French wines


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French wines

  1. 1. Wines of France DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: , linkedin:- facebook: webpage: 1
  2. 2. Contents • Section-I • Section-II • Section-III • Section-IV • Section-V • Section-VI • Section-VII • Section-VIII History Vines The Concept of Terroir The Wine Maker’s Calendar Grape Varieties Regions of France Production of Wine Service of Wine 2
  3. 3. SECTION-I: History 3
  4. 4. History •Greeks arrived in France in 600 B.C. and brought viticulture with them. •In 200 B.C. Romans captured some of the France and greatly influenced the wine-making •By the 6th century A.D. the Roman Empire disintegrated and Christianity was spread in France. •Now the vineyards came under the rule of monasteries and churches. •Wine-making greatly flourished under their rule •In 1350 one million cases were exported from Bordeaux, and in 1790 six million cases were exported. 4
  5. 5. Contd… •With the French Revolution in the end of 18th century the vineyards slipped out of the hands of churches and went to the local people. •The Phylloxera epidemic spread in 1860 when a winegrower imported some American vines. •It destroyed about 6.2 million acres of vineyards in France. •The only effective solution found was to graft European vines on these American rootstocks. •The first classification was done in 1855 in 5 Bordeaux
  6. 6. Section-II VINES 6
  7. 7. WINES Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtained from juice of grapes Vine is one of the oldest cultivated plants known to mankind. There are over 4000 varieties of grapes, however, only 40 of them have a recognizable flavour. 7
  8. 8. WINES • There are over 20 vine species. The vine species that produces grapes is called vitis vinifera. • Study of wines is called Oneology • The science of growing grapes is called Viticulture. 8
  9. 9. VINE • For the first four years, a young vine is busy creating a root system and building a strong woody stalk to bear grapes. • If left to itself, it can proliferate by increasing shoots and by forming new roots whenever it touches soil. • In order to get quality grapes, the plant has to constantly pruned or trimmed. 9
  10. 10. VINE • Best wines are produced from plants with the age between 12-30 years, called the ‘prime life’. • Wines from new grapes are generally light. 10
  11. 11. ENEMIES OF VINE 11
  12. 12. ENEMIES OF VINE • Mildew or Oidium - Attacks the root of the plant. • Phylloxera - Lives in the root. • Grubb of the Cochylis - Eats the flowers. • Red Spider - Sucks the sap. 12
  13. 13. SECTION-III The Concept of Terroir 13
  14. 14. The Concept of Terroir • • • • This is what makes French wines unique. Terroir- Everything the land has to offer. The basis of naming French wines is terroir. Instead of the grape French wines are named after the place. • Places with long hot summers produce robust, full bodied wines while light, dry and refreshing wines come from milder climates. 14
  15. 15. TERROIR • The three crucial elements of climate, soil & exposure to sun is represented in the term “ Terroir” • Good quality wine is produced between 30 50º latitude in both hemispheres. • Vine requires plenty of water. 15
  16. 16. TERROIR • Presence of rivers – Expanse of water softens the climate, and avoids frosting during harsh winters. – Used earlier for transportation of wine barrels. – Sunlight reflects from water onto the slopes. 16
  17. 17. TERRIOR SOIL • Clay holds back the moisture - thereby preventing the root systems from going deep down. • Chalk is considered to be in between. • Soil should be high in mineral content • Should have access to nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium 17
  18. 18. WEATHER • Vine is dormant between November to March. • Between Bud break to Vintage every drop of rain, hour of sunshine and degree of heat effects the quality. • Sunshine – Reason for climbing – 1300 - 1500 hours of sunshine in summer 18
