1 Leadership Styles


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A series of