Wine of france


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Wine of france

  1. 1. Wine of France • France as one of the super powers is known for the contribution to science & technology, aeronautics, automobiles, architecture, medicine, cosmetics, perfume, fashion, fine arts, scenic beauty& culture, she is probably well known for her cuisine & her eau-de vie besides cognac which is alcoholic beverage that generates the maximum revenue. Other fruit brandies & wines, both sparkling & table wines are produced
  2. 2. Cont.. • France has more than a million hectares of vineyards & produces around 65 million hectoliters of wine annually, of which 70% is red. • The red &white wines are produced in the ratio of 3:1. • 22% of total wines produced in France are A.O.C. wines. • The French consumes 50 million hectoliters of wine annually. • She also imports 3 million hectoliters of wine mostly for blending. • Around 10% of the French population is involved in the wine industry. • France is bordered in the west by the Atlantic, in the north by Belgium & Luxembourg, in the northeast by Germany, in the east by Switzerland, in the southeast by Italy and south by Spain
  3. 3. Quality Control • The French have the most far-reaching system of wine quality control in comparison to any other country in the world. The key factors are- – The origin of the wine – The historic methods of production – The use of the rarest grape type
  4. 4. Classification • The Institute National des Apellations d’Origine des Vins et Eaux-de-Vie (INAO), established in 1935, has classified the French wines as follows: i) Vins De Table- ii) Vins De Pays- iii) Vins Delimites de Qualite Superieure (V.D.Q.S.)- iv) Apellations d’ Origine Controlees (A.O.C)- This is the most difficult
  6. 6. WINE PRODUCING REGIONS • Bordeaux. • Bourgogne (Burgundy in English) • Alsace • Cotes du Rhone • Val de Loire. • Champagne.
  7. 7. Area of Lesser Importance • Jura. • Savoie. • Cotes de province. • Languedoc a Roussilion (Midi) • Juracon • Galliac.
  8. 8. Bordeaux • Located halfway between the North Pole & the equator, • The Bordeaux vineyards consist of some 60,000 acres or 1, 05, 5000 hectares. • Nature has provided a perfect setting. The Atlantic Ocean & the Brenda (Gironde) estuary formed by the Garonne & the Dordogne rivers help maintain steady humidity & a temperate climate. While lands forest to the south, Europe’s largest, acts as a windbreaker. • This region includes not fewer than 57 appellations • Quality depends on the skill of the wine makers & the art in blending just the right proportion of grape varieties, each of which contributes its own special flavour & bouquet. The Bordeaux red wines in British market are known as clarets.
  9. 9. Cont.. • Bordeaux has over 5,000 wine chateaux • 60 cooperative cellars • 400 wine shippers • 4,000 vineyards, • 60,000 vignerons. • Bordeaux produces over 3 million hectoliters of A.O.C. wines. 8 million hectoliters of both red & white wines are produced annually. • The red & white wines are produced in the ratio 3:1. • Bordeaux 1 hectare has between 6,500- 10,000 vines. • The yield per hectare is around 4,000 Kg of grapes. • One cask or one barrel in Bordeaux holds 300 bottles or 225 liters of wine.
  10. 10. Geographical Condition • CLIMATE: The climate in Bordeaux is usually mild, with a winter average temperature of 4-5 degree centigrade. On the whole the climate is too unlike England except that the Bordeaux benefits from a much finer late summer, which are of course essential for the proper ripening of the grapes. • SOIL: The soil in Bordeaux changes from commune to commune and vineyard to vineyard but almost everywhere it is too poor for any other husbandry, other than growing vines.
  11. 11. Grapes • Red Grape for Red Wine • Cabernet Sauvignon • Merlot • Cabernet Franc • Malbec • White Grape for White wine • St.Emillon • Sauvignon Blanc • Cascadelle • Merlot blanc
  12. 12. Famous Classification of 1855 • The wines were classified into different crus and growths. The basis of classification was that the wine which had generated the maximum amount of money over the period of the proceeding 100 years was given the first growth status. • First growth- 4 wines • Second growth-16 wines • Third growth-16 wines • Fourth growth- 11 wines • Fifth growth- 16 wines
  13. 13. First Growth Wine • Chateau Latour • Chateau Lafite Rothschild • Chateau Margaux • Chateau Haut Brion
  14. 14. Again In 1973 The first growth wines were- • Chateau Latour • Chateau Lafite Rothschild • Chateau Margaux • Chateau Haut Brion • Chateau Mouton Rothschild
  15. 15. Region of Bordeaux • Medoc • St. Emilion • Pomerol • Fonsac • Graves • Sauterne ( Sweet wine producing)
  16. 16. Medoc • The vineyards are orderly and well-kept and world famous chateaux produce wines that are nothing short divine. • The soil is a mix of gravel, pebbles and sand. • The region of Bordeaux belonged to the British for 300 years from 1152 AD to 1452 AD, • Claret was the English name for red Medocs
  17. 17. Main wine • Chateau Latour • Chateau Lafite Rothschild • Chateau Mouton Rothschild • Chateau Margaux
  18. 18. St. Emilion • Hilly countryside of St.Emilion is very picturesque and the heartland of Merlot grapes. • The St. Emilion grapes are robust and powerful with an alcoholic strength of 12-14 GL. • The most famous red wines of this area are: – Chateau Ausone – Chateau Cheval Blanc – Cheteau Fourtet – Château Canon • Château Ausone takes it name from a poet Ausonius who owned a vineyard.
