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F&b service ii


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F&b service ii

  1. 1. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Food and Beverage Service- II Diploma In Hotel & Hospitality Management Second Semester Subject Code-HM-25 School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University, Karnataka Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 1
  2. 2. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Copyright 2012, Karnataka State Open University All Rights Reserved Compiled and Printed By ECDL Institute of Management Studies For, School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 2
  3. 3. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Preface In this semester we like you to have a profound acquaintance of the service Industry, as handling a management position or running your own business you need these points to ponder on before stepping forward. In this book we have tried to put across the need of F&B Control & Inventories for controlling pilferage, and further regarding the Regional & International cuisines and nevertheless for a balanced food which in total provide the right attitude required for the Hospitality Industry…. ECDL. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 3
  4. 4. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second CONTENTS BLOCK –I UNIT 1. Topic Wines 2 Breakfast 3 Food & Beverage Service Equipments 4 Banquets UNIT 5 Topic Order Taking Procedures 6 Cheese 7 Tobacco 8 Spirit Contents 1.1 Climatic condition of Wine making 1.2 Wine Species 1.3 Classification of Wine 1.4 Manufacture of Table wine 2.1 Types of Breakfast 2.2 English Breakfast, Continental B/fast, Buffet B/fast 2.3 Breakfast served in the Restaurant 3.1 Furniture, Linen, 3.2 China, Tableware 3.3Glassware 4.1 Taking a Banquet booking 4.2 Banquet Menu 4.3 Banquet Table Layout BLOCK –II Contents 5.1 Order taking procedure 5.2 Room Service 5.3 By Door Hanger 5.4 By Telephone 6.1 History 6.2 Fresh Cheese, Soft Cheese 6.3 Semi Hard cheese, Hard cheese 6.4 Blue cheese, Blended cheese 7.1 Types of Tobacco 7.2 Cultivation, Curing 7.3 Cigar, Little Cigar, Manufacturing 8.1 Alcoholic Beverages, 8.2 Alcoholic Proof 8.3 Types of Distillation 8.4 List of Spirits Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page No. 7 8-9 10-11 12-13 15 16 17 19 20-21 22-24 26 27-28 29 Page No. 33 34 35 36 38 39-40 41 42 44-45 46-48 49-50 52-53 54-56 57-59 60-65 4
  5. 5. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 5
  6. 6. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 6
  7. 7. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second UNIT- 1 Wines CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2. History of Wine 1.3 Wine Grapes 1.4 Wine Making 1.5 Types of Wine 1.6 Wine Storage 1.7 Wine Serving Temperature 1.8 Wine Glasses 1.9 The Serving Ritual 1.10 Lesson Summary 1.11 Key Words 1.12 Questions to Solve 1.13 References 1.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about the beverages. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: ◘ Wines and their classification ◘ Wine grapes, its making, storage ◘ Wine serving temp, glasses & serving ritual. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Wine has been around for thousands of years, and for a newcomer wine can seem very intimidating. Really, many people in the world drink wine simply as a healthy, enjoyable daily drink. Many people make wine in their own back yards out of the available fruits and berries found there. Wine should not be intimidating or pretentious. It should be something you enjoy for your own personal taste preferences. The best way to learn about wine is to dive in and start tasting some! Learn for yourself which wines best suit your particular palate. 1.2 History of Wine Wine making and drinking has a long and past history. Experts agree that wine dates from 6000 BC. Wines were cultured in Egypt and in Mesopotamia. Greece, Spain, Mexico, Rome, and United States followed them. Spain played the important role in wine making process. Wine making and grape cultivation spread throughout the world. Wine became the valuable trade. The prosperous people enjoyed the wines and rulers tried to hide this treasure as a clandestine. As Christianity spread to the parts of the world, the monks developed the process by making good use of their time. Vineyard growth became the keystone because of the climate and soil in the recognized regions. The world's recognized wines were developed by France and it became the leader. Today a variety of vine is found growing all over the world due to the wide variety of climates. The vitis vinifera species is the primary species in making most of the wines. New routes have been established to the wine industry due to the varieties and vintages that come from all over the world. Due to the captivating history of the wine and profound interest in their wine France Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 7
  8. 8. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second novices and connoisseurs like in searching the perfect taste of the wine. Certainly a wine is available for everyone in the world 1.3 Wine Grapes Grape, a juicy fruit found in variety of colors. Grape is used for eating, wine making and as a dry fruit. It is also used in jelly, vinegar, candy, seed extraction, seed oil and jam. Vitis vinifera and vitis labrusca regions act as the origin for the grapes. Wine making became the main reason for cultivating grapes. The major grape producing countries in the world are South America, Austria, Mexico and eastern countries. Thousands of grape varieties are grown all over the world; the wine grape varieties represent only a fraction of them. The color, size, phenolic distribution and acidity of grapes give each wine its own characteristic. More than 10,000 grape varieties exist, but only few are used for commercial purpose. For raisin production only three varieties are used and as table grapes less than one dozen are consumed. In wine production approximately 130 varieties are used. Chardonnay, merlot and cabernet sauvignon grape varieties are used by the wine experts since they think that the wine drinker's focus their attention only on that and other varieties are not known Wine Grape Varieties White and red grapes are the major grape varieties. Varietal wines are wines that are made from single grape breed. But many wines combine numerous grape varieties. Wine quality is affected by the factors such as soil, climate, viticulture and wine making techniques. When the grape variety is well suited to the soil and climatic structure the quality of wine is maximized. Wine types with distinct flavor are produced by many native grape varieties. To give different taste and color each type of wine uses different grape variety. Attributes such as color, size, skin thickness and acidity differ in all kinds of grapes. These attributes are influenced by the area in which the grapes are cultivated. To manufacture a high quality wine, a qualified winemaker knows how to merge and choose the grapes from many varieties. The Wine grapes categories are: Red grapes During the month of august to November the red grapes grow in plenty. These grapes are rich in vitamin c and have a sweet pulp. Pinot noir, syrah, nebbiolo and zinfandel are some of famous red grapes. White Grapes Grapes that are green, yellow, pink or brown in color are called white grapes. The world's famous white wine is the chardonnay, because of its gamut flavors and style. 1.4 Wine Making Wine making is an art, as any other art it also needs patience. The art of winemaking starts from the vineyard. First we have to select the right place to plant the grape and then choose the right one to make the best wine. You should also choose the best time to pick up the grapes which are grown in plenty. The mixture of water, alcohol and grape flavors is wine. By crushing the grapes and adding yeast to activate the fermenting process, the winemakers begin their job. Sugar and oxygen content in the juice are converted into ethyl alcohol by the yeast. Very small fractions of the grape flavor symbolize the wine since water contains no calories, fats and carbohydrates. Being Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 8
  9. 9. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second converted into alcohol grapes lost their sugar content, so essentially consuming food values come only from alcohol. White wine making The grapes are crushed and passed through de-stemmer. At the point where the juice falls down is very important. The crushed grapes will have the skin still. Then there are pumped into the de-juicer, and then the conveyers take them into the press to allow the juice to fall down. Then the conveyer is opened to allow the skinks to more out. That is all for the white wine. Red Wine Making For red wines, the entire wine with skin is put into the de-stemmer and the juice is taken from the bottom of the de-stemmer. The fermentation process starts form here. The skin is always allowed to keep in contact with the juice to get the desired color. Depending on the grape variety the juice is left for about 2-3 weeks to ferment under pressure. Carbon dioxide plays an important role to get the extract color and flavor. The juice is put into the fermenter, once the skin is taken away from the juice. Fermentation of the juice takes place in that tank. Following are some tips, useful in wine making: Using split or whole berries Leave the berries as a whole, as it might get mixed with the skins in the cold soak and fermentation tank. Barrel hygiene Preparing great wine involves critical barrel hygiene. High pressure barrel washer is needed to certify that barrel gets cleaned properly. Sulfur in wine making A significant role is played by sulfur in making the wine constant and to stand the test of time in the bottle. To prevent from harmful bacteria that would spoil the wine in winemaking process or in the bottle, a small amount of wine is added to every wine. Acidity and Ph relationship As you are making wine pay close attention to the balance between pH and acidity as it is a delicate one. The type of grape and the ripeness will say how to toil with that fruit to make a wine that satisfies your preferred goal. Color of wine To add to your enjoyment the red wine grapes often go to cold soak before fermentation to make them release the color and fermentation from the skin. Fermentation vessels The fermentation vessels should be elected depending on the grape variety and the type of wine you make. Adding enzymes or tannins To bring fruit, acidity and alcohol all to a balance level and to get exact color add a small amount of enzymes and tannin to the fermentation. Choosing a yeast strain The yeast that is selected to ferment the wine should match the grape variety. The winery also rent the yeast that is native to the vineyard. Fermentation temperature Fermentation temperature should be paid close attention to prepare sauvignon Blanc or a luscious fruit forward syrah. Finishing the process Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 9
