Champagne is defined as a wine produced
harvested and processed in a specific part of
the province of champagne
Originating from certain noble varieties of
Fermented naturally inside the bottle in
accordance with the rules laid down by the
French Govt Rules
• Only the following three varieties of grapes can be used
• a. Pinot noir (black)
• b. Pinot meunier (black)
• c. Chardonnay (white)
• Short pruning.
• Maximum yields of grapes per hectare.
• Maximum yield during pressing is one hectoliters per
every 160 kg of grapes.
• Minimum alcoholic strength fixed.
• Wines to be prepared at locations separated from all other
and only champagne wine to be stored.
• Natural process called as champagne method to be used.
• Ageing in bottle for a minimum period of one year before
Sparkling wine from the delimited
region of Champagne in North
1. Developed in France about 300 years
2. Coronation drink for French kings.
3. Credited to Dom Perignon for
(accidental) discovery of sparkle
(bubbles) in the bottle.
4. The name derives from the Latin
‘campus’, ‘campania’ or field. In old
French this became ‘Champaign;
5. Romans planted the first vineyards.
5. The Commercial production of champagne began in
6. Champagne was known worldwide in 18th
7 Marquis de Sellery- First salesman of 17th
century, owner of richest vineyards , introduced
sparkling champagne to Royal Courts of England.
8. Saint Evermond- Soldier, writer, Philospher &
conniosseur, settled in London from France. He
made fashion to drink champagne
Father of champagne
• Dom Perignon was a Benedictine
monk at Abbey of Hautvilliers who
at the age of 30 in 1688 was
appointed the cellar master &
treasurer at the Abby of Hautvillers.
• Died in 1715 after 47 years at the
• Dom Perignon(1670-1715)laid down basic
principles of Champagne making The “ Father of
Champagne” accredited with
ii. Blending different “cuvees”
iii. introducing corks that could withstand the
CLOVIS - Founder of France
• The western part of the Roman Empire
started to fall apart towards the end of the 5th
century. A man called Clovis became the first
king to lead all of the German tribes known as
the Franks, and he went on to conquer most
of the old Roman province of Gaul (the
country is now called "France" because it was
controlled at this time by the Franks).
Clovis converted to the Roman Catholic faith and
was baptized by Remigius (Saint Remi) in Reims
at the end of the 5th century. This made France
the first Catholic state and led to the tradition of
crowning French kings at Reims Cathedral. Many
of the kings who were crowned here were called
Louis: this name was based on Clovis, with the
first letter "c" removed (the letters "u" and "v"
were the same at that time).
• Situated in North, Central France
• Champagne region lies 90 miles (145km)
northeast of Paris near the Belgian border.
• Extends 180 Km from North to South & 120
Km from East to West
• The legally defined and delimited areas
covers 35000 Hectares of land out of which
some of the land is under cultivation and
contains around 250 and villages and
champagne can not be made beyond the
limit of the region.
• All of the vineyards are situated on deep
chalk soils. The chalk, a natural moisture
regulator, provides good drainage (chalk
can absorb up to 40% of its volume in
water) and reflects precious sunlight and its
• The pure white chalk in Champagne’s soil
drains well, yet retains enough water for the
vines to survive a drought. The chalk’s high
active lime content encourages the vines to
produce grapes that have a relatively high
acid content when they become ripe.
• 1800 to1000 ft of chalky soil.
• The average annual temperature in the
champagne region is 10.5c. Below this limit
the grapes will not ripen.
• Most of the best vineyards are planted on
slopes at an altitude high enough to be
clear of frost (usually above 300ft or 90m),
but low enough (below 690ft or 210m) to be
sheltered from extreme weather conditions.
The 4 major districts are
•Montagne de Reims
•Valee de la Marne
•Cote de Blanc
Centre of Production
The area is 35000 hectares of which currently
under production total approx 25000 hectares
out of which
75% is in the dept of Marne.
17% is in the dept of Aube.
8% is in the dept of Sienna et Marne.
The distributions of the 3 varieties of grapes,
which are alone allowed by the French law for,
the production of champagne, are as follows:
Black grape is grown in 72% of the area.
White grapes are grown in 28% of the area.
There are around 150 cooperatives
throughout the champagne region
champagne houses have vast cellars which
totals around 200kms
Vineyards are located in hill sides of
GRAPE VARIETYGRAPE VARIETY
Body & Strength
(Montagne de Reims)
Freshness & Youth
(Vallee de la Marne)
Elegance & Fineness
(Cote de Blanc)
• The classification system in Champagne is based on
vineyards and is established by the Comité Inter
professional du Vin de Champagne (C.I.V.C.).
• The land is given a grade based on its suitability for
growing white grapes or black grapes.
• A grade of 100% percent has been given to the 17
Grand Cru villages.
• The 38 Premier Cru villages have grades from 90 to
• The rest have a grade ranging from 80 to 89%.