  19. 19. WEATHER • Temperature – ideal temperature is 10 deg C - 20 deg C. – Lowest temperature it can survive is (-18ºC) • Humid Air • Frost and Hail are nightmares for wine growers. 19
  20. 20. SECTION-IV The Wine Maker’s Calendar 20
  21. 21. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR The entire year can be sub divided into 4 seasons :  WINTER JANUARY Pruning • After the previous year’s harvest, the vines are pruned. • Begins after St. Vincent’s day on 22nd January. • If there is no snow then it begins in December. 21
  22. 22. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR FEBRUARY • Finish pruning. • Take cuttings for grafting and graft indoors. • Copper Sulphate is sprayed. 22
  23. 23. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR  SPRING MARCH • Sap begins to rise from dormancy. • Soil is aerated. 23
  24. 24. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR APRIL • Vineyard is cleared. • 1 year old cuttings from nursery are planted. • The vines are trained to the favourite Double Guyot method so as to allow maximum exposure to the sun. 24
  25. 25. Double Guyot Geneva Double Curtain 25
  26. 26. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR  SPRING MAY • Frost danger. • Stoves are lit. • Reworking on soil and destroying weed. 26
  27. 27. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR JUNE • Vines start flowering • Temperature reaches 18-20ºC. • Sulphur is sprayed to destroy Oidium. 27
  28. 28. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR JULY • Surplus branches are cut, so as to provide greater concentration of flavours to the ones that are left. 28
  29. 29. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR JULY • Chemical sprays are used to kill any diseases, but needs to stop well before harvesting, to avoid any trace remaining in the grape. • Wine is sprayed with Bordeaux mixture. • Weeds are removed, wines are trimmed 29
  30. 30. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR  AUTUMN AUGUST • Subsequently, each fertilised flower expands into a recognizable grape. • The sugar content in the fruit increases, thereby reducing the acid levels . • The grape undergoes colour change in this cycle, which should be closely monitored. 30
  31. 31. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR SEPTEMBER • By the third week grape is ready and vintage begins. 31
  32. 32. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR OCTOBER • Grape harvest continues through first two weeks. Hand Picking - Better selection of grapes, though time consuming. Machine - Faster process, does not guarantee quality of grapes. • When picking is over, manure is spread and land is ploughed. 32
  33. 33. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR NOVEMBER • Long Vine shoots are cut and used for fuel. • Vineyard is ploughed to move soil over base of wine to protect from frost. 33
  34. 34. WINEMAKER’S CALENDAR  WINTERS DECEMBER • Soil redistributed if washed by rains. • If there is no winter then pruning begins. 34
  35. 35. Section-V Grape Varieties 35
  36. 36. GRAPE VARIETIES • Some factors which differentiates grape variety are: Size of the grape – Smaller the fruit, the more concentrated are the flavours. Eg. Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon. 36
  37. 37. GRAPE VARIETY Skin – Thick skinned grapes produce aromatic Sauvignon Blanc. – Thin skinned grapes produce neutral wine, although Gewurtztraminer , Semillion responsible for noble rot ( Botrytis cinerea) produce sweet wine with brilliant aroma 37
  38. 38. GRAPE VARIETY Sugar Content – The sugar content dictates the alcoholic strength of the wine and sweetness of the wine. – The crucial decision to pick the grapes largely depends on the sugar content and acidity. As they ripen, sugar content 38 increases & acid decreases.