  10. 10. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second As the wine process reach the end the fermentation process either slows down or some need a little help to end their process. 1.5 Types of Wine Wines can be classified primarily by the grape variety used to make the wine and the region where the grapes are grown. Wines classified on the basis of grape variety are called varietals and those classified on the basis of region are named by the region itself. There are different types of wines and wine styles. Basically wines can be classified into two general categories. They are white wines which are colorless and red wines which have the color intensity based on the soaking time. This is the information that most of us know. But wines can be classified by their taste also. The sweetness of the wine helps us to judge the wine by its taste. Classification of the wine according to the taste is as follows: Dry wines Medium Wines Sweet wines Apart from the classification of wine by taste the general types of wines are as follows. Red wines Red wines are color wines. Red wines are made from the red grape varieties. These wines get their color by allowing the skin of the grapes to get contact with the grape juice during the wine making process. Red wines are available in different varieties and taste. The most popular red wines are: Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Pinot Noir Zinfandel White wines White wines are generally colorless and they are made from the white grape varieties. Some of the white wines can be made from the red grapes. In such a case the skin of the grapes is not allowed to have any contact with the grape juice. The white wines generally range from dry to sweet wines. The most popular white wines are: Chardonnay Riesling Sauvignon Blanc Gewurztraminer Rose wines Rose wines are also called as Blush wines. Rose wines are not true not truly red, instead they have enough of reddish tinge to make them differentiate from the white wines. Rose wines are prepared from the red grape varieties. The most popular rose wine variety is: Zinfandel Sparkling Wines Sparkling wines have a small amount of intense effervescences. Champagne is the most famous sparkling wine in many regions in the world. The famous sparkling wines are: Rose Champagne Prosecco Sparkling Red Wine Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 10
  11. 11. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Sweet Wine or Dessert Wines Dessert wines are prepared from the residual sugar that is left in the finished wine. This gives the wine a very sweet taste. Dessert wines vary from off-dry to super, sticky sweet wines. The dessert wines are considered to be the sweetest wines. The famous dessert wines are: Sweet white wines that include (Botrytis (Noble Rot), Ice Wine (Eiswein), Late Harvest Wine) Sweet red wines that include (Late Harvest Wines and Fortified Wines) Fortified Wines Fortified wines are those that are produced with a small addition of the grape spirit. Fortified wines generally include the dry and sweet styles. The famous fortified wines are: Port wine Madeira Sherry Wines without named origin (also former called Table Wines) Table wines are also called as "Dry Wines." This is the wine that is mostly produced in most the regions in the world. The famous table wines are: Dry white wine Rose wine Dry red wine 1.6 Wine Storage The quality of wine can be affected if it is not stored properly. As time goes the wine changes its color, aroma becomes stronger and then flavor acquires its own character. If not stored properly the wine will not realize its full potential, no matter how good or great its growing capability is. Some might think that cool spot in the garage and basement is ideal for wine storage but only some of these places have the wine storage capacity. Temperature around 13 deg c or 55 deg F is suitable for wine storage. This temperature is enough to prevent from temperature fluctuations and to keep the cork wet. 70% moisture is generally enough to keep the cork wet. Wines should be kept in a place free from light and vibration. Wines prepared now-a-days are meant to be consumed with in a year of purchase. They are smooth and are ready to drink as they reach their stable state. Today's wine is prepared for immediate consumption. Before the youth and freshness integral, most wines of the world are consumed when they are young. To attain their maturity better quality wines need 4 years of decaying period. But white wines within 2-3 years from the date of vintage are at their best level. This is because white wines need no time for maturing. As soon as champagne is brought out of the cell it can be consumed. Long term or short term storage period depends on the type of wine you tend to store. This wine storage is categorized into two, they are Conditions that affect wine and Wine coolers. 1.7 Wine Serving Temperature An old proverb says that white wine should be served chilled and red wines at room temperature. This might make sense but it should not be necessarily true. The temperature at which the wine is served affects the taste and flavor of the wines. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 11
  12. 12. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second The wine is more enjoyable and tasty if it is served at a right temperature. Wine served at the appropriate temperature brings out the flavor, structure, and aroma. Wine serving temperature differs from each wine by the type and their characteristic. Especially the body of the wine is affected when the wine is not served at an appropriate temperature. Most of the wines are ruined when they are not served at an appropriate temperature. Wines that are served too chill easily get warmed but a wine served too warm finds difficult in cooling quickly. So when you plan to serve wine by chilling it serve it little colder then you necessary. And wines that are served too warm tastes alcoholic and will not give a pleasure to drink. 1.8 Wine Glasses Wine glasses are specially designed ones for drinking and tasting wines. It is a type of glass stemware. It is essential to select the right type of wine glass for different types of wines. This is very important since the shape and color of the glass can affect the taste of the wine. The wine glasses should be transparent and plain. The glass has three parts they are bowl, stem and foot. The wine glass should be made of glass and crystal. The wine glass should be carefully designed taking the key aspects of the wine to the tongue and nose. Choosing the right kind of wine glass is also important and in the same way holding the wine glass also is very important. The wine glass should be hold in the stem so that the temperature of the body does not affect the flavor of the wine in the glass. Holding the wine by the bowl will leave your fingerprints which can affect the visual appearance of the wine if examined for clarity and color. Wine glass materials Wine glass are made up of cut, fused, blown, crystal and lead glasses. Though wine glasses can be made from different glass materials glasses prepared from lead crystals are the best because of its high refractive index. And in general wine glasses should be made from the crystal clear and frosted glasses. Mostly colored glass should be avoided in preparing wine glasses since they might disturb seeing the wine color through the glass. Making wine glass with the lead crystals has many advantages. They are aesthetic have higher refractive index, change the effect of light passing to them, and they are also heavier. Shapes Wine glass shape is also an important factor that affects the flavor and taste of the wine. The shape of the glass depends on the type of wine they are used for. The best shape of the wine directs the wine directly to the best area in the mouth from the glass. In general the opening of the wine glass should not be wider than the widest part of the bowl. The rim of the glass should be thin. Sizes The minimum size of the wine glass should have the capacity to hold at least four ounces. But the all-purpose glass must be able to hold twice the amount. But in recent years the size of the wine glasses has increases to decrease the no of servings but the extra space in the wine allows the air space to trap the wine aroma. Types of wine glasses wine glasses Like the shape and size of the glass the type of glass you are choosing to serve the wine is very important. Each type of wine has its own wine Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 12
  13. 13. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second glass in which it can be served. The different types of wine glasses are used to taste the wine with its excellent and actual aroma and flavor. In general the wine glasses are classified into four types. They are: White wine glasses - the glass should be shaped like a tulip Red wine glasses - the glass should be round with large bowl Sparkling wine glasses - the glass should be tall and thin Dessert wine glasses - the glass should be smaller directing to the back of the mouth. Besides these there are also other types of wine glasses in the modern world. They are: Crystal wine glasses Stem less wine glasses Etched wine glasses. Ice glasses Basic Temperatures The basic temperature for serving the different types of wine are: Red wines - 55°F to 63°F Lesser bodied red wines and full bodied white wines - 46°F to 55°F White wines that are less complex - 43°F to 50°F Ice and champagne wines - 43°F to 46°F 1.9 The Serving Ritual After you have made your decision, the server will serve the wine in a ritual that may seem odd to novice wine drinkers. Here is the process and what you need to do. 1. The server should first show the bottle BEFORE it‘s opened. The guest Inspect the label and vintage to make sure it is in fact what he had ordered. Sometimes the restaurant will be out of the specified vintage and will bring a different one. Now is the time Guest decides whether this is acceptable. 2. After opening, the server will present the cork to the guest. The guest, make sure it is not dried out and cracked. Note: Sometimes white wines will form white crystals on the cork. This is normal and is not a sign of a fault. 3. Then the server will pour a small amount in host glass. The guest checks the aroma to make sure there are no strong, offensive odors that shouldn't be there (such as vinegar and rotten eggs). If unsure, smell again the guest will ask the server. 4. Now the guest tastes the wine. If trying a new type of wine that guest is not familiar with, be extra cautious and the waiter should give his opinion before sending the wine back. It does depend on the policy of hotel to send back a wine and offer a replacement. 5. Once you have tasted the wine and feel it is not faulty, a simple nod or an ―it‘s fine‖ will inform the server to start filling the glasses of other guest starting with ladies, if present. The server will now decant the wine if necessary and then fill the guest‘s glasses first and finish with your glass. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 13
  14. 14. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 1.10 LESSON SUMMARY Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different types of wine. Wines made from other fruits are usually named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example, apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit wine. The term "wine" can also refer to the higher alcohol content of starch-fermented or fortified beverages such as barley wine, sake, and ginger wine. Wine has a rich history dating back thousands of years, with the earliest known production occurring around 8,000 years ago on the territory of modern-day Georgia. It first appeared in the Balkans about 4500 BC and was very common in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine, and the drink is also used in Christian Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush. 1.11 KEY WORDS Nebbiolo - a typically full-bodied red wine made from a variety of black grape grown mainly in northwestern Italy Intimidating- threatening, unapproachable, frightening Pretentious- affected, showy, exaggerated Clandestine- secret, concealed, undercover Vintages- era, typical, classic, period Novices- beginner, learner, trainee Connoisseurs – expert, authority, specialist Gamut – range, scale, extent 1.12 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in short about wine history? 2. What are the varieties of grapes used for wine making? 3. Mention the procedures of wine making? 4. Write in detail about types of Wine? 5. Write in short about Wine Storage? 6. Write in short about wine serving Temperature? 7. Write in detail about Wine glasses? 8. Write about the serving ritual of wine to guest? 1.13 REFERENCES 1. Andrew Durkan, John Cousins, The Beverage Book, Hodder Arnold H&S. 2. Costas Katsigris, Chris Thomas, The Bar and Beverage Book, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 3. Wallace Rande, The Beverage Service World, Valentino Luciani , Prentice Hall. 4. Mary Lou Heiss (Author), Robert J. Heiss , Hot Drinks:Cider, Coffee, Tea, Hot Chocolate, Spiced Punch, and Spirits,Ten Speed Press. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 14