Champagne houses use the average
percentage rating of the grapes used in
their blends to establish the quality of their
raw materials. The price a grower gets for
his grapes is also determined by this
percentage system. A grower with a 100%
vineyard may ask the full price while the
others would get a percentage based on
the 100% price
Preparation of the cuvee
Liqueur d triage:
Second fermentation Ageing
Liqueur d’ expedition
Production of champagne
• Takes place usually
• Grapes are hand
• Attempt is to ensure
the best quality of the
Uses the traditional basket press or the more modern
pneumatic or bladder presses with stalk
• each pressing gives a must used in the final
• 4000 kg - 2666lts - 13 barrels – Vin de Cuvee
• Next 666 lts – Premier Taille
• Third pressing 206 liters, BOB (buyer’s own
• Last press – Rebeche- The rebeche is generally
used to make very cheap brandy called Marc.
• 3 pounds of grapes are required to make 1bt of
•settling out of skin& yeast sediment at ambient
•can get better result at -5centigrade with
The first fermentation
• vats are of premier importance-stainless steel
ensures hygiene but Krug still uses oak
•Alcohol percentage goes upto 5-6 %
Racking and fining
Preparation of the cuvee- “ASSEMBLAGE”
This is a process of blending wines. About
40-45 wines can be blended together.
Ensures consistent quality ( proportion of
previous wine used in the process)
The wine again undergoes cold
stabilization & is clarified & racked for the
“Liqueur de Tirage”
•a mixture of reserve wine, beetroot sugar &
selected yeast ( Manufacturer Discretion)
•used to for a secondary alcoholic fermentation
•Vin mousseaux means fully sparkling - 6 bar
•Cremant means partially sparkling. - 3 bar
•4 gram of mixture is required to generate 1
The specification of this bottle
was given by Louis xv on 9th
The type of the bottle
1. Traditionally green
2. Glass is of greater
3. The “punt” at the base
4. It can hold 20 bar
• Corking- With Agrafe
Ageing & Secondary fermentation
• the 2nd
fermentation goes on for a period of
3 to 6 month. The temperature that is
maintained is around 10 to 12c.
• bottles are allowed to lie horizontally in
huge piles in caves for a period of 3 to 6
years. During this period the dead yeast
becomes in contact with the wine.
• The more is the contact of these dead
yeast with the wine the better is going to
be the quality of the champagne.
Built by Roman 2000 years ago
Known as Crayeres or Roman Gallo
Total Length is about 165 miles
“Remouage” – Riddling
• Removal of the sediments of the
• Bottles transferred to racks called “
• Allows the movement of the bottles
from a horizontal to a vertical
• Done by”remueurs”
• Attributed to the Widow Cliquot
Undertaken by a “degorgeur”
A la volee- The degorger cut the
agrafe foil with the special knife
& with the help of pincer which
look like a lobster claws & the
cork get thrown off.
A la glace- The neck of the
bottle is immersed in chilled
brine (-24 degree) & the
frozen plug removed by
Loss of liquid needs to be
Liqueur d’ expedition
Addition of Cognac With Sugar
Brut: 6 to 15 grams/litre of champagne.
Extra day: 12 to 20 grams/ litreof
Sec: 17 to 35 grams/litre of champagne.
Demi :Sec 33g of sugar per 1 lt.
Doux: More than 50 gram of sugar /
litre of champagne.
TYPE OF CHAMPAGNE
Super vintage: it is of supreme merit
made from the best grapes of an
exceptional year. Dom perignon, Moet &
Vintage: of an exceptional year and 15%
wine of the previous year. It never appears
on the bottle.
Non-vintage: is an ordinary one made
from the blend of wines of the previous
Pink: is made by
allowing the skins of
the grapes to remain.
Blanc de noir: is a
white wine made from
only black grapes. Not
of very good quality.
OTHER METHODS OF PRODUCING “THE
SPARKLE” in wine
Secondary fermentation in a tank
larger , shorter lived bubbles
secondary fermentation in the bottle, chilled,
filtered, dosed & put back in the bottle
Impregnation- Artificial Carbonation
Tank Method or Charmat Process- This method was
named after the inventor of process Eugene Charmat, a
French scientist who has invented this process in 1910 to
cut down the manpower , money , time involved in it .
This process involve the following steps
First Tank- Wine is run into the tank where it is heated for
artificial maturation for 12 to 36 hrs & then immediately
Second Tank- In this tank yeast & sugar is added for
secondary fermentation which allowed 15 to 20 days .
Carbon di oxide is not allowed to escape
Third Tank – The fermented wine runs to third tank
where it is cooled to 30 F . This process helps in stabilizing
the tartrate . Then wine is filtered & bottled under
This Method originated in Germany in year
1930 .This method is similar to the Method
champnoise except that no remuage takes
place in it . After the wine is aged it is
transferred to tank where the pressure is
used to remove the cork than wine cooled
to 32F . This helps in giving clarity to wine .
Then wine is bottled under pressure.
Impregnation- Artificial Carbonation
Other sparkling wine producing region of France
Vouvray- Loire region chenin blanc
Saumer- - Loire region chenin blanc
Ruilly – made from chardonnay &
pinot noir from cote cholonaaise
Clairette de die – produced from
clairette & Muscat grape from Rhone
Sparkling wine from other countries
Asti Spumanti – Italy
Cava/ Spumantee- Spain