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  1. 1. Champagne is defined as a wine produced harvested and processed in a specific part of the province of champagne Originating from certain noble varieties of grapes Fermented naturally inside the bottle in accordance with the rules laid down by the French govt
  2. 2. French Govt Rules • Only the following three varieties of grapes can be used • a. Pinot noir (black) • b. Pinot meunier (black) • c. Chardonnay (white) • Short pruning. • Maximum yields of grapes per hectare. • Maximum yield during pressing is one hectoliters per every 160 kg of grapes. • Minimum alcoholic strength fixed. • Wines to be prepared at locations separated from all other and only champagne wine to be stored. • Natural process called as champagne method to be used. • Ageing in bottle for a minimum period of one year before dispatch
  3. 3. Other Definition Sparkling wine from the delimited region of Champagne in North France
  4. 4. 1. Developed in France about 300 years ago. 2. Coronation drink for French kings. 3. Credited to Dom Perignon for (accidental) discovery of sparkle (bubbles) in the bottle. 4. The name derives from the Latin ‘campus’, ‘campania’ or field. In old French this became ‘Champaign; today Champagne. 5. Romans planted the first vineyards.
  5. 5. 5. The Commercial production of champagne began in about 1700. 6. Champagne was known worldwide in 18th century. 7 Marquis de Sellery- First salesman of 17th century, owner of richest vineyards , introduced sparkling champagne to Royal Courts of England. 8. Saint Evermond- Soldier, writer, Philospher & conniosseur, settled in London from France. He made fashion to drink champagne
  6. 6. Father of champagne • Dom Perignon was a Benedictine monk at Abbey of Hautvilliers who at the age of 30 in 1688 was appointed the cellar master & treasurer at the Abby of Hautvillers. • Died in 1715 after 47 years at the Abby.
  7. 7. Cont.. • Dom Perignon(1670-1715)laid down basic principles of Champagne making The “ Father of Champagne” accredited with i. ii. Blending different “cuvees” iii. introducing corks that could withstand the pressure
  8. 8. CLOVIS - Founder of France • The western part of the Roman Empire started to fall apart towards the end of the 5th century. A man called Clovis became the first king to lead all of the German tribes known as the Franks, and he went on to conquer most of the old Roman province of Gaul (the country is now called "France" because it was controlled at this time by the Franks).
  9. 9. Cont.. Clovis converted to the Roman Catholic faith and was baptized by Remigius (Saint Remi) in Reims at the end of the 5th century. This made France the first Catholic state and led to the tradition of crowning French kings at Reims Cathedral. Many of the kings who were crowned here were called Louis: this name was based on Clovis, with the first letter "c" removed (the letters "u" and "v" were the same at that time).
  10. 10. Region • Situated in North, Central France • Champagne region lies 90 miles (145km) northeast of Paris near the Belgian border. • Extends 180 Km from North to South & 120 Km from East to West • The legally defined and delimited areas covers 35000 Hectares of land out of which some of the land is under cultivation and contains around 250 and villages and champagne can not be made beyond the limit of the region.
  11. 11. Soil • All of the vineyards are situated on deep chalk soils. The chalk, a natural moisture regulator, provides good drainage (chalk can absorb up to 40% of its volume in water) and reflects precious sunlight and its heat. • The pure white chalk in Champagne’s soil drains well, yet retains enough water for the vines to survive a drought. The chalk’s high active lime content encourages the vines to produce grapes that have a relatively high acid content when they become ripe. • 1800 to1000 ft of chalky soil.
  13. 13. Climate • The average annual temperature in the champagne region is 10.5c. Below this limit the grapes will not ripen. • Most of the best vineyards are planted on slopes at an altitude high enough to be clear of frost (usually above 300ft or 90m), but low enough (below 690ft or 210m) to be sheltered from extreme weather conditions.
  14. 14. The 4 major districts are •Montagne de Reims •Valee de la Marne •Cote de Blanc •Aube Centre of Production •Reims •Epernay •Ay
  15. 15. Vineyards The area is 35000 hectares of which currently under production total approx 25000 hectares out of which 75% is in the dept of Marne. 17% is in the dept of Aube. 8% is in the dept of Sienna et Marne. The distributions of the 3 varieties of grapes, which are alone allowed by the French law for, the production of champagne, are as follows:
  16. 16. Cont.. Black grape is grown in 72% of the area. White grapes are grown in 28% of the area. There are around 150 cooperatives throughout the champagne region champagne houses have vast cellars which totals around 200kms Vineyards are located in hill sides of Treslon.  