  15. 15. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second UNIT- 2 BREAK FAST CONTENTS 2.0 Objectives 2.1 Introduction 2.2. Types of Breakfast 2.2.1 English Breakfast 2.2.2 Continental Breakfast 2.3 Lesson Summary 2.4 Key Words 2.5 Questions to Solve 2.6 References 2.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about the menu. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: ◘Types of breakfast ◘Menu for each type of breakfast ◘Table setting ◘Breakfast cover ◘Order of service. 2.1 INTRODUCTION Breakfast is the first meal of the day, typically eaten in the morning. The word derives from the idea of breaking the involuntary fast due to sleep. Breakfast is considered by many food experts to be a most important meal of the day. Traditionally, breakfast is a large cooked meal eaten before work and designed to carry people through a large part of the day. The erosion of the cooked breakfast has been an ongoing trend in the Western world, since at least the early 20th century, coinciding with late waking times than when most Westerners had agricultural occupations, starting early in the morning. 2.2 TYPES OF BREAK FAST Breakfast is traditionally a British rather than a continental meal, originating from the days of the private hours and family service. At this time it was a very substantial meal, coursing of some six or seven courses, including such items as chops, liver, game and even steak, as the main part of the meal. For European, a continental breakfast is of a much lighter and takes the form of a light snack, as their mid-day meal is generally taken earlier and is much more substantial, than in Britain. During the past decade, however, people in Britain have been eating for less breakfast foods, such as eggs and bacon and have tuned to more healthy or high fiber foods, such as cereals together with increase in consumption of yoghurt. In London the current trend is for hotels to serve a continental breakfast inclusive in the room rate, and to serve the full English breakfast at an a la carte charge. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 15
  16. 16. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 01. Café Complete The term café complete is widely used on the continent and means, in effect a continental breakfast with coffee as the beverage. The complete is also used, in this sense, with tea as the beverage. 02. Café Simple or The Simple On the other hand the guest may order a café simple or the simple, in which case he/she requires the beverage with nothing to eat. 03. Breakfast can be mainly divided into two 2.2.1. English Breakfast A full English breakfast menu may consist of from two to eight courses, a specimen of which is shown below. The extent and variety of the menu will depend on the type of establishment in which it is being served. To meet the needs of the modern day customer the ‗menu content‘ of the English breakfast has moved towards a much more varied choice to suit all tastes. Today we expect to see on the English menu such items as fresh orange juice, fresh fruit, yogurts, continental pastries, home made preserves, margarines, decaffeinated coffee and mineral waters. Courses of English breakfast Menu 1. Chilled fruit juices 2. Stewed Fruits 3. Cereals 4. Fish 5. Eggs. 6. Meat 7. Cold Buffet 8. Breads 9. Preserves 10. Beverage 2.2.2. Continental Breakfast The traditional continental breakfast, originally in France. Consider simply of hot croissant, broche or toast, butter and preserves and coffee as beverage. The current tr-end in the continental breakfast menu is towards offering a wider variety of choice. Courses of Continental Breakfast Menu 1. Fresh fruit juice 2. Toast, broche, hot croissants butter and preserves 3. Coffee Cover for a Full English breakfast The cover for English breakfast will be a modified table d‘hôte cover as follows Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 16
  17. 17. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Joint knife and forks Fish knife and forks Sweet spoon and forks Side knife & side plate Breakfast cup, Saucer and Teaspoon Slop basin, Tea strainer Jug of clod milk Sugar bowl and tongs Under plates for tea/coffee pot and hot water/hot milk jag Butter dish on a doily on an under plate with a butter milk Preserve dish on a doily on an under plate with a presence spoon Cruet set salt pepper and mustard Castor sugar Ash tray Serviette Toast rack on an under plate Table number Bread boat containing the croissant or brioche in a serviette to keep them warm Item mentioned above which are placed after the guest is seated 1. Butter dish and butter 2. Preserve dish with presence 3. Jug of cold milk 4. Toast rack with toast or baskets with hot rolls Cover for Continental Breakfast 1. Side plate and a side knife 2. Butter dish and butter knife on an under plate 3. Breakfast tea cup, Sauce & teaspoon 4. Sugar pot with tongs 5. Bread boat or toast rack 6. Serviette 7. Jam, marmalade and honey pots 8. Ashtrays Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 17
  18. 18. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 2.3 LESSON SUMMARY Breakfast is the first meal of the day, eaten in the morning. Traditionally, breakfast is a large cooked meal eaten before work and designed to carry people through a large part of the day. Breakfast in hotels may be served in the hotel / restaurant dining room or in the guest's bedroom. Some of the basic types of breakfast are: Continental breakfast, English breakfast, American breakfast and Indian breakfast. A typical Continental breakfast consists of juice, bread and beverage. The continental breakfast may also include sliced cold meats, such as salami or ham, and yogurt or cereal. The current trend in the continental breakfast menu includes a wide variety of choice of food items such as juice, cereals, yoghurts, fish, eggs, meats, potatoes and vegetables, pancakes and wafers, cold buffet, preserves, beverages, etc. The traditional English breakfast comprises of ten courses: juice, stewed fruits, cereals, fish, eggs, meats, rolls and toasts, butter and preserves, fruits and beverages. The American breakfast comprises of courses such as juice, cereals, eggs, breads and beverages. An Indian breakfast varies from region to region and is mostly vegetarian. In East India, the most popular breakfast are Bara, puri. In South India, the most popular breakfast is an assortment with several possible main dishes, such as idlis, vadas, dosas and chapatis, served with hot sambar and chutney. The usual North Indian breakfast consists of stuffed paratha or unstuffed parathas with fresh butter, cooked spicy vegetables. In urban areas, omlettes and simple butter sandwiches are becoming a popular breakfast food. Other popular Indian urban breakfast include juice, fruit salad, sweet dishes, eggs, breads, beverages, etc. 2.4 KEY WORDS Involuntary – instinctive, unintentional, uncontrolled Erosion – wearing away, corrosion, wearing down Substantial – considerable, extensive, significant Coinciding – match, correspond, happen together Trend- drift, inclination, development 2.5 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What are the different types of breakfast? 2. What comprises English breakfast? 3. What comprises Continental Breakfast? 4. Mention the cover setup of English & Continental Breakfast? 2.6 REFERENCES 1. Sylvia Meyer, Edy Schmid, Professional Table Service,John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2. Anthony J. Strianese, Pamela P. Strianese, Dining Room and Banquet Management, Thomson Delmar Learning. 3. Joseph Houston, Neil Glenesk, The Professional Service of Food and Beverage, Batsford technical Ltd. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 18
  19. 19. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second UNIT – 3 FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE EQUIPMENTS CONTENTS 3.0 Objectives 3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 Furniture 3.1.2 Chairs 3.1.3 Tables 3.1.4 Side Board 3.1.5 Linen 3.2 China 3.3 Tableware 3.4 Glassware 3.5 Lesson Summary 3.6 Key Words 3.7 Questions to Solve 3.8 References 3.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about the restaurant operating equipments. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: ◘ Food and beverage service equipments needed for table setting such as glassware, chinaware and table ware ◘ Furniture‘s, fixtures and linen ◘ Safe handling of equipments. 3.1 INTRODUCTION The operating equipments used in hotels / restaurants play an important role in attracting customers. The restaurant operating equipments include service equipments, furniture‘s, fixtures and linen all of which squarely reflects the standard and style of the restaurant. The atmosphere of a restaurant is largely affected by the kind of furniture used. The furniture should be utilitarian and elegant to look at. Very often by using different materials, designs and finishes and by careful arrangement, one can change the atmosphere and appearance of the food service area to suit different occasions. In any establishment a customer‘s first impressions while entering the service area is of great importance. A customer may be gained or lost on these impressions alone. The creation of atmosphere by the right choice of furnishings and equipment is therefore a contributing factor to the success of the food and beverage service area. A careful selection of items in terms of shape, design and color enhance the overall décor or theme and contributes towards a feeling of total harmony. The general points that must be considered when purchasing equipment for a food and beverage service area are. 1. Flexibility of use 2. Type of service being offered 3. Type of customer 4. Design 5. Color Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 19
  20. 20. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Durability Ease of maintenance Stack ability Cost and funds available Availability in the future – replacements Storage Rate of breakage i.e. china Shape Psychological effect on guests Delivery time In the food and beverage equipment there are certain aspects, which are to be looked into. 3.1.1 Furniture: Furniture must be chosen according to the needs of the needs of the establishment. The type of operation being run determines once specific needs as far as the dinning arrangements are concerned, very often by using different materials, designs and finishes and by careful arrangement one can change the atmosphere and appearance of the food service area to suit different occasions. Wood is the most commonly used material in dinning – room furniture. Wood is strong and rigid and resists wear and stains. The main types of furniture, which are used, are. 3.1.2 Chairs: Chairs come in an enormous range of designs, materials and colors to suit all situations and occasions. Due to the wide range of styles, the chairs vary in height and width, but as a guide, a chair seat is 46cm (18 inch) from the ground, the height from the ground to the top of the back is 1m (39 inch) and the depth from the front edge of the seat to the back of the chair is 46 cm (18 inch.) Point to note in purchasing are as above, although some of the first considerations here should be size height, shape and even the variety of seating required-banquet armchairs, straight-backed padded chairs, giving the guest a choice. Certain principles should be borne in mind when planning food and beverage service area; to maximize the seating area required considering a number of factors. The seating arrangements will depend on The size and shape of the food service area The design of tables and chairs used The allowance made for gangways and cleaning trolleys The type of establishment 3.1.3 Tables: Tables come in three accepted shapes; Round, Square and rectangular. An establishment will or may have a mixture of shapes to give variety or tables of all one. Shape according to the shape of the room and style of service being offered. These tables may seat two or four people and two tables may be pushed together to seat large parties or extensions may be provided in order to cope with special parties, luncheon, dinners, Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 20