  19. 19. Pomerol • It produces wines that are similar in many ways to the St. Emilion wines • They are rounded, smooth and velvety in taste. They have an average strength of 12-15 GL. • These wines have predominant flavor of Truffles. • Main wines of area are: – Chateau Petrus – Chateau Lafleur – Chateau Gazin – Chateau Petit Village
  20. 20. Fonsac • Hilly and wooded, lies to the west of Pomerol, on the east of the river isle. • The wines are spicy, well rounded and rich in colour. • They can be drunk quite young and have an alcoholic strength of 10.5 degree GL. • Grape Used – Cabernet Franc – La Marche – Cabernet Sauvgnon • Main Wines – Gaby – Merlot – Bellows
  21. 21. GRAVES • Most château in the Graves make both red and white wines. • There are 37 communes in Graves. • The Graves vineyards are the oldest in all Bordeaux. • White wine & red wine is produced in same quantity. • Higher percentage of Merlot grape is used. • Wines are often rounder and softer in youth. • The red wines are delicate & elegant with a refined bouquet & a magnificent ruby colour. They also have rich spiciness softened by the merlot. • The white wines of graves are justly famous for its dry to medium nature. White wine is very good, but they are never great as some of the red.
  22. 22. Grape Used • Merlot • Cabernet Sauvignon • Cabernet Franc • Malbec • Petit Verdot
  23. 23. Wines • Red Wine Produced • Château Haut Brion • Chateau Pape Clement • Chateau Haut Bailly • Chateau Carbonnieux • La Mission Haut Brion • White Wine Produced • Château laville haut Brion • Domaine de Chevalier • Cheteau Olivier • Château carbonnieux
  24. 24. Sauterne • This district is made up of 5 communes • Which are Barsac, Fargues, Perignac, Bommes, and Sauternes. • Wine produced from the grapes in area is legally allowed to call Sauterne wine. • The method of harvesting is unique. • The picking of grapes is spread grown over a period of two months. • This is to allow the pourriture noble (Noble rot or Bottrytis Cinera) to set on skin of grapes & the grapes are fully ripened. The grapes are picked individually. • The wines of five Parishes are similar in character and they all are sweet.
  25. 25. Cont.. • Grape Used – Semillon. -Develops noble rot, has a delicate aroma & richness. – Sauvignon Blanc.- Provides a touch of freshness & vigour. • Main Wine – Chateau d’ yquem. – Chateau la-tour blanche. – Chateau coutet – Chateau d’ arche
  26. 26. Burgundy • Burgundy is located in the center of France if Paris is considered the head of France, champagne the heart then burgundy is the stomach of France. • Burgundy is the most fragmented wine region of France. • There are 60 growers. • In this region burgundy wines are bought in barrels from the growers by shippers. • Burgundy is the northern most area in the world, which produces great red wines
  27. 27. Cont.. • The main wine growing areas with the exception of Chablis lie between Dijon in the north & in south stretches for 193 km. • Burgundy produces 4 times more reds than white wine & reds are second to Bordeaux only. • Some 40 % of burgundy wines are exported in Switzerland & U.S almost taking half. • The Saone is the main river in this region. • The soil is mixture of limestone & rubble. Climate is similar to that of Bordeaux. • The grapes varieties used are Chardonnay, Pinot noir, Gamay.
  28. 28. Wine Producing Regions 1. Chablis 2. Cote D’ Or 1. Cote de Beaune 2. Cote De Nuit 3. Cote Maconais 4. Cote Chalonais 5. Beaujolais
  29. 29. Chablis • This area of production lies north west of Dijon & is isolated from the main wine producing area of burgundy. • Oysters & Chablis , it seems have been related since creation. Chablis is known as the wine of shellfish. • The wine which is white with a greenish tinge is called Chablis. • The Chablis is made from chardonnay grapes. • There are four types of Chablis: – Grand crus Chablis 11 GL : strange & delicious sort of sour taste.. – Premier crus Chablis 10.5 GL : 2nd best – Chablis 11GL: Any white wine from the Chablis commune. – Petit Chablis: These are the least in quality.
  30. 30. Cote D’ Or • Wine known as “True Burgundy”. • Literally meaning of word is ‘Golden Slope’. • Made up of the ‘Cote de Nuits & Cote de Beaune. • It is about 50 km long, the top is wooden plateau, and the lower part is the beginning of a flat plain like valley of the river. • The INAO has classified the wines into 4 groups, Grand crus, Premier crus, Appellation communale & other vineyard. • The main grape is pinot noir for red & chardonnay for the white wines.
