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  1. 1. Shivi
  2. 2.  The ability of a superior to influence the behaviour of subordinates and persuade them to follow a particular course of action.
  3. 3. Manager Leader Manages. Innovates. Manager is a copy. Leader is original. Manager maintains. Leader develops. Manager focuses on system and structure. Leader focuses on people. Manager does things right. Leader does right things. A person becomes manager by virtue of his position. A person becomes a leader on basis of his personal qualities. All managers are leaders. Not all leaders are managers.
  4. 4.    Autocratic (Authoritarian) Participative (Democratic) Laissez faire (Delegative/ Free-rein)
  5. 5.  Autocratic:  Strict & close control over followers.  Gives orders, which must be followed by the subordinates.
  6. 6.  Democratic:  Shares ideas with subordinates.  Motivates  Guides and controls  One of the most effective leadership style
  7. 7.  Laissez Faire:  A free rein leader doesn’t lead; leaves the group to fend for itself.  Subordinates decide policies and methods on their own.  Beneficial if the subordinates are skilled.
  8. 8.  Trait theory  Behavioural theories:  Ohio State studies  University of Michigan studies  Managerial Grid  Contingency theories:      Fiedler model Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) Leader participation model Path-goal Leader-member exchange theory
  9. 9.  Acc. to this theory, a LEADER has a specific set of personal traits, which distinguish him from NON-LEADER.  “Leaders are Born, not made”.
  10. 10.  Popular traits:
  11. 11.  Started shortly after World War II. (late 1940s)  Identified two dimensions of leader behaviour:  Initiating structure: refers to leader behaviour that defines and organises the group task, assigns the tasks to employees and supervise their activities.  Consideration: refers to leader behaviour that can be characterised by friendliness, respect, supportiveness, openness, trust and concern for welfare of employees.
  12. 12.  Two dimensions of leader behaviour:  Employee-oriented: Emphasis on interpersonal relations; personal interest in the needs of employees.  Production-oriented: Emphasis on completion of the task.  Findings: Employee-oriented leaders were associated with higher productivity and job satisfaction.
  13. 13.  Developed by Blake and Mouton, it’s a Graphical portrayal of 2 dimensions of leadership style:  Concern for People  Concern for Production
  14. 14.   Effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and demand of the situation. Assumptions:  A certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.  Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.  Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.
  15. 15.  Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) questionnaire: Determines leadership style by measuring responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives. ▪ High score: a relationship-oriented leadership style ▪ Low score: a task-oriented leadership style Situational factors in matching leader to the situation: ▪ ▪ ▪ Leader-member relations: The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Task structure: The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. Position power : Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
  16. 16.   By Hersey and Blanchard. Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness.  Acceptance: leadership effectiveness depends on whether followers accept or reject a leader.  Readiness: the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.
  17. 17. SLT’s findings: Followers Leaders Unable & Unwilling to do a task Need to give clear directions Unable & Willing Display high task and high relationship orientation Able & Unwilling Use a supportive and Participative style Both Able & Willing Doesn’t need to do much
  18. 18.  Developed by Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton  A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.
  19. 19.  Leader’s job to provide followers with the information, support or other resources necessary for them to achieve their goals.  Leaders assume different leadership behaviours:  Directive  Supportive  Participative  Achievement oriented
  20. 20.  LMX theory argues that because of time pressures, leader establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers.  The creation by leaders of in-groups and outgroups; subordinates with in-groups status will have a higher performance rating, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
  21. 21.  Transactional and Transformational Leadership ‘Transactional leadership’ involves exchange relationship between the leader and follower.  Features of Transactional Leader  Contingent Reward  Management by Exception (Active)  Management by Exception (Passive)  Laissez Faire
  22. 22.    Leaders who inspires followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization. One who is capable of having a extraordinary effect on his or her followers. Features of Transformational Leaders  Charisma  Inspiration  Individual Consideration
  23. 23.  Visionary Leadership : The ability to create a realistic, credible, attractive vision for the future for an organization that grows out of and improves on the present.  Charismatic Leadership: According to Plato’s and Confucius ‘a leader is born not made.’ Charisma is a god-gifted attribute in a person which makes him a leader.