  21. 21. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second weddings etc. by using these extensions correctly a variety of shapes may be obtained allowing full use of the room and getting the maximum number of covers in the minimum space. Square: 76 cm (2ft 6 in) square to seat two people 1 m (3 ft) square to seat four people Round: 1 m (3 ft) in diameter to seat four people 1.52 m (5 ft) in diameter to seat eight people Rectangular: 137 cm x 76 cm (4ft 6in x 2ft 6 in) to seat four people, extension for larger parties. 3.1.4.Side Boards: The style and design of a sideboard varies from establishment to establishment. It is dependent upon a) The style of service and the menu offered b) The number of waiter working from one side board c) The number of tables to be served from one sideboard d) The amount of equipments it is expected to hold It is essential that the sideboard be of minimum size and portable so that it may be moved easily if necessary. The top should be of a heat resistant material, which can be easily washed down. If a hotplate is to be used then it should be inserted on the top so it is level with the working top. After the service the sideboard is restocked for the next service. It is suggested, however that in each particular establishment the sideboard is laid up in the same fashion. If this is done the staff gets used to looking for a certain item in a certain place and this facilitates speedy service, which is essential. The items required would be adjusted according to the style of service. 3.1.5Linen: This is perhaps one of the more costly items with in overheads, and therefore its control, is of utmost importance. The generally recognized routine in the majority of establishments is an exchange at ‘one for one’. In other words, one clean item is issued for each dirty item handed over. At the end of each service the dirty linen should be noted and sent to the housekeeping department to be exchange for clean. Because of the high cost of laundering such linen, where a tablecloth is perhaps only a little grubby a slip cloth would be placed over it for the succeeding service. This is not as expensive to have relaundered, as would be a tablecloth. Dirty serviettes, when being exchanged for clean ones should be tied in bundles of ten. Linen should be stored on paper-lined shelves, the correct sizes together, and with the inverted fold facing outward, which facilitates counting and control. If the linen is not stored in a cupboard it should be covered to avoid dust settling on it. The type of linen used would depend on the class of the establishment, type of clientele and cost involved and the style of menu and service to be offered. Table Cloths Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 21
  22. 22. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 1. 137 cm x 137 cm (54 inch x 54 inch) 2. 76 cm (2ft 6 inch) square table 3. 1m (3ft) in diameter for round table Slip Cloths 1m x 1m (3ft x 3ft) used to cover a ‗grubby‘ tablecloth. Serviette 46 – 50 cm (18-20 inc) square if linen 36 – 42 cm (14 – 17 inc) square if paper Buffet Cloths 2m x 4m (6 ft x 12 ft) 3.2 China The china must blend in with the rest of the items on the table and also with the general décor, of the establishment. An establishment generally uses one design and pattern of china, but when an establishment has a number of different food service it is easier from the control point of view to have a different design in each service area. Very few caters can afford to buy high – quality china for normal day to day use because of the high initial capital outlay and replacement costs. The center therefore has to turn to what is termed ‗earthen ware‘. When purchasing china the points previously mentioned should be borne in mind and other factors to be considered are 1. Every item of earthenware should have a complete cover of glaze to ensure a reasonable length of life. 2. China should have a rolled edge, which will give added reinforcement at the edge. This, if well done, means that chipping will only occur on the under edge which is not visible to the customer 3. The pattern should be under rather than on top of the glaze. However this demands additional glaze and firing patters on top of the glaze will wear and discolor very quickly. Storage China should be stored on shelves in piles of approximately two dozen. Any higher may result in their toppling down. They should be stored at a convenient height for placing on and removing from the shelves without any fear of accidents occurring. If possible china should be kept covered to prevent dust and germs settling on it. Sizes There is a wide range of items available and their exact sizes vary according to the manufacture and the design produced. As a guide the sizes are as follows. * Side Plate * Sweet Plate * Fish Plate Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. : : : 15cm (6 in) diameter 18 cm (7 in) diameter 20 cm (8 in) diameter 22
  23. 23. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second * Soup Plate * Joint Plate * Cereal / Sweet Plate * Breakfast Cup/Saucer * Tea Cup/Saucer * Coffee Cup/Saucer (demy taste) * Tea Pot : : : : : : 20 cm (8 in) diameter 25 cm (10 in) diameter 13 cm (5 in) diameter 23-28 cl (8-10 ft. 03) 18-93 cl (6 2/3 fl 03) 9.47 cl (3 1/3 ft. 03) 28.4 cl (1/2 pt) 56.8 cl (1 pt) 85.2 cl (1 ½ pt) 113.6 cl (2 pt) Other items of china required include * Salad crescent * Hot water Jugs * Milk jugs * Cream jugs * Coffee pots * Hot milk Jugs * Consumer cup & saucer * Sugar basin * Butter dishes * Ashtrays *Egg cups * Soup bow/cup * Platte (oval) 3.3 Tableware (Flatware, Cutlery and Hollow Ware) Tableware is a term recognized as embracing all items of flatware, cutely and hollowware. It may be analyzed as follows Flatware in the catering trade denotes all forms of spoon & fork. Cutlery refers to knives and other cutting implements Hollow ware consists of any item made from silver, apart from flatware and cutlery e.g. Tea pots, milk jugs, sugar basins, oval flats The majority of food service areas use either plated silver ware or stainless steel. Once again, the points mentioned previously concerning purchasing should be born in mind. In addition, when purchasing flatware and cutlery it is important to consider. a) b) c) d) The type of menu and service offered The maximum and average seating capacity The rush hour turn – over The washing up facilities and its turn over Storage Careful storage of cutlery and flatware is most important. Ideally these should be boxes pr drawers for each specific item, each box or drawer being lined with baize to present the items concerned sliding about and becoming scratched and inarched. Other items of hollow ware should be stored on shelves, which are labeled showing where the different items go. They must be stored at a convenient height for placing on and removing from the shelves. All flatware, cutlery and hollowware should be stored in a room or cupboard, which can be locked since they constitute a large part of the capital of the Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 23
  24. 24. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second restaurant. Cutlery and flatware may be stored in cutlery trolleys of which there are a number now on the market to suit all purposes. There is almost unlimited range of flatware cutlery and hollowware in catering industry today. These items are necessary to give efficient service for any form of meal at any time of the day. Everyone is familiar with the knife, forks, spoon, flats, vegetable dish and lids, entree dish and lids, soup tureens, teapot, hot water jugs, sugar basins and so on that we see in every day use. 3.4 Glassware Glass also contributes to the appearance of the table and the overall attraction, of the room. There are many standard patterns available to the caterer. Most manufactures now supply hotel glassware in standard sizes for convenience of order, availability and quick delivery. Glasses are measured in terms of capacity by ‗fluid ounce‘ or ‗out‘ or centiliters. The term a ‗3 out‘ sherry glass denotes that one is able to get three glasses from one gill or a quarter of a pint. (14.20 centiliters) A 6 2/3 fluid ounce (18.93 centiliters goblet denotes that this particular goblet holds 62/3 fluid ounces or one third of a pint. the tulip – shaped glass for champagne is more usual now than the traditional shaped ‗saucer‘ because it retains longer the sparkle and effervescence. A good wine glass should be plain and clear so that the color and brilliance of a wine can be clearly seen. It should have a stem for holding, so that the heat of ones hand does not affect the wine on tasting Storage: Glasses are normally stored in a glass pantry and should be placed in single row on a paper lined shelve, upside down to prevent dust settling in them. An alternative to this is to have plastic coated wine racks made specifically for the purpose of stacking and storing the glasses. Such racks are also a convenient method of transport glassware from one point to another, which cuts down on the breakages Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 24
  25. 25. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 3.5 LESSON SUMMARY The operating equipments used in hotels / restaurants play an important role in attracting customers. The restaurant operating equipments include service equipments, furniture‘s, fixtures and linen all of which squarely reflect the standard and style of the restaurant. Service equipments include attractive service ware, clean dishes, plates and glassware. Glassware refers to glass and drink ware items besides tableware, such as dishes, cutlery and flatware, used to set a table for eating a meal. Many standard patterns and sizes of glassware are available to serve each drink. Chinaware is made of silica, soda ash, and china clay, glazed to give a fine finish. Chinaware is more resistant to heat than glassware. There are various classifications of chinaware which include porcelain, clay mixed with bone ash, earthenware, stoneware, etc. Tableware includes the dishes, glassware, cutlery, and flatware eating utensils (knives, forks, and spoons) used to set a table for eating a meal. Special table ware include asparagus holder, pastry slicer, pastry fork, oyster fork, lobster pick, snail tong and snail fork, snail dish, skewers, ice-cream scoop, nutcracker, etc. Stainless steel flatware and cutlery are available in a variety of grades. Various trolleys used in the food and beverage service outlets are: guerdon or flambé trolley, room service trolley, dessert trolley, hors d'oeuvre trolley, carving trolley, etc. Linens are fabric goods, such as tablecloths, napkins and slip cloths. Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. The main items of linen normally found in a restaurant are: tablecloths; slip cloths; buffet cloths; trolley and sideboard cloths; and waiter‘s cloths or service cloths. 3.6 KEY WORDS Utilitarian- useful, practical, functional Elegant – stylish, graceful, pleasing to the eye Atmosphere – ambiance, feeling, environment Harmony – agreement, accord, synchronization Flexibility – suppleness, elasticity, plasticity Borne- bear Facilitates – ease, smooth the progress of, assist Clientele – customers, patrons, clients 3.7 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in detail about F&B service equipment, Chairs, Tables, Furniture, sideboard & Linen? 2. Write in detail about chinaware & its Storage? 3. Write in detail about Glassware & its Storage? 4. Write in detail about Tableware & its Storage? 3.8 REFERENCES 1. Regina S. Baraban, Joseph F. Durocher, Successful Restaurant Design, John Wiley and Sons 2. Costas Katsigris, Chris Thomas, Design and Equipment for Restaurants and Foodservice: A Management View, 3. Dennis R. Lillicrap, John A Cousins, Food and Beverage Service, Elbs. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 25
