The Wines Of France


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The Wines Of France

  1. 1. The Wines of France<br />Some of the World’s Best<br />
  2. 2. The Bordeaux Connection<br />The Soul of the Wine Industry<br />
  3. 3. Classification System<br /> Napoleon III called for classification before 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris<br />Promoted by the Gironde Chamber of Commerce <br />Bordeaux Wine Brokers&apos; Union<br />Only part of region was classified<br />
  4. 4. The Implications<br />Set certain Bordeaux wines apart from others<br />Set Bordeaux as the premiere wine production area<br />Limits potential for up and coming vineyards<br />Maintains control by a select few<br />
  5. 5. French Wines Laws<br />Classifications<br />Vin de Table<br />Vin de Pays<br />Vin Délimite de Qualité Supérieure<br />Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée<br />
  6. 6. Vin de Table<br />Primarily the southern regions<br />Produced using safe procedures<br />No quality standards<br />12% of total production<br />
  7. 7. Vin de Pays<br />Conversion from vin de table<br />Higher price and demand for better wines<br />Removal of less desirable vines<br />Regional tasting panel approval<br />Grown in region from recommended varieties<br />Regions, departments, zones like….<br />New England, New Hampshire, Seacoast<br />Roughly 33% of total<br />
  8. 8. Vin Délimite de Qualité Supérieure<br />VDQS wines roughly 3% of total<br />Produced from slightly higher yielding vines that AOC<br />A step toward AOC classification<br />
  9. 9. Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée-(Controlled Naming of Origin)<br />Roughly 52% of total<br />Region, district, village, single vineyard<br />Grapes grown within the names area<br />Grapes approved for that area<br />Reach a set alcohol level<br />Meet yield per acre standards<br />Maintain specific viticulture practices<br />Tested by taste and chemical analysis<br />Also crus designations<br />
  10. 10. Terroir<br />Soils<br />Grapes<br />Selection<br />History<br />These four elements combine to produce the unique character that goes into each wine<br />
  11. 11. Bordeaux in Brief<br />Blending<br />Fermented by lot<br />Blended to yield best potential wine of that vintage<br />Cabernets strong on left bank<br />Merlots strong on right bank<br />A typical offerings when one variety fails<br />Cabernet Franc grown minimally<br />Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc primary whites<br />Second labels offer great value<br />
  12. 12. Top Players<br />Medoc<br />Margaux<br />St. Julien<br />Pauillac<br />St. Estephe<br />Graves<br />St Emillon<br />Pessac-Leognan<br />Pomerol<br />Sauterne<br />
  13. 13. Margaux<br />Margaux<br />Châteaus in all 5 cru classifications<br />1 first growth<br />4 second growth<br />gravel<br />perfume<br />feminine<br />Château Margaux<br />75% cab 25% merlot<br />
  14. 14. St Julien<br />St. Julien<br />5 second growth<br />Deep-rooted vines<br />perfect<br />balance of opulence and austerity<br />Château Ducru Beaucaillou<br />75% cab, 20% merlot, 8% cab franc<br />
  15. 15. Pauillac<br />Pauillac<br />3 First growth<br />2 second growth<br />Classic rich flavor<br />black current and cassis<br />pencil box<br />Château Lafite Rothschild<br />70% cab, 20% merlot, 10% cab franc<br />Château Mouton-Rothschild<br />76% cab, 13% merlot, 9% cab franc, 2% petit verdot<br />
  16. 16. St Estephe<br />St. Estephe<br />2 second crus<br />Very deep rooted vines<br />high tannin but softening of late<br />longer to soften<br />Chateau Cos d’Estournel<br />60% cab, 38% merlot, 2% cab franc<br />