  17. 17. GRAPE VARIETYGRAPE VARIETY Pinot Noir Body & Strength (Montagne de Reims) Pinot Meunier Freshness & Youth (Vallee de la Marne) Chardonnay Elegance & Fineness (Cote de Blanc)
  18. 18. Classification • The classification system in Champagne is based on vineyards and is established by the Comité Inter professional du Vin de Champagne (C.I.V.C.). • The land is given a grade based on its suitability for growing white grapes or black grapes. • A grade of 100% percent has been given to the 17 Grand Cru villages. • The 38 Premier Cru villages have grades from 90 to 99%. • The rest have a grade ranging from 80 to 89%.
  19. 19. Cont.. Champagne houses use the average percentage rating of the grapes used in their blends to establish the quality of their raw materials. The price a grower gets for his grapes is also determined by this percentage system. A grower with a 100% vineyard may ask the full price while the others would get a percentage based on the 100% price
  20. 20. Picking or  harvesting  Epluchage  Pressing - Debourbage  First fermentation  Topping up  Racking and  fining METHODE CHAMPENOISE  Preparation of the cuvee  Liqueur d triage:  Bottling Corking Second fermentation Ageing Remuage Resting  Degorgement:  Liqueur d’ expedition Recorking   shaking  Resting  Labeling Production of champagne
  21. 21. HARVESTING • Takes place usually in mid-September. • Grapes are hand picked. • Attempt is to ensure the best quality of the “must”.
  22. 22. PRESSING Uses the traditional basket press or the more modern pneumatic or bladder presses with stalk • each pressing gives a must used in the final blending • 4000 kg - 2666lts - 13 barrels – Vin de Cuvee • Next 666 lts – Premier Taille • Third pressing 206 liters, BOB (buyer’s own brand) • Last press – Rebeche- The rebeche is generally used to make very cheap brandy called Marc. • 3 pounds of grapes are required to make 1bt of champagne
  23. 23. Debourbage •settling out of skin& yeast sediment at ambient cellar temperatures. •can get better result at -5centigrade with bentonite. The first fermentation • vats are of premier importance-stainless steel ensures hygiene but Krug still uses oak •Alcohol percentage goes upto 5-6 % Racking and fining
  24. 24. METHODE CHAMPENOISE Preparation of the cuvee- “ASSEMBLAGE” This is a process of blending wines. About 40-45 wines can be blended together. Ensures consistent quality ( proportion of previous wine used in the process) The wine again undergoes cold stabilization & is clarified & racked for the third time
  25. 25. “Liqueur de Tirage” •a mixture of reserve wine, beetroot sugar & selected yeast ( Manufacturer Discretion) •used to for a secondary alcoholic fermentation •Vin mousseaux means fully sparkling - 6 bar •Cremant means partially sparkling. - 3 bar •4 gram of mixture is required to generate 1 bar pressure
  26. 26. Bottling The specification of this bottle was given by Louis xv on 9th march 1735 The type of the bottle 1. Traditionally green 2. Glass is of greater thickness 3. The “punt” at the base 4. It can hold 20 bar pressure • Corking- With Agrafe
  27. 27. . Ageing & Secondary fermentation • the 2nd fermentation goes on for a period of 3 to 6 month. The temperature that is maintained is around 10 to 12c. • bottles are allowed to lie horizontally in huge piles in caves for a period of 3 to 6 years. During this period the dead yeast becomes in contact with the wine. • The more is the contact of these dead yeast with the wine the better is going to be the quality of the champagne.
  28. 28. Caves -
  29. 29. Caves Built by Roman 2000 years ago Known as Crayeres or Roman Gallo Total Length is about 165 miles
  30. 30. “Remouage” – Riddling • Removal of the sediments of the secondary fermentation • Bottles transferred to racks called “ Pupitre” • Allows the movement of the bottles from a horizontal to a vertical position • Done by”remueurs” • Attributed to the Widow Cliquot c.1818
  31. 31. DISGORGING Undertaken by a “degorgeur” A la volee- The degorger cut the agrafe foil with the special knife & with the help of pincer which look like a lobster claws & the cork get thrown off. A la glace- The neck of the bottle is immersed in chilled brine (-24 degree) & the frozen plug removed by pressure Loss of liquid needs to be topped up.