  26. 26. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second UNIT- 4 BANQUETS CONTENTS 4.0 Objectives 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Banquets 4.3 Banquet Staff 4.4 Taking a Banquet Booking 4.5 Banquet Menu 4.6 Banquet Table Layout 4.7 Lesson Summary 4.8 Key Words 4.9Questions to Solve 4.10 References 4.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about the restaurant operating equipments. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: ◘ Regarding different types of banquet. ◘ Banquet staff, booking, menu ◘ Table Layout for banquets. 4.1 INTRODUCTION The idea of banqueting is ancient, in the sixteenth century a banquet was very different from our modern perception and stems from the medieval 'ceremony of the void'. After dinner the guests would stand and drink sweet wine and spices while the table was cleared, or ‗voided‘ (Later in the seventeenth century ‗void‘ would be replaced with the French ‗dessert‘). During the sixteenth century, guests would no longer stand in the great chamber whilst the table was cleared and the room prepared for entertainment, but would retire to the parlor or banqueting room. As the idea of banqueting developed, it could take place at any time during the day and have much more in common with the later practice of taking tea. Banqueting rooms varied greatly from house to house, but were generally on an intimate scale either in a garden room or inside such as the small banqueting turrets in Longleat House. 4.2 BANQUETS Banquets are special functions organized for professional, social or state occasions. Banqueting is the service for these functions and is different from them usual service offered in restaurants. Normally such functions are organized when the numbers of people involved are fifteen or more. The types of functions normally are: Professional Luncheons Company, Clubs. Conferences National or International, Seminars, Training Courses. Meetings Board Meetings, Press, Professional Associates, Dealers. Exhibitions Paintings, Sculpture, Fabric, Books, Sales etc. Social Dinners Old Boys Association, Company annual days. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 26
  27. 27. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Wedding receptions Cocktail parties Fashion shows Recitals Coffee parties Balls State Dinners for Heads of States. - Intra-Government and Inter-Government parties National Days. 4.3 BANQUET STAFF: The Banquet staff normally consists of the following: In the above set-up the Banquet Manager is over-all in-charge of administration, dealing with guests and co-coordinating all arrangements. The supervisor co-ordinates the implementation of function arrangements and controls staff job allocation. The Waiters and Assistant Waiters make the actual arrangements and do the service. The banquet department normally has a skeleton staff and employs causal staff for large functions. The banquet representative prepares a sales kit of brochures, fact sheets, layouts, etc., and visits potential clients to solicit business. The representative is often present in functions to ensure that guests are satisfied with the arrangements. The secretary handles all correspondence and filing and often takes booking on the phone. 4.4 TAKING A BANQUET BOOKING A booking is taken on a special information sheet called Function Sheet or Function Prospectus. The type of information recorded is: 1. Name of Booking Party. 2. Name of the person to whom the bill is to be sent to. 3. Nature and type of function. 4. Date of function. 5. Time of function. 6. Number of people excepted and number guaranteed. A guaranteed number is the minimum number of people for whom a charge will be made. 7. Menu-type of service required. 8. Wines, alcohols and non-alcoholic drinks to be served. 9. Types of table layout. 10. Special arrangements such as, band, microphones, lectures, ramps, flowers, icecarvings etc. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 27
  28. 28. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 11. 12. 13. 14. Seating plan and name of guests for state banquets. Type of menu. Price to be charged per person Price for hall and special arrangements. 4.5 BANQUET MENU There should be menus for each type of occasion. The choice should be large, varied and within a wide price range. Sometimes two or three menus are offered for each types of occasion. Each menu is well balanced offering vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. A typical lunch or dinner menu would offer: Hors d, oeuvre Soup Entré Sweet Dish Coffee Guests may add other courses according to their choice and budget. Care must be taken that the Menu Card is carefully and attractively designed. The Person-in-charge of banquet booking must be fully conversant with the preparation and presentation of each dish. 4.6 BANQUET TABLE LAYOUTS The type of layout is dependent upon a. nature of function b. number of covers required c. size of hall allocated d. the desires of the guest e. the type of service to be provided Professional Functions Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 28
  29. 29. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second State Functions Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 29
  30. 30. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 4.7 LESSON SUMMARY Banquet can be described as a large gathering of people where arrangements are done for service of food and beverages. The word banquet means a sumptuous feast or meal. The need for its origination dates back to such era when it became mandatory to organize a different setup all together for large groups so that it can be separately looked on. The space constraint thus can be sorted out by engaging particular big halls meant for the purpose and therefore the concept of banqueting became popular. In the modern day scenario banquets are arranged to cater large number of people, mayb e i n h o n o r o f a v i s i t i n g g u e s t , d i g n i t a r i e s , b i r t h d a y o r a m a r r i a g e . H o w e v e r t h e m o d e r n concept of banqueting includes much more. The gathering of people has taken the shape of conventions, meetings, conferences, Birthday parties, reunions, etc & etc 4.8 KEY WORDS Medieval- relating to, involving, belonging to, or typical of the middle Ages in Europe Perception- insight, awareness, view Luncheons- lunch; especially: a formal usually midday meal as part of a meeting or for entertaining a guest Conferences- meeting, discussion, seminar Sculpture- statue, figure, carving Solicit- ask for, seek, request Desires- needs, requirements, wishes 4.9 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is a Banquet, and mention the types of Functions for banqueting? 2. Draw a Hierarchy chart of Banquet? 3. How to take a banquet booking? 4. Write in short about Banquet Menu? 5. Mention the different type of Banquet Layout thru drawing? 4.10 REFERENCES 1. Sudan Amrik Singh, Restaurant Management, Anmol Publications. 2. Dennis R. Lillicrap, John A Cousins, Food and Beverage Service, Elbs. 3. Loftus David (2007), Restaurant Notes, Ryland Peters & Small. 4. Sudhir Andrews, Food and Beverage Service Manual, Tata McGraw Hill. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 30
  31. 31. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second . Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 31
  32. 32. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 32
  33. 33. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second UNIT -5 ORDER TAKING PROCEDURES CONTENTS 5.0 Objectives 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Order Taking procedure 5.2.1 Receiving the guest 5.2.2 Attending an Order 5.2.3 Recording an Order 5.3 Room Service 5.3.1 By Door Hanger 5.3.2 By Telephone 5.4 Lesson Summary 5.5 Key Words 5.6Questions to Solve 5.7 References 5.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about the order taking procedures in a restaurant. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: ◘Order taking procedures ◘Methods of taking food and beverage order ◘Room service ◘Cover laying for various foods 5.1 INTRODUCTION Order taking is a skillful art that reflects the efficiency of both the waiter and the establishment. The order taker (waiter) should be skillful to handle array of customers efficiently. He should have a very good memory. He should have good oral communication skills. Knowledge about food and beverage, their garnishes and accompaniments, matching wines and spirits, cooking time and serving time, description of dishes in a lucid manner are other important qualities of order taker. He should also possess a rapid writing skill legible enough so that other subordinates can understand and execute the order. 5.2 ORDER TAKING PROCEDURE The order taking procedure in a hotel industry is discussed in detail in the following paragraphs. 5.2.1 Receiving the Guest 1. The welcoming of the guests represents the most important step to his final satisfaction and reflects the level and quality of the service of an establishment 2. Guests must be welcomed from the entrance of t h e restaurant; they should not wait by themselves for more than 10 seconds at the entrance. 3. The first impression received by the guest is most important. It is not necessary to execute the whole welcoming procedure with each guests (it is not always possible in case of affluence), however, it is indispensable to show him that he has been taken into consideration, if it is only by eye contact. 4. If the hostess or the maître d‘ is occupied, the head waiter or the assistant waiter must show the guests that they have been taken into consideration. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 33
  34. 34. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 5. If there is an overbooking problem (more tables have been reserved than the restaurant can welcome), guests should not be left at the entrance but invited to sit down at the bar and take care of the problem away from their presence. 6. The hostess or Maître d' must try to seat the guests if he /she have to modify the planning of reservations at the moment of the guest‘s arrival. 7. The hostess or the head waiter will accompany the guests to his table and pull out the chair for him / her to sit. 8. The head waiter or the assistant waiter will immediately present himself to the table to show the guests that he has been taken into consideration 5.2.2 Attending an Order 1. The waiter will approach the guest from the left, place the menus, ensuring they are clean, in front of him and enquire: ―May I have your order please, sir / madam?‖ 2. He should wait patiently, facing the guests, until (after any necessary advice has been asked for and given) the order is completed as fast as and including the main course. 3. When the menus are long and varied, it is advisable to allow customers a few minutes before asking the order. 4. When it is apparent that there is a host, take his instructions first, and otherwise receive orders as soon as the guests are ready. 5. If the waiter is busy and cannot attend to a customer at once, he should inform him that he will attend to him shortly or ―in a moment‖. 6. When two tables are occupied at approximately the same time, the waiter must take the order of the first party first. Customers are apt to note with annoyance any failure to a ―first come, first served‖ sequence. 7. Waiter must be aware not only of the specialty of the day but also reasonable dishes to recommend. He should know the following things as far as possible: Knowing which dishes are ready for quick service to guests in a hurry. Items suitable for children: Salad, vegetable and potato suggestions for grills, roasts and main courses for a la carte guests. 5.2.3 Recording an Order 1. The Head Waiter should write in the corner of the order sheet; the table number and the number of persons being served. He also notes the time at which the order has been taken. 2. He takes the order for the appetizer; he indicates the number of guests for each appetizer opted. 3. He takes the order for the main dish. He writes the special notes at the right (example: choice of spice and hotness). He repeats the same for all the guests. 4. He takes the order for all other items. 5. He affixes his signature and hands it over to his back waiter. 5.3 ROOM SERVICE Room Service generally includes the same dishes offered in the restaurant. A three star category hotel should be able to serve at least breakfast in the rooms. Room service is part of the food and beverage department and not of housekeeping. The room service can also be responsible, after the closing of the hotel bar, to serve beverages in the rooms and manage the mini-bar. Waiter will use trays (carried high over the shoulder with the left hand) or rolling tables for the meals. Every element should be covered (film paper, carton, bells) during transportation and uncovered when entered the room. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 34