  39. 39. GRAPES • Sugar content “refractometer”. • The system for measuring ripeness of a grape is called “Brix”. This is approximately equal to double the potential alcohol of the wine if all the sugar is fermented. 19.3 Brix = 10% alcohol by vol. • is examined 1 Brix = 1 gm sugar per liter of water. by a 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. Classification •The classification system in reality evolved in 1930’s. •The economic depression during this time resulted in the plantation of hybrids, thus there was a wine surplus and nefarious blending. •In 1932 the Institute National des Appellations d’origine(INAO) was founded in Paris. • It covers the following aspects: Production area Vine varieties Ripeness and alcoholic strength Yields Vine density Wine making and distillation 41
  42. 42. Contd… •Appellation d’Origin Controlee(AOC):It represents around 52% of all French wines •Vins delimites de qualite superieur(VDQS):It was founded in 1937 and contributes only 3% of total French wine production. •Vins de Pays: It was created in 1970 and formalized in 1979. It is related to country wines and gives some guarantee of authenticity and quality. It contributes to the 33% of total production. •Vin de Table: It is for the ordinary wines or table wines. It was earlier known as Vin De Consommation Courante (VCC) or Vin Ordinaire. These wines can be a blended with wines from the EU(European Union). 42
  43. 43. rinciple Grape Varietie 43
  44. 44. Cabernet Sauvignon • Mother of all reds • Grown chiefly in Bordeaux • Blended with Merlot, Malbec, Petit Verdot, Cabernet Franc • Rich colour • Often made into Vins de pays in the Languedoc region 44
  45. 45. Cabernet Franc • Light bodied • Mainly grown in Bordeaux • Some parts of the Loire valley also. • Used to make Chinon and Bourgeil 45
  46. 46. Merlot • Bordeaux • Used as a blend generally • Vins de Pays of the Languedoc Region 46
  47. 47. Pinot Noir • Primary red grape of Burgundy • Goes into famous reds of this region- Bonnes Mares, Corton, Musigny, Pommard, Beaune, Richebourg and Volnay • One of the three grapes used in making Champagne, the others being Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier 47
  48. 48. Syrah • Believed to have originated in Persia • DNA testing of the grape revealed that Syrah originated from the Rhone Valley • Grown mainly in northern Rhone • Famous wines- Cornas, Hermitage and Saint Joseph 48
  49. 49. Gamay • Extensively in Beaujolais • Produces fruity, light to medium bodied red wines 49
  50. 50. Chardonnay • Most widely used • Also called white Burgundy • Most great white wines from Burgundy such as Chablis, Meursault and Pouilly-Fuisse • Used in Champagne as well 50
  51. 51. Chenin Blanc • Used most widely in the Loire Valley to make Vauvray. 51
  52. 52. Riesling • Grown in Alsace • A very famous wine called Riesling 52
  53. 53. Sauvignon Blanc • Mother of all whites • Grown in the Loire region • Pouilly Fume and Sancerre- 100% Sauvignon Blanc only • Also grown in Bordeaux • Blend in sweet wines 53
  54. 54. Semillon • Rarely used on its own • Generally used in combination with Sauvignon Blanca and Muscadelle to make Sauternes and Bordeaux Blanc. 54
  55. 55. Merlot Pinot Noir 55
  56. 56. Syrah Gamay 56
  57. 57. Chardonnay Chenin Blanc 57
  58. 58. Riesling Sauvignon Blanc 58
  59. 59. Semillion Gewurztraminer 59
  60. 60. SECTION-VI Regions of France 60
  61. 61. Regions of France 61
  62. 62. Bordeau •It is situated x in the western France with Cognac in the north It is sited on the either side of the river Gironde. •80 % of the wines produced here are red. •Bordeaux wines have a reputation based not on the actual quality but on a perception that the wines are the best in the world. Terroir •Soil: Gravelly Limestone and Clay Soil •Climate: Moderate and humid due to the river 62 Gironde.