  24. 24. Dhirubhai Ambani has not only been a great leader but also an inspirational story for several youngsters hailing from small towns to make it big in their respective fields. Mahatma Gandhi was a major political and spiritual leader of India who led the country in the various movement during its struggle for independence. Adolf Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party and a notorious dictator of Germany. As a leader of the Nazi party, Hitler promoted nationalism, anti-Semitism, anti-communism by establishing a Fascist dictatorship in Germany
  25. 25. Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States who led the country to victory during the American Civil War. Steve Jobs was an unconventional leader. His management style wasn't the stuff of university textbooks - he wasn't known for his consultative or consensus building approach. George Washington was the first President of the United States who led the Continental Army to victory in the American Revolutionary War against the Kingdom of Great Britain and saved the nation from the threat of collapse during its most crucial time. Mother Teresa was very humble and never cared about her own image, a rare quality that could hardly be seen in any leader around the world.
  26. 26. 1. Akio Morita Morita co-founded Sony, a multi-billion dollar company. But the company’s beginnings were not so rosy. 2. Bill Gates Before building his empire, Gates started a business called Traf-O-Data which went no-where and he dropped out of Harvard. 3. Colonel Sanders Surprisingly, the Colonel’s famous secret chicken recipe was rejected over a 1,000 times before a restaurant accepted it. He founded KFC in age of 65. 4. Evan Williams Before co-founding the social media giant Twitter, he founded a company called Odeo. But Apple announced iTunes store, making Odeo obsolete. 5. Fred Smith While studying at Yale University, Fred Smith presented a business idea to his business management class that received a nearly failing grade. The idea was for a parcel service that could deliver packages overnight. Smith ignored the grade and founded FedEx.
  27. 27. 6. Henry Ford Ford’s first two car companies failed and left him broke. But that didn’t stop him from founding Ford Motor Company. 7. Mark Cuban Before making billions selling his company to Yahoo, Cuban failed at a variety of jobs. He failed as a carpenter, as a cook, as a waiter. 8. Soichiro Honda Honda initially applied for a job at Toyota as an engineer, but was turned down. Being jobless, he started making scooters at home, which he sold to neighbors. With the support of his family, he founded Honda. 9. Thomas Edison Edison, one of the most prolific inventors in history , was told as a boy by his teacher that he was too stupid to learn anything and suggested he go into a field that did not require intelligence. He tried more than 9,000 experiments before he created the first successful light bulb. 10. Walt Disney Disney was fired by an editor because, “he lacked imagination and had no original ideas.” His first animation company went bankrupt and it’s said that he was turned down hundreds of times when he sought financing for Disney World. Now The Walt Disney company builds an entertainment empire.
  28. 28.      Be of the people People usually identify with leaders from within. Because they believe there is a “get me” feeling, When you lead by being part of the crowd. Be humble Great leaders know that no one, including themselves, is better or worse. Everyone brings their own value, and collectively there is power in that. Be simple To be a great leader, avoid communicating over people’s heads. Instead, communicate on the same level as everyone else. Block and tackle Great leaders defend, protect and help their team. They know their most important job is to make everyone else’s job easier. Believe in them Forget trying to get the people to believe in you. Instead, get them to believe in themselves. Let them know you believe they can do their job.
  29. 29. Not surprisingly there is a common thread that separates the world’s best leaders from everyone else. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. They don’t seek fame. Fame is merely a natural consequence of what great leaders do. They don’t fear criticism. Just like fame is of no importance. They don’t make superstars. For great leaders, the hero is the team. They are part of the team. They kill “the cancer.” The best leaders know when something isn’t working in the business it is their role to remove it immediately. They ask ten times more questions than answers. Effective people “seek to understand before they seek to be understood.” Their “God” is the vision. Every great innovation that has ever happened, first started with a vision and ultimately came to reality.