  35. 35. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second The Room Service is often situated near the kitchen, and close to the service elevator. In this way hot preparations can be served as fast as possible. Inside this service, the following are found: Working station, Toaster, Sink, Coffee / tea machine, Products shelves (cereals, sugar...), Tray shelf, Refrigerator, Order taking office / desk Room Service Order Taking One can order room service in two ways: By ―door hanger‖ By ―telephone‖ 5.3.1. By Door Hanger It is a document that the guest places on the exterior room door knob. The night audit picks up all the documents during the night. This system allows the room service employees to be ready and serve the guests on time. This document is often made up of two faces written down in two languages and is placed by housekeeping on the head of the bed. The information found in this document is the following: i) The service hour desired by the guest, leaving a margin of a quarter of hour (for example between 8:00 and 8:15 a.m.) ii) The name of the guest iii) The number of people iv) The room number v) The detailed order of breakfast desired (filled in cases) vi) A choice of newspaper proposed by the establishment 5.3.2. By Telephone The room service order is placed through telephone. In fact, it is very difficult to take an order correctly by telephone. One must be fast, not to forget any important information and try to sell the maximum to the guest. For a maximum efficiency, the Room-service personnel use digital telephones that indicate the name of the person and the room number, and the possibility to display the room number of the previous call in case they forget. The room service order is written down manually or computerized and it should include the following information: i. Room number ii. Name of the guest iii. Number of persons iv. Detailed order v. Hour the order is taken vi. Service hour The service should be fast and discrete. The service procedure is as follows: i. Verify the guest's name on the bill ii. Knock on the door iii. Announce "room service" iv. Remove plastic films from the food v. Wait until the guest invites the waiter to come in vi. Express wishes "good morning, good afternoon, good evening, call the guest by his last name (good morning mister X). vii. Ask where to place the tray viii. List the different food items ordered by the guest ix. Ask the guest to sign the bill Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 35
  36. 36. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second x. Thank the guest and explain the procedure to take away the tray It is to the room service to clear away the tray when the guests have finished, either by asking them to place their tray outside of their room when they have finished, and to clear it 20 minutes after the service or by asking the guest to call them to come clear away the tray, which is more delicate because the waiter must come in the guest's intimacy the least possible. It is the object of conflict between housekeeping and the room service departments. In fact, there is nothing worst than a floor where there is dirty trays lying on the floor. One should consider that the job of the room service is finished only when all trays have been cleared away. The room service employee must have general knowledge about the hotel premises. The room service employee is often the only one to be in direct contact with the guest during his stay. The guest often asks questions concerning the technical equipment of the rooms, the hotel premises, or any other information, and the waiter must be able to answer to any need. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 36
  37. 37. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 5.4 LESSON SUMMARY Order taking is a skillful art that reflects the efficiency of both the waiter and the establishment. The order taking procedure includes welcoming of the guests, attending an order and recording an order. Essentially there are four methods of taking food and beverage orders from customers. All order taking methods are based upon these four concepts: triplicate method, duplicate method, service with order method and pre-ordered method. Room Service generally includes the same dishes offered in the restaurant. Room service is the responsibility of the food and beverage department and not of housekeeping. Waiter will use trays or rolling tables for the meals. Every item should be covered during transportation and uncovered when entered the room. One can order room service in two ways: by door hanger and by telephone. 5.5 KEY WORDS Garnishes- trimmings, accompaniments, frills Accompaniments - side dishes, accessories Lucid- clear, logical, simple Indispensable- crucial, essential, necessary Apparent- obvious, evident, noticeable Appetizer – starter, starter, nibble Intimacy – familiarity, closeness, relationship Delicate – fragile, frail, slight Premises- property, site, building 5.6 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What are the Procedures in Order taking? 2. What are the Procedures in Room Service Order taking? 3. What is Room service order taking through door hanger? 4. Write in short about Room service order taking through Telephone? 5.7 REFERENCES 1. Lendal H. Kotschevar, Valentino Luciani , Presenting Service: The Ultimate Guide for the Foodservice Professional, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2. Anthony J. Strianese, Pamela P. Strianese , Dining Room and Banquet Management, Thomson Delmar Learning. 3. Joseph Houston, Neil Glenesk , The Professional Service of Food and Beverage, Batsford technical Ltd. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 37
  38. 38. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second UNIT – 6 CHEESE CONTENTS 6.0 Objectives 6.1 Introduction 6.2. Cheese 6.3 Production 6.3.1 Curdling 6.3.2 Curd Processing 6.3.3 Ripening 6.4 Types of cheese 6.5 Popular cheese 6.5.1 Cheddar Cheese 6.5.2 Blue Cheese 6.6 Lesson Summary 6.7 Key Words 6.8Questions to Solve 6.9 References 6.0 OBJECTIVE In this lesson we shall discuss about the Chesses. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: ◘ Its production, e.g. curdling, ripening ◘ Types of cheese ◘ Popular cheeses e.g. cheddar & blue cheese. 6.1 INTRODUCTION Cheese is an ancient food whose origins predate recorded history. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheese making originated, either in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and, according to Pliny the Elder, had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being. Proposed dates for the origin of cheese making range from around 8000 BCE (when sheep were first domesticated) to around 3000 BCE. The first cheese may have been made by people in the Middle East or by nomadic Turkic tribes in Central Asia. Since animal skins and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provided storage vessels for a range of foodstuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. There is a legend with variations about the discovery of cheese by an Arab trader who used this method of storing milk. 6.2 CHEESE Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein. Typically, the milk is acidified and addition of the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 38
  39. 39. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second final form. Some cheeses have molds on the rind or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature. Hundreds of types of cheese are produced. Their styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal's diet), whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents. The yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is formed from adding annatto. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, then the addition of rennet completes the curdling. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family. Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep may depend on the type of cheese; labels on packets of cheese often claim that a cheese should be consumed within three to five days of opening. Generally speaking, hard cheeses last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat's milk cheese. Cheese makers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, and lower shipping costs. The long storage life of some cheese, especially if it is encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable. Additional ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black peppers, chives or cranberries. 6.3 Production 6.3.1 Curdling Swiss cheese making (heating stage) Production of Emmental cheese, the curd is broken by rotating mixers. A required step in cheese making is separating the milk into solid curds and liquid whey. Usually this is done by acidifying (souring) the milk and adding rennet. The acidification can be accomplished directly by the addition of an acid like vinegar in a few cases (paneer, queso fresco), but usually starter bacteria are employed instead. These starter bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. The same bacteria (and the enzymes they produce) also play a large role in the eventual flavor of aged cheeses. Most cheeses are made with starter bacteria from the Lactococci, Lactobacilli, or Streptococci families. Swiss starter cultures also include Propionibacter shermani, which produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles during aging, giving Swiss cheese or Emmental its holes (called "eyes"). Some fresh cheeses are curdled only by acidity, but most cheeses also use rennet. Rennet sets the cheese into a strong and rubbery gel compared to the fragile curds produced by acidic coagulation alone. It also allows curdling at a lower acidity—important because flavor-making bacteria are inhibited in high-acidity environments. In general, softer, smaller, fresher cheeses are curdled with a greater proportion of acid to rennet than harder, larger, longer-aged varieties. 6.3.2 Curd processing At this point, the cheese has set into a very moist gel. Some soft cheeses are now essentially complete: they are drained, salted, and packaged. For most of the rest, the curd is cut into small cubes. This allows water to drain from the individual pieces of curd. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 39
