal in which they can reflect.
  25. 25. Feedback summary Effective feedback to learners: • is best initiated by the learner • focuses on the learning intention of the task • occurs as the students are doing the learning • provides information on how and why the student understands and misunderstands • provides strategies to help the student to improve • assists the student to understand the goals of the learning.
  26. 26. Learning To Learn
  27. 27. Learning to learn ‘ako (ngia) kia akoranga’ • Thoughts of process ‘nga whakaaro’ • Structuring the development of student understanding ‘nga maramatanga kua whakaturia’ • Reciprocity and relevance to students and teachers ‘ kaupapa tuakana-teina me te whanau hapori kaota o te motu.
  28. 28. Principles of Assessment Whakamaramatanga – Should be underpinned by the understanding that every student ‘can’ improve. ‘ka tae ate eke’ – Raising the bar ‘kia eke ki te karamatamata o nga whiwhinga katoa’. – Language ‘nga reo’ – Feed-back and feed-forward ‘ wananga reo’
  29. 29. Cultural aspects ‘nga tikang a iwi’ • Values, interpretations, understanding ‘different’ and ‘similar’ need to be recognised and plan for collaborative and collective assessment. For informal and formal settings.
  30. 30. Building Assessment Capability
  31. 31. ‘Assessment Literate’ Students • ‘Assessment Literate’ means; that students are aware of the assessment criteria, and can understand clearly what is required of them. • When students understand assessment rubrics, relevance of the content and skills being taught through assessments, they will be much more likely to be engaged and want to achieve at a higher level.
  32. 32. Strategies Students can only assess themselves when they have a sufficiently clear target of what their learning is meant to attain. To do this they must: • Recognition of the desired goal of achievement. • Evidence about their present position, • And an understanding of a way to close the gap between the two.
  33. 33. Strategies For Students to be able to develop the ability to monitor their own progress and work level, they need to understand: • What high quality work looks like (exemplars). • What criteria define quality work. • How to compare and evaluate their work against such criteria.
  34. 34. Self and Peer Assessment • Students are more likely to give each other honest feedback • Students are also more likely to challenge or question their feedback than if they are receiving the same feedback from their teacher.
  35. 35. Self and Peer Assessment • Once students can understand clearly what criteria they are being assessed against, there are a number of different strategies for students to assess one another. • These strategies provide a safe way for students to give one another feedback which includes strategies for improvement.
  36. 36. Motivation and Engagement • By ensuring that students understand assessment rubrics, relevance of the content and skills being taught through assessments, they will be much more likely to be engaged and want to achieve at a higher level. • Clear, concise and relevant feedback is also a key component in promoting students’ motivation and engagement with assessment.
  37. 37. Motivation and Engagement for Formative Assessment: • Knowledge of students, • Fit for purpose, • Emphasis on progress rather than failure, • Balance between challenging and achievable
  38. 38. Motivation Strategies Testing- • involve students in decisions, • Progress rather than failure, • Feedback to promote further learning. Teaching- • Encourage collaboration among students, • Cater to fit a range of learning styles, • Develop student’s self-assessment skills and understand criteria, • Make learning goals explicit. • Discuss with students the purpose of their learning. School- • Constructive discussion about tests and assessment.
  39. 39. Do less… • Teaching to answer specific questions • Compare student grades.
  40. 40. Assessment in the Classroom
  41. 41. How do I use Assessment for Learning in my Classroom • Assessment for Learning is a culture created in your classroom • It works as a teacher/student partnership
  42. 42. How do I use Assessment for Learning in my Classroom • Teacher needs to be willing to plan a wide variety of assessment to reach all learning types • Assessments need to be progressive and cumulative • Teachers needs to decide how to challenge the diverse needs of the class
  43. 43. Activities of Assessment • Students ask questions • Comment Only Marking • Adding “might” to questions • Student marking: 2 stars and a wish • Setting the scene • Tell your neighbour • sessment-for-learning-activities1
  44. 44. What does it look like in your classroom? • Please find the other teachers of your subject area. • Take 2-3 minutes to discuss how you could incorporate Assessment for Learning in your classroom. • Share different activities you could use. • Discuss the strengths, weaknesses and challenges.
  45. 45. Question 1: “You are talking to a school principal in a job interview situation, the principal asks you to describe how you would use assessment for learning in your classroom. Note down, in bullet points, some key ideas you would tell the principal.”
  46. 46. Question 1: Model Answer The answer must include: • Assessment is used to measure their students understanding of a topic • Students must be informed of the required standard • Feed-forward is to be given so students can improve if necessary • Researchers Black and Wiliam were mentioned Any 2 of the following should also be included: • Assessment can be used to improve one’s own teaching • There is strong evidence that formative assessment raises standards • Assessment can affect motivation or self-esteem of pupils • Feedback rather than marks should be emphasized
  47. 47. Question 2: “Is allowing students to work in pairs or small groups to discuss appropriate answers effective formative assessment”?
  48. 48. Question 3: “The primary goal of assessment for learning is raising achievement standards, should achieving good grades be the most important goal for schools”?