  63. 63. Great wines of Bordeaux •Chateau •Chateau •Chateau •Chateau •Chateau •Chateau •Chateau Haut Brion Latour Mouton Rothschild Margaux Lafite Rothschild Petrus D’Yquem (W) Grape Varieties Red •Cabernet Sauvignon •Cabernet Franc •Merlot White •Semillion •Sauvignon Blanc •Muscadelle 63
  64. 64. Burgundy (Bourgogne) •It is situated in east central France, towards the south of Champagne. •Principle grape varieties are Gamay and Pinot Noir for red and Chardonnay for white Terroir •Soil: Limestone •Climate: Semi-Continental Famous Wines Chablis (w) •Pouilly Fuisse (W) Beaujolais Pommard 64
  65. 65. Rhon e •It takes its name from the Rhone river valley and is located in the south east of Paris. •The best wines come from the southern part of this valley. •90 % of these wines are red with a higher alcohol content than most of the French wines. •There are more than 15 varieties of grapes used here, some of them are Syrah, Grenache and Cinsalt. 65
  66. 66. Terroir •Soil: Granite in north, sandy in south. •Climate: Hot summers and autumns, significant humidity due to Rhone river. Famous Wines •Chateau Neuf du Pape •Cote du Rotie •Hermitage •Tavel (Rose) 66
  67. 67. Loir e •Loire is the longest river in France. • Loire valley is situated towards the western part of the country. Terroir •Soil: Combination of clay, granite, chalky, limestone and volcanic soil •Climate: Relatively cool climate 67
  68. 68. Grape Varieties Red •Cabernet Sauvignon •Cabernet Franc •Gamay •Pinot Noir •Pinot Muniere White •Chenin Blanc •Sauvignon Blanc •Muscadet •Chardonnay Major Wines •Vouvray •Puilly Fume (W) •Anjou (Rose) •Muscadet (W) 68
  69. 69. Alsace •It is situated in the far northern France bordering Germany. •This region has a very difficult history of shifting belongingness between France and Germany. Terroir •Soil: Combination of granitic rock, sandstone and limestone. •Climate: Continental climate. Famous Wines Riesling (W) •Tokay ‘D’ Alsace (W) Gewurztraminer (W) Sylvaner (W) 69
  70. 70. Champagne •It is the most northerly vineyard area of France situated in the north-east of Paris. •The vineyards are one of the smallest and low yielding as compared to the rest of France. •This area is famous all over the world for its sparkling wines. Terroir •Soil: Thick layer of chalky soil. •Climate: Very cold. 70
  71. 71. Grapes Only three grape varieties are grown in this region Chardonnay (W), Pinot Noir and Pinot Muniere. Major Shippers •Dom Perignon •Piper Heidsieck •Bollinger •Ruinart •Pommery 71
  72. 72. Production of Wine 72
  73. 73. Wine Making in France • • • • Yearly cycle begins in April. Six weeks later flowering occurs. Grapes ripen by autumn. Grapes are picked when they have attained desired balance between acidity and sugar. • Tossed into large vats for fermentation. • During this process, yeast converts the natural sugar in the grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide. 73
  74. 74. Contd… • Yeast- naturally occurring or added • Strict temperature control • Fermentation stops when all the sugar has been converted to alcohol. • But if there is high sugar content, fermentation stops at 14% alcohol content. • Sweet wines like Sauternes are made in a similar manner. 74
  75. 75. Contd… • After fermentation, wine is put into wooden tanks or barrels for MATURATION. • In wooden containers, some evaporation occurs. • Periodical topping of the barrels is done to avoid excessive exposure to air. • Particles called ‘Lees’ settle at the bottom of the tank during maturation. • Just before bottling, filtration is done to remove any remaining lees. 75
  76. 76. Handling the fruit • The objective here is to prevent the weight of large quantities from crushing the grapes before they reach the cellar. • Unhealthy grapes are discarded in the vineyard. • The final sorting is done in the winery. 76
  77. 77. MAKING WHITE WINE Crushing / Pressing • Nearly all grapes ( White & Red) are destemmed since the stalks contain bitter tannins it is done in Egrappoire. • Fresh & fruity white wines are made by pressing the grapes as soon as possible after picking. • The objective is to prevent the juice from picking up any flavours or ‘extract’ from 77 the skin.
  78. 78. MAKING WHITE WINE • Care needs to be taken that pressure is gently applied. Too much of it would result in the pips breaking, thereby making the juice bitter. • Types of press : Vertical / Willmes Bladder press Free run Juice - Juice from the first pressing without any real pressure. Upto 70% can be free run juice, allowing only 30 % to be extracted by pressing harder. 78
  79. 79. MAKING WHITE WINE • For fuller & robust wines with more flavour and tannins are made by holding the skin in contact with the juice for about 24 hrs after crushing. Addition of SO2 • Small doses of sulphur dioxide is added to the crushed grapes (must) to protect the 79 must from premature fermentation.