  40. 40. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Some hard cheeses are then heated to temperatures in the range of 35–55 °C (95–131 °F). This forces more whey from the cut curd. It also changes the taste of the finished cheese, affecting both the bacterial culture and the milk chemistry. Cheeses that are heated to the higher temperatures are usually made with thermophilic starter bacteria that survive this step—either Lactobacilli or Streptococci. Salt has roles in cheese besides adding a salty flavor. It preserves cheese from spoiling, draws moisture from the curd, and firms‘ cheese‘s texture in an interaction with its proteins. Some cheeses are salted from the outside with dry salt or brine washes. Most cheeses have the salt mixed directly into the curds. Cheese factory in Holland Other techniques influence a cheese's texture and flavor. Some examples: Stretching: (Mozzarella, Provolone) The curd is stretched and kneaded in hot water, developing a stringy, fibrous body. Cheddaring: (Cheddar, other English cheeses) The cut curd is repeatedly piled up, pushing more moisture away. The curd is also mixed (or milled) for a long time, taking the sharp edges off the cut curd pieces and influencing the final product's texture. Washing: (Edam, Gouda, and Colby) The curd is washed in warm water, lowering its acidity and making for a milder-tasting cheese. Most cheeses achieve their final shape when the curds are pressed into a mold or form. The harder the cheese, the more pressure is applied. The pressure drives out moisture—the molds are designed to allow water to escape—and unifies the curds into a single solid body. Parmigiano reggiano in a modern factory 6.3.3 Ripening A newborn cheese is usually salty yet bland in flavor and, for harder varieties, rubbery in texture. These qualities are sometimes enjoyed— cheese curds are eaten on their own—but normally cheeses are left to rest under controlled conditions. This aging period (also called ripening, or, from the French, affinage) lasts from a few days to several years. As a cheese ages, microbes and enzymes transform texture and intensify flavor. This transformation is largely a result of the breakdown of casein proteins and milk fat into a complex mix of amino acids, amines, and fatty acids. Some cheeses have additional bacteria or molds intentionally introduced before or during aging. In traditional cheese making, these microbes might be already present in the aging room; they are simply allowed to settle and grow on the stored cheeses. More often today, prepared cultures are used, giving more consistent results and putting fewer constraints on the environment where the cheese ages. These cheeses include soft ripened cheeses such as Brie and Camembert, blue cheeses such as Roquefort, Stilton, Gorgonzola, and rind-washed cheeses such as Limburger. 6.4 Types Feta from Greece There are many types of cheese, with around 500 different varieties recognized by the International Dairy Federation, over 400 identified by Walter and Hargrove, over 500 by Burkhalter, and over 1,000 by Sandine Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 40
  41. 41. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second and Elliker. The varieties may be grouped or classified into types according to criteria such as length of ageing, texture, methods of making, fat content, animal milk, country or region of origin, etc. – with these criteria either being used singly or in combination, but with no single method being universally used. The method most commonly and traditionally used is based on moisture content, which is then further discriminated by fat content and curing or ripening methods. Moisture content (soft to hard) Categorizing cheeses by firmness is a common but inexact practice. The lines between "soft", "semi-soft", "semi-hard", and "hard" are arbitrary, and many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variations. The main factor that controls cheese hardness is moisture content, which depends largely on the pressure with which it is packed into molds, and on aging time. Fresh, whey and stretched curd cheeses The main factor in the categorization of this cheese is their age. Fresh cheeses without additional preservatives can spoil in a matter of days. Emmentaler Some cheeses are categorized by the source of the milk used to produce them or by the added fat content of the milk from which they are produced. While most of the world's commercially available cheese is made from cows' milk, many parts of the world also produce cheese from goats and sheep. Double cream cheeses are soft cheeses of cows' milk enriched with cream so that their fat content is 60% or, in the case of triple creams, 75%. Soft-ripened and blue-vein There are at least three main categories of cheese in which the presence of mold is a significant feature: soft ripened cheeses, washed rind cheeses and blue cheeses. Processed cheeses Processed cheese is made from traditional cheese and emulsifying salts, often with the addition of milk, more salt, preservatives, and food coloring. It is inexpensive, consistent, and melts smoothly. It is sold packaged and either pre-sliced or unsliced, in a number of varieties. It is also available in aerosol cans in some countries. 6.5 POPULAR CHEESE 6.5.1 Cheddar Cheese Cheddar cheese originated from an English village called Cheddar. It is a firm cheese which originates from cow‘s milk. This type of cheese is one of the most popular cheeses and varies in taste. It can be of a mild taste to a sharper taste. Because of the recognition of cheddar cheese, it is usually readily available and varies in quality as well. Individuals tend to associate either off-white, pale yellow or even a pumpkin orange color with cheddar cheese. This originates from dyes being added to the cheese for a change in color. Cheddar cheese also has different flavors, which is dependent on the make of the cheese as well as the aging process. Mild tasting cheddars are usually processed for a shorter period of time while a sharper taste would come from cheese processed over a several months. There are several aspects that make cheddar different from other cheeses. Firstly, the bacteria that it is fermented with, yes, I said bacteria. Secondly, the process by which it is manufactured Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 41
  42. 42. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second and thirdly, ‗cheddaring‘ which is a process the cheese goes through to make the end result distinctive to taste. Different Types of Cheddar Cheese Cheedam – Combination of cheddar and edam cheeses. This cheese has a mild taste. 1. Steppen – This is low-fat cheddar cheese. 2. Double Gloucester – Has a high colour and a tangy flavour. 3. Cheshire – A bit acidic yet mild. Depending on the aging process and may have a more prominent flavour. 4. Cotto – Made from skimmed milk and has a fresh mild flavour. 5. Red Leicester - Has a slightly lemony taste. This cheddar cheese‘s colour originates from vegetable dye. 6.5.2 Blue Cheese Blue cheese is a common categorization of cow's milk and/or goat's milk cheeses with a blue or blue-green mold. The blue mold in these cheeses is due to mold spores from Penicillium roquefortior Penicillium glaucumto name a few. Most blue cheeses (bleu cheese) today are either injected with the mold or the mold is mixed right in with the curds, to ensure an even distribution of the mold. Blue cheese was initially produced in caves, where there was a natural presence of mold. Most of these cheeses must still be matured or aged in the caves where they were originally developed. So the longer it ages, the more intense the flavor and smoother the texture. A combination of mold and other ingredients make up the color, flavor and texture of the cheese. Many blue cheeses are made from whole cow's milk, but there are also made with goat's milk. These complex blue cheeses are usually categorized as some of the best cheeses in the world. There flavor is usually strong, and have a tangy taste that differentiate these type of cheeses from others. Types of Blue Cheese • Gorgonzola - This blue cheese is from Italy and is made from cow's milk. • Stilton - This cheese is considered to be the king English cheeses, it is manufactured from sheep or cow's milk. • Roquefort – This is made from cow's milk and is one of France's national treasures. It is somewhat porous and has a green color rather than blue streaks. It has a soft, creamy texture and has a spicy taste. • Cabrales - is one of the four most famous blue cheeses. It is a combination of cow, sheep and goat's milk. • Danablu - One of the most well-known blue cheeses originally from Denmark. • Benedictine Bleu – This cheese is from Canada and has been famous since 1943. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 42
  43. 43. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 6.6 LESSON SUMMARY According to legend, cheese was first made accidentally by a traveling shepherd, who carried milk in a pouch made from the stomach of a sheep. The combination of heat of the sun with the enzyme rennin present in the lining of the stomach curdled/separated milk into curd (a soft mass or junket) and whey. Curds are coagulated proteins (casein) known as cheese. This soft mass containing protein and fat was then drained to remove the excess liquid or whey and dried in the sun to form a harder mass which could be eaten fresh or salted and stored for later use when the food supplies were less plentiful Cheese Making is a very convenient method for converting a considerable part of the milk nutrients into a product that is less bulky, will keep well, is of a high nutritive value and is palatable and easily digestible. There are over 400 varieties of cheese listed as being made in different parts of the world. They are made from a variety of different milks from animals like cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and others, by different methods of manufacture, are ripened for different periods of time in different conditions and are made in different sizes from a few ounces to the very large size of 70 lbs or more. They will also differ by color, texture, hardness, odor and taste. 6.7 KEY WORDS Thermophilic - an organism that thrives in a warm environment, e.g. a bacterium Emmental- or Emmentaler is a cheese from Switzerland. Sophisticated- complicated, classy, stylish Generic- general, common, common Coagulation- A separation from a dispersed state of suspension particles resulting from their growth Casein- Casein is a protein found in milk, used as a binding agent in many foods and medicines Enzyme- Enzymes are biological molecules that catalyze chemical reactions Rennet - Rennet is an enzyme which traditionally comes from the stomach of young milk fed calf Brine - salt water, sea water Tangy- tasty, spicy, flavorful Streaks- line, strip, vein Porous- absorbent, leaky, spongy 6.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in short about Cheese and its History? 2. Write in short about curdling in cheese production? 3. Write in short about curd processing in cheese production? 4. Write in short about Ripening in cheese production? 5. Mention the different types of Cheese? 6. Mention the various popular cheeses? 6.9 REFERENCES 1. Deborah Madison, the Savoury Way, Bantam Press. 2. Cordon Bleu Cookery School, Cheese and Savouries, Macdonald 3. Theodora Fitzgibbon, Savouries, Century. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 43
  44. 44. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second UNIT- 7 TOBACCO CONTENTS 7.0 Objectives 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Tobacco 7.3 Types 7.4 Production 7.4.1 Cultivation 7.4.2 Curing 7.5 Cigars 7.5.1 Wrappers 7.5.2 Fillers 7.5.3 Binders 7.5.4 Size & shapes 7.6 Little Cigars 7.7 Lesson Summary 7.8 Key Words 7.9 Questions to Solve 7.0 References 7.0 OBJECTIVE In this lesson we shall discuss about the Tobacco. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: ◘ Its production, e.g. cultivation, curing ◘ Regarding Cigar; wrappers, fillers, binders, sizes ◘ And also about little cigars. 7.1 INTRODUCTION Tobacco has a long history from its usages in the early Americas. It became increasingly popular with the arrival of the Europeans by whom it was heavily traded. Following the industrial revolution, cigarettes became popularized, which fostered yet another unparalleled increase in growth. This remained so until the scientific revelations in the mid-1990s. 7.2 TOBACCO Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines. It is most commonly used as a drug, and is a valuable cash crop for countries such as Cuba, China and the United States. Tobacco is a name for any plant of the genus Nicotiana of the Solanaceae family (nightshade family) and for the product manufactured from the leaf and used in cigars and cigarettes, snuff, and pipe and chewing tobacco. In consumption it most commonly appears in the forms of smoking, chewing, snuffing, or dipping tobacco. Tobacco had long been in use as an entheogen in the Americas, but upon the arrival of Europeans in North America, it quickly became popularized as a trade item and a widely-abused drug. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 44