  17. 17. St Emillon<br />Gravel and limestone<br />Higher merlot content<br />Drinkable young or cellar<br />Château Cheval Blanc<br />60% cab franc, 40% merlot<br />
  18. 18. Pessac-Leognan<br />Pessac-Leognan<br />better graves<br />smokey<br />minerally reds<br />Chateau Haut Brion<br />
  19. 19. Pomerol<br />Pomerol<br />deep clay<br />creamy & seductively rich<br />Chateau Pétrus<br />Average vine over 40 yrs.<br />
  20. 20. Sauternes<br />Sauternes<br />Dry or sweet<br />one vine= one glass<br />three pressings<br />&gt;20 degrees sugar<br />10 years<br />
  21. 21. Alsace & Loire<br />
  22. 22. Alsace- On the border of Germany<br />The geography and turns of historical events shape the wines of this region<br />
  23. 23. History<br />1870 End of Franco Prussian War… Alsace becomes German territory<br />1918 End of WWI…Alsace becomes French<br />1945….German again<br />Always a French flare for wine making and matching with cuisine<br />Increasing move toward dryer wines<br />
  24. 24. Alsacian Wine Region<br />70 miles long, avg. 1 mile wide<br />vines hang on eastern slope of Vosges<br />600-1500 ft. elevation<br />slow ripening...low heat summation<br />influenced by Rhine river<br />extension of German Pfalz<br />wines more vinous than German cousins<br />
  25. 25. Alsace- A Single AOC<br />Strong German Influence<br />Typically, label carries grape variety<br />Sparkling=Cremant d’Alsace<br />Blended=Edelzwicker<br />10% Pinot Noir<br />90% White<br />Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Pinot blanc<br />
  26. 26. Alsatian Wine<br />Dry yet fruity Muskat<br />Rieslings dryer than Germany<br />Gewurtztraminer that’s spicy, light bodied, & slightly sweet<br />Pinot blanc in small quantities<br />Some Tokay<br />
  27. 27. Loire Valley Region<br />
  28. 28. Loire<br />Grape Varieties<br />Chenin Blanc<br />Muscadet<br />Cabernet Franc (red)<br />Four Regions<br />Western (Nantes)<br />Central (Anjou & Saumur)<br />Upper (Touraine)<br />Jura & Savoie<br />mountainous<br />
  29. 29. Nantes<br />~1635 Burgundians introduced Melon grape<br />Survived –20C temps in 1709<br />Became known as Muscadet<br />First appellations<br />Muscadet de Sèvre et Maine<br />Muscadet des Coteaux de la Loire<br />Muscadet <br />1972 compulsory tasting instituted to grant or deny use of appellation<br />
  30. 30. Anjou & Saumur<br />Vineyards begun in middle ages<br />Monks played major role<br />Canalization of tributaries important for trade<br />Anjou known for rose wines<br />Different grapes in each sub region<br />Cabernet in Cabernet d’Anjou<br />Grolleau in Rosé d’Anjou<br />
  31. 31. Anjou & Saumur<br />Saumur is known for….<br />Sparkling wines made from red (primarily cabernet franc) and white (primarily chenin) grapes<br />Campigny made from cabernet franc<br />Reds from cab and cabernet franc<br />Whites primarily from chenin blanc grape<br />
  32. 32. Touraine<br />Most credit to monks in 300’s AD<br />Numerous sub-areas-<br />Chinon= primarily red from cab franc, deep red<br />Vouvray solely from chenin grape to produce a dry to semi-sweet wine<br />Touraine primarily gamay from reds and sauvignon for whites<br />
  33. 33. Centre<br />Evidence to the first century<br />Major development in 12th century<br />Sancerre best known sub-region<br />Sancerre grape for white<br />Some pinot noir for rose<br />
  34. 34. Burgundy<br />
  35. 35. Burgundy in Brief<br />100 miles SE of Paris..225 miles long<br />6 major districts<br />111,000 acres of AOC wines<br />27+ million cases each year<br />15% of France’s AOC output<br />Great Wine….Montrachet<br />Popular Wine….Beaujolais<br />