  80. 80. MAKING WHITE WINE • • It also prevents oxidation, which at this stage is harmful and could result in decay in the wine & loss of freshness, aroma & even colour of the juice. The amount is regulated by law. 80
  81. 81. MAKING WHITE WINE Clarifying the juice • Juice produced has suspended solids (skin, flesh, pips , dirt). • Fermentation being the next process with these solids would result in bitterness. • Clarifying the juice is done by : Settling /Filteration / Centrifuging. 81
  82. 82. MAKING WHITE WINE Fermentation • Carried out in Oak barrels or stainless steel vats. • The SS vats are double layered, and has a layer of ammonia as a cooling agent. • Another method is to dribble the water continuously down the outside surface. 82
  83. 83. MAKING WHITE WINE • SS is preferred as it is strong, easy to clean, good conductor of heat and versatile. • Temperature : 10-15ºC • Duration : 4 - 6 weeks 83
  84. 84. MAKING WHITE WINE Yeast • Cultured yeast is used. Some wineries kill all natural yeast present by flash pasteurization method ( 85ºC) so as to have total control over the process. Temperature rise • 30-35 ºC (yeast dies at 35-40º C) 84
  85. 85. MAKING WHITE WINE Dry wine - all sugar converted into alcohol (16 %v/v) Semi dry - interrupt fermentation process. Addition of sulphur or filter the wine of the yeast or blend sweet grape juice. Lees - Dead yeast cells that settle at the bottom. 85
  86. 86. MAKING WHITE WINE Filteration / Racking • The wine must again be clarified to rack it off its lees. Sometimes lees are left in the wine (Sur lie). • Fining agents ( egg / bentonite/gelatin/ isinglass) are added to remove excess proteins and other solids to produce a clear wine. Cold stabilization could be 86 another method.
  87. 87. MAKING WHITE WINE Cold Stabilization • The wine is chilled down to -5º C to precipitate any solids which may be removed. • Furthermore, to avoid formation of crystals by tartaric acid when bottled ( a vital ingredient present in the wine). 87
  88. 88. MAKING WHITE WINE Handling the juice ( SO2 ) Crushing & Pressing Juice Clarification Fermentation Filtration Cold Stabilization Blending / Aging Bottling 88
  89. 89. MAKING RED WINE • The colour of the red wine comes from the grape skin, and not the juice. • Grapes are fed into crusher. There after pumped into fermentation vats. Heating the Must • One of the modern ways to get a deep red colour to the wine is to boil the must before fermentation. 89
  90. 90. MAKING RED WINE Fermentation • This process is usually carried out in open vats for 14 days at 24ºC. • The skins float on the top due to CO2 bubbles and forms a cap. 90
  91. 91. MAKING RED WINE • It is vital that it is mixed back in the liquid below for 2 reasons : – It forms the essential colouring and flavouring matter. – If left to dry, bacteria will start growing thus ruining the wine. 91
  92. 92. MAKING RED WINE • Pressing takes place after the free run wine has been removed from the fermentation vat. • Skin is pressed in hydraulic basket by a descending plate which forces the juice called Vin De Presse. • At the discretion of the wine maker, it may be added to the first run to provide tannins 92 and character to the wine.
  93. 93. MAKING RED WINE Malolactic Fermentation • It is secondary fermentation wherein malic acid present is converted into lactic acid & CO2 by bacteria present n the grape juice. Highly desirable for red wines as it – Lowers sharpness, increases stability, adds to the complex flavours. • Carried out at room temp of 20 deg C. 93
  94. 94. MAKING RED WINE Fining / Racking • Same as white wine Aging/ Maturation • There are 2 separate & distinct ways in which wine can age : – Oxidative aging - in contact with oxygen. Barrel aging. Barrels are Oak from Burgundy 94 or Bordeaux.