  32. 32. Liqueur d’ expedition Addition of Cognac With Sugar Brut: 6 to 15 grams/litre of champagne. Extra day: 12 to 20 grams/ litreof champagne. Sec: 17 to 35 grams/litre of champagne. Demi :Sec 33g of sugar per 1 lt. Doux: More than 50 gram of sugar / litre of champagne.
  33. 33. Cont.. Re corking  Shaking  Resting
  34. 34. Label
  35. 35. TYPE OF CHAMPAGNE Super vintage: it is of supreme merit made from the best grapes of an exceptional year. Dom perignon, Moet & chandon Vintage: of an exceptional year and 15% wine of the previous year. It never appears on the bottle. Non-vintage: is an ordinary one made from the blend of wines of the previous
  36. 36. Cont.. Pink: is made by allowing the skins of the grapes to remain. Blanc de noir: is a white wine made from only black grapes. Not of very good quality.
  37. 37. OTHER METHODS OF PRODUCING “THE SPARKLE” in wine Tank Method Secondary fermentation in a tank larger , shorter lived bubbles cheaper Transfer secondary fermentation in the bottle, chilled, filtered, dosed & put back in the bottle Impregnation- Artificial Carbonation
  38. 38. Charmat Process- Tank Method or Charmat Process- This method was named after the inventor of process Eugene Charmat, a French scientist who has invented this process in 1910 to cut down the manpower , money , time involved in it . This process involve the following steps First Tank- Wine is run into the tank where it is heated for artificial maturation for 12 to 36 hrs & then immediately cooled Second Tank- In this tank yeast & sugar is added for secondary fermentation which allowed 15 to 20 days . Carbon di oxide is not allowed to escape Third Tank – The fermented wine runs to third tank where it is cooled to 30 F . This process helps in stabilizing the tartrate . Then wine is filtered & bottled under
  39. 39. Transfer Method This Method originated in Germany in year 1930 .This method is similar to the Method champnoise except that no remuage takes place in it . After the wine is aged it is transferred to tank where the pressure is used to remove the cork than wine cooled to 32F . This helps in giving clarity to wine . Then wine is bottled under pressure. Impregnation- Artificial Carbonation
  40. 40. Other sparkling wine producing region of France Vouvray- Loire region chenin blanc grape Saumer- - Loire region chenin blanc grape Ruilly – made from chardonnay & pinot noir from cote cholonaaise Clairette de die – produced from clairette & Muscat grape from Rhone
  41. 41. Sparkling wine from other countries Asti Spumanti – Italy Sekt- Germany Cava/ Spumantee- Spain  Espumantee- Portugal
  42. 42. Bottle sizes Quart – 18 cl = 1/4 btl Demi- 37cl = ½ btl Bouteille- 75cl = 1 btl Magnum- 150cl = 2btl Jeroboam- 300cl= 4btl Rehobaom- 450cl = 6btl Mathusalem- 600cl = 8btl Salmanzar- 900cl = 12 btl Balthezar- 1200cl = 16btl Nebuchhadnezar- 1500cl = 20btl.
  43. 43. Brand Names Krug Piper Heidsieck Moet et Chandon Bollinger Tattinger Veuve Cliquot Louis Roederer G.H Mumm
  44. 44. Indian Sparkling Wines Marquis de pompadour ( MDP) Vin Baille Cool cat Blue Buck San Bendetta
  45. 45. Interesting Fact 1 bottle of champagne contain 49 (approx) million of bubbles-
  46. 46. James Bond Favorite Champagne- Bollinger
  47. 47. Official Drinks at Oscar and Cannes film festival- Piper Heidsieck
  48. 48. Magnum of a Champagne presented to Man of Series In Cricket In England
  49. 49. Most expensive champagne Ever sold Krug of year 1928 Sold in the year 1939 for $ 21500 (Rs.1075000 )
  50. 50. Magnum of Champagne opened after winning Formula One Car Race
  51. 51. Merlyn Monroe have taken bath in champagne and popularize the Champagne Spa
  52. 52. Thank You for your Attention