  45. 45. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Because of the powerfully addictive properties of nicotine, tolerance and dependence develop. Absorption quantity, frequency, and speed of tobacco consumption are believed to be directly related to biological strength of nicotine dependence, addiction, and tolerance. The usage of tobacco is an activity that is practiced by some 1.1 billion people, and up to 1/3 of the adult population. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports it to be the leading preventable cause of death worldwide and estimates that it currently causes 5.4 million deaths per year. Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in developed countries, but continue to rise in developing countries. Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds are sown in cold frames or hotbeds to prevent attacks from insects, and then transplanted into the fields. Tobacco is an annual crop, which is usually harvested mechanically or by hand. After harvest, tobacco is stored for curing, which allows for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids. This allows for the agricultural product to take on properties that are usually attributed to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Following this, tobacco is packed into its various forms of consumption, which include smoking, chewing, snuffing, and so on. Most cigarettes incorporate flue-cured tobacco, which produces a milder, more inhalable smoke. Use of low pH, inhalable, flue cured tobacco is one of the principal reasons smoking causes lung cancer and other diseases association with smoke inhalation. 7.3 TYPES There are a number of types of tobacco including, but are not limited to: Aromatic fire-cured is cured by smoke from open fires. In the United States, it is grown in northern middle Tennessee, central Kentucky and in Virginia. Fire-cured tobacco grown in Kentucky and Tennessee are used in some chewing tobaccos, moist snuff, some cigarettes, and as a condiment in pipe tobacco blends. Another fire-cured tobacco is Latakia, which is produced from oriental varieties of N. tabacum. The leaves are cured and smoked over smoldering fires of local hardwoods and aromatic shrubs in Cyprus and Syria. Bright leaf tobacco, Bright leaf is commonly known as "Virginia tobacco", often regardless of the state where they are planted. Prior to the American Civil War, most tobacco grown in the US was fire-cured dark-leaf. This type of tobacco was planted in fertile lowlands, used a robust variety of leaf, and was either fire cured or air cured. Most Canadian cigarettes are made from 100% pure Virginia tobacco. Burley tobacco is an air-cured tobacco used primarily for cigarette production. In the U.S., burley tobacco plants are started from palletized seeds placed in polystyrene trays floated on a bed of fertilized water in March or April. Cavendish is more a process of curing and a method of cutting tobacco than a type. The processing and the cut are used to bring out the natural sweet taste in the tobacco. Cavendish can be produced from any tobacco type, but is usually one of, or a blend of Kentucky, Virginia, and burley, and is most commonly used for pipe tobacco and cigars Perique, a farmer called Pierre Chenet is credited with first turning this local tobacco into the Perique in 1824 through the technique of pressure-fermentation. Considered the truffle of pipe tobaccos, it is used as a component in many blended pipe tobaccos, but is too strong to be smoked pure. At one time, the freshly moist Perique was also chewed, Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 45
  46. 46. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second but none is now sold for this purpose. It is typically blended with pure Virginia to lend spice, strength, and coolness to the blend. 7.4 PRODUCTION 7.4.1 Cultivation Tobacco plants growing in a field in Pennsylvania Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds were at first quickly scattered onto the soil. However, young plants came under increasing attack from flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris or Epitrix pubescens), which caused destruction of half the tobacco crops in United States in 1876. By 1890 successful experiments were conducted that placed the plant in a frame covered by thin cotton fabric. Today, tobacco is sown in cold frames or hotbeds, as their germination is activated by light. In the United States, tobacco is often fertilized with the mineral apatite, which partially starves the plant of nitrogen, to produce a more desired flavor. Apatite, however, contains radium, lead 210, and polonium 210—which are known radioactive carcinogens. After the plants are about eight inches tall, they are transplanted into the fields. Farmers used to have to wait for rainy weather to plant. A hole is created in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, either a curved wooden tool or deer antler. After making two holes to the right and left - you would move forward two feet, select plants from your bag and repeat. Various mechanical tobacco planters like Bemis, New Idea Setter, and New Holland Transplanter were invented in the late 19th and 20th centuries to automate the process: making the hole, watering it, guiding the plant in — all in one motion. Tobacco is cultivated annually, and can be harvested in several ways. In the oldest method still used today, the entire plant is harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the ground with a tobacco knife. It is then speared onto sticks, four to six plants a stick and hung in a curing barn. In the 19th century, bright tobacco began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as they ripened. The leaves ripen from the ground upwards, so a field of tobacco may go through several so-called "pullings," more commonly known as cropping. Before this the crop needs to be topped when the pink flowers develop. Topping always refers to the removal of the tobacco flower before the leaves are systematically removed and, eventually, entirely harvested. As the industrial revolution took hold, harvesting wagons used to transport leaves were equipped with man-powered stringers, an apparatus that used twine to attach leaves to a pole. In modern times, large fields are harvested mechanically, although topping the flower and in some cases the plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand. Most tobacco in the U.S. is grown in Kentucky, Virginia and North Carolina. 7.4.2 Curing Tobacco barn in Simsbury, Connecticut used for air curing of shade tobacco Sun-cured tobacco, Bastam, Iran. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 46
  47. 47. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second Curing and subsequent aging allow for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This produces certain compounds in the tobacco leaves, and gives a sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavor that contributes to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Starch is converted to sugar, which glycates protein, and is oxidized into advanced glycation end products (AGEs), a caramelization process that also adds flavor. Inhalation of these AGEs in tobacco smoke contributes to atherosclerosis and cancer. Levels of AGE's is dependent on the curing method used. Tobacco can be cured through several methods, including: Air cured tobacco is hung in well-ventilated barns and allowed to dry over a period of four to eight weeks. Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, mild flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar and burley tobaccos are air cured. Fire cured tobacco is hung in large barns where fires of hardwoods are kept on continuous or intermittent low smoulder and takes between three days and ten weeks, depending on the process and the tobacco. Fire curing produces a tobacco low in sugar and high in nicotine. Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire cured. Flue cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which were hung from tier-poles in curing barns (Aus: kilns, also traditionally called Oasts). These barns have flues run from externally-fed fire boxes, heat-curing the tobacco without exposing it to smoke, slowly raising the temperature over the course of the curing. The process generally takes about a week. This method produces cigarette tobacco that is high in sugar and has medium to high levels of nicotine. Sun-cured tobacco dries uncovered in the sun. This method is used in Turkey, Greece and other Mediterranean countries to produce oriental tobacco. Sun-cured tobacco is low in sugar and nicotine and is used in cigarettes. 7.5 CIGAR A cigar is a tightly-rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco that is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the mouth. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Brazil, Cameroon, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Indonesia, Mexico, Nicaragua, the Philippines, and the Eastern United States. Dominant manufacturers Two firms dominate the cigar industry. Altadis, the world's largest cigar producer, produces cigars in the United States, the Dominican Republic, and Honduras, and has a 50% stake in Corporación Habanos in Cuba. It also makes cigarettes. Swedish Match, the second largest producer, produces cigars in Honduras, Belgium, Germany, Indonesia, the United States, and the Dominican Republic; it also makes chewing and pipe tobacco, snuff, lighters, and matches. Other manufacturers include General Cigar Co. and the Oliva Cigar Co. Composition Cigars are composed of three types of tobacco leaves, whose variations determine smoking and flavor characteristics: Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 47
  48. 48. Food and Beverage Service-II, Semester- Second 7.5.1 Wrappers A cigar's outermost leaves, or wrapper, come from the widest part of the plant. The wrapper determines much of the cigar's character and flavor, and as such its color is often used to describe the cigar as a whole. Over 100 wrapper shades are identified by manufacturers, but the seven most common classifications are as follows, from lightest to darkest: Cigar Wrapper Color Chart Color Double Claro Description very light, slightly greenish (also called Candela, American Market Selection or jade); achieved by picking leaves before maturity and drying quickly, the color coming from retained green chlorophyll; formerly popular, now rare. Claro Very light tan or yellowish. Indicative of shade-grown tobacco. Colorado Claro Colorado medium brown, includes Natural and English Market Selection Distinctive reddish-brown (also called Rosado or Corojo) Colorado Maduro Maduro Darker brown; often associated with African wrapper from Cameroon, and Honduran or Nicaraguan grown wrapper from Cuban seed. Very dark brown or black; primarily grown in Connecticut, Mexico, Nicaragua and Brazil. Very black, (also called Double Maduro), often oily in appearance; has become more popular in the 2000s; Oscuro mainly grown in Cuba, Nicaragua, Brazil, Mexico, and Connecticut, USA. In general, dark wrappers add a touch of sweetness, while light ones add a hint of dryness to the taste. 7.5.2 Fillers The majority of a cigar is made up of fillers, wrapped-up bunches of leaves inside the wrapper. Fillers of various strengths are usually blended to produce desired cigar flavors. In the cigar industry this is referred to as a "blend". Many cigar manufacturers pride themselves in constructing the perfect blend(s) that will give the smoker the most enjoyment. The more oils present in the tobacco leaf, the stronger (less dry) the filler. Types range from the minimally flavored Volado taken from the bottom of the plant, through the light-flavored Seco (dry) taken from the middle of the plant, to the strong Ligero from the upper leaves exposed to the most sunlight. Fatter cigars of larger gauge hold more filler, with greater potential to provide a full body and complex flavor. However, this effect can be diminished because of the generally poorer burn characteristics of thicker cigars (greater than 50 ring gauge), and the fact that these cigars burn cooler. This can prevent the full spectrum of flavors from being easily detectable. When used, Ligero is always folded into the middle of the filler because it burns slowly. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 48