  95. 95. MAKING RED WINE – Reductive aging- Oxygen supply is cut off. Bottle aging. Once the wine is bottled, the only oxygen available is the limited amount dissolved in the liquid or trapped between the liquid & the cork.) 95
  96. 96. MAKING RED WINE Handling the juice ( SO2 ) Fermentation / Carbonic Maceration. Pressing Filtration Malolactic Fermentation Blending / Aging Bottling 96
  97. 97. MAKING ROSE WINE • Grapes are de-stemmed. • Crushed. • Fermentation - for a very short time. • Racking and Finning. • Bottled. 97
  98. 98. STORAGE OF WINES • 1st Chai – Wine stays in oak for 1 year and is regularly topped up and racked. • 2nd Chai – Moved from 1st Chai in November – Left to mature till next summer and then it is bottled. 98
  99. 99. EXAMPLES • Many white wines - are bottled young, but improve enormously in the bottle. • Champagne / Port - are matured entirely in the bottle. • Fine Red wines - 2-3 years in a barrel, and perhaps another 5-7 years in a bottle. • Sherry- Aged entirely in the barrel. 99
  100. 100. BOTTLING • Before bottling, the wine must be checked for its stability, as it remains vulnerable to oxidation and contamination until the cork goes in. • The bottle is first filled with nitrogen ( to remove any oxygen) • Wine filled in through a long nozzle to the 100 bottom, pushing out the gas as the
  101. 101. BOTTLING • Bottles of Standard wines are heated to 55ºC to prevent any further fermentation. • Many light / Rose and few Red wines benefit from being bottled with a degree of carbon dioxide dissolved in them too give a refreshing sharpness to the wines. 101
  102. 102. CORK 102
  103. 103. CORK • Wine must be sealed to stop air entering the bottle. Cork is the traditional stopper. • Cork is the thick outer bark of the cork oak, Quercus suber, concentrated in the Mediterranean area and the neighboring Atlantic coasts. Portugal produces half of the total supply. 103
  104. 104. CORK Process • The bark is cut from mature trees every 9 - 10 years between the months June & August. Each tree has a productive life of 165 years. • Sheets are stacked to dry for 3 months. 104
  105. 105. CORK Process • Later boiled in vats. • Stored in dark, cold cellars for several months. • Corks are now cut from the thickness of the bark. 105
  106. 106. WHY CORK? • Its light, clean, available in vast quantities, almost impermeable, smooth, unaffected by temperature, rarely rots, extremely hard to burn, and most importantly, it is uniquely elastic, returning after compression exactly to its original form. • It goes brittle very slowly and crumbly over a period of 20-50 years 106
  107. 107. DISADVANTAGES • Cork at times develops a musty smell. • Corks are sterilized during manufacture, but sometimes one or two of the many cells that make up the cork are infected with fungus. When these cells are in contact with the wine, the wine picks up the smell and becomes ‘corky’. 107
  108. 108. Size • A normal wine cork is 24mm in diameter, compressed into an 18 mm neck. • For Champagne, a 31 mm cork is compressed into a 17.5 mm neck. 108
  109. 109. FACTORS DETERMINING COST OF WINE • Grape Variety- Viticulture cost. • Hectoliter per hectare • Storage Cost • Evaporation • Labour Cost 109
  110. 110. LOOKING AFTER WINES • Dark Cool Place • Well aired, ventilated cellar. • Temperature 7-21ºC. • Kept lying position for cork to remain moist. 110
  111. 111. SERVICE OF WINES • Host presents the selected wine with label facing the guest. • Opened on side station. • 30 ml for tasting to host. • If selected served 3/4 of the glass. 111
  112. 112. DECANTING WINES • Ideally decanted into a carafe. • However it is unpredictable. • Young wines are best when aerated. • French people never decant wines. 112
  113. 113. IDEAL TEMPERATURE • White - Sweet - 4-6ºC Dry- 6-10ºC • Red - 8-14ºC • Rose - 10-13ºC 113
  114. 114. Reading A French Wine Label 114
  115. 115. Reading A French Wine Label 115
  116. 116. Reading A French Wine Label 116
  117. 117. DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: , linkedin:- facebook: webpage: 117