  36. 36. Labeling of Wines<br />Small vineyards<br />Bottling & distribution primarily by negociant-eleveur<br />Self-bottlers = domains or clos<br />e.g. Mis en Bouteille au Domaine<br />Limited quantities, high prices<br />Best wines carry name of vineyard<br />
  37. 37. Labeling of Wines<br />Single vineyard= Grand Crus<br />Best communes= Premiere Crus<br />Communal level= Village names<br />Regional level=<br />Bourgogne, Bourgogne Ordinaire, Bourgogne Passe-Tous-Grains <br />Grape variety= major distinguishing feature<br />
  38. 38. By the Sub-Regions<br />Chablis-4.7%<br />7 grand crus, 17 premier crus<br />Chablis, Petit Chablis<br />northern location, limestone, south facing vineyards<br />
  39. 39. Continuing South<br />Cote de Nuits-3.2%<br />Gevrey Chambertin, Nuits St. George<br />25 grand crus<br />
  40. 40. Further South<br />Cote de Beaune-6.9%<br />15 Grand crus<br />Beaune, Pommard, Puligny-Montrachet<br />Cote Chalonnaise-2.1%<br />increased plantings since 1980<br />primarily pinot noir and chardonnay<br />Vlgs- Mercurey, Montagny<br />
  41. 41. Still further South<br />Maconnais-10.9%<br />white equivalent of Beaujolais<br />68% chardonnay, 25% gamay, 7% pinot noir<br />Vlgs- Pouilly-Fuisse, Macon-Villages<br />
  42. 42. Most Southern<br />Beaujolais-59.2%<br />largest area in Burgundy<br />14.8M cases red, 98K cases white<br />gamay grape country<br />half of the production is consumed domestically<br />
  43. 43. Beaujolais- 35 m. long 5-10 wide<br />Haut Beaujolais…including<br />Crus Beaujolais= 25% of total<br />39 Beaujolais Village=25%<br />Bas Beaujolais….<br />Beaujolais<br />Beaujolais Superieur total of 50%<br />Beaujolais Nouveau 3rd Thursday of November each year<br />
  44. 44. The Rhone<br />From Avignon to Vienne<br />
  45. 45. A Bit About the River<br />Much of the river is canalized<br />Agriculture and industry share the shore<br />Dozens of medieval cities line its banks<br />
  46. 46. The Region<br />Divided into<br />Northern Rhone<br />Single varietal wines (Syrah)<br />Temperate climate, fair rainfall<br />Southern Rhone<br />Blended wines<br />Mediterranean climate<br />Côte du Rhone term used throughout<br />Côte du Rhone Village reserved for defined area<br />
  47. 47. Northern Rhone<br />Top appellations:<br />Chateau-Grillet<br />Condrieu, Cornas<br />Cote-Rotie<br />Croze-Hermitage<br />Hermitage<br />St. Joseph<br />St.-Peray<br />
  48. 48. Northern Rhone<br />Syrah grape predominates<br />Some viognier<br />Marsanne and Roussanne for white Hermitage<br />
  49. 49. Southern Rhone<br />Top appellations:<br />Chateauneuf-du-Pape<br />Cotes du Rhone<br />Cotes du Rhone Village<br />Grenache grape predominates<br />Syrah and Mourvedre used for blending<br />Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Bourboulenc are the primary white grapes<br />
  50. 50. Chateauneuf-du-Pape<br />A favorite that feel from grace in the 1980’s<br />Now staging a comeback<br />Primarily grenache but blended with up to 13 other wines<br />320 domains produce this wine today<br />
  51. 51. Vermouth <br />Red or White <br />Originally aged in casks at sea<br />Now aged in seaside courtyard<br />Barrels left loosely corked<br />Speeds aging<br />
  52. 52. Vermouth<br />Herbs and other botanicals blended with wine to impart subtle flavor<br />White vermouth as aperitif or mixed in martini<br />Red vermouth in Manhattan or on the rocks<br />
  53. 53. Champagne<br />We cover Champagne in a separate presentation along with sparkling wines<br />