  31. 31. Cote de Beaune • More well known for its white wines, than the red wines, although 80% of the production is red. • A fascinating establishment in this area is ‘Hospice de Beaune’. This establishment was formed by Nicolas Rolin in 1443, which served as a tax collector under Louis xv. • Main wine houses are as follows – Aloxe Corton: Produces best red wines, generous & well rounded. – Corton Charlemagne: From the Aloxe Corton commune (Best White wine). – Mersault: Some of the world’s greatest white wines are produced here – La Montrachet: Considered by many as the greatest dry white wine of the world
  32. 32. Cote de Nuit • The wine is full bodied, fruity bouquet. • The main wines from this area: – Romanee Conti (Red Wine)- Known as king of Burgundy ,classic red wine with fruity bouquet – Chambertine(Red Wine): A grand crus from Govroy chambertain . – Clos de vougeot(red): ): A grand crus red from Vougeot . They are fruity having bouquet, colour, and body – La trache (Red): generous full bodied with a fruity bouquet.
  33. 33. COTE CHALONNAISE • Takes its name from Chalon sur Saone. Wines are good but not great. • The main are as follows – Clos st paul, – Clos st Pierre, – Clos Solomon
  34. 34. COTE MACONAIS • This area is known for only one wine – Pouilly Fuisse made from chardonnay grape • Other wine are, – Pouilly Lothi – Pouilly Vingalle
  35. 35. BEAUJOLAIS • Main grape variety is Gamay & main wines of this area is Beaujolais superieur 10% of alcoholic strength, a delightful wine, best drunk young & fresh, for 2 year . • Wine is known by it name of commune and they are – Saint Armour – Julienas – Chenas – Brouilly
  36. 36. Alsace • The wine-growing region about 110km long covers about 18,000 hectares of land with a considerable variety of soil. • This region has exchanged hands between the Germans & French on several occasions but finally become French territory in 1945. • The vineyards are bordered by the Vosges Mountains on the west & the river on the east. • The Alsace vineyard has not been individually classified. • The soil consists of Limestone, granite, gravel, marl, & sand. • The mountains slopes get 50 days more sunshine than the valleys. • It has a very low rainfall.
  37. 37. Cont. • Main White Grape • Riesling: Honeyed delicate flower scent • Gewürztraminer:- Spicy wines • Sylvaner • Pinot blanc- Used to make sparkling wine called Crement d’ Alsace • White Wine • Riesling: Fine bouquet, crisp, fresh. • Gewürztraminer • Muscat • Sylvaner
  38. 38. Rhone • From Lyons to Avignon the Rhone vineyard stretches for about 225 km on both the banks of the Rhone river, 10 km on the left bank & 20 km on the right bank. • The Rhone wine as a rule is not made from one grape variety only, but a blend of anything from 2 to 13. • The vineyard of the Rhone fall into two groups: northern & southern. • The northern part the soil is mostly granite & pebbles while in the southern part it is mainly limestone & clay. • Winter it is seldom bitterly cold. It has rainfall in spring.
  39. 39. Grapes • Red Grape • Syrah • Grenache • Gamay • White Grape • Voignier • Marsanne • Rousanne
  40. 40. Main Wines • Hermitage: Both red & white & produced in the ratio 4: 1. The red wine is full-bodied, generous & improves with age. The white with golden tinges age very well are dry but mellow. • Chateau neuf du pape: the best known of all Rhone wines is strong & deep coloured. • Tavel: They are probably the best-known rose wines of the world. They have a earthiness & an onion skin colour. They are fine fresh & full bodied.
  41. 41. Loire • The Loire country side is justly known ‘Garden of France’. • The river Loire is the longest in France & extends from Cevennes until it reaches the Atlantic. • There are over 200000 hectares of vineyards. • The area is favoured with fairly mild winters, adequate rainfall long & not scorching summers. • The vintage is late October early November.
  42. 42. Main Grapes • Red Grape for Red Wine • Cabernet Sauvignon • Cabernet Franc • Pinot Noir • White Grape For White Wine • Muscadelle • Chasselas • Chenin Blanc • Grapes for Rose Wine Cabernet • Groslot • Gamay
  43. 43. Main wines & wines producing area: • Pouilly-sur-Loire:- The best wine from this area is Pouilly fume made from sauvignon blanc grapes. Its name comes from the bloom yeast on grapes surface, which looks gray. • Vouvray, Anjou, Saumer (white or sparkling)- theses wine district produces medium dry sparkling wine. Anjou also produces large quantity of rose wines. • Sancerre, Quincy: - Produces a dry white wine. The wine is known as Reuilly & is made from the sauvignon blanc grapes. • Muscadet:-These are very dry wines made from Muscadet grapes. They go as an excellent accompaniment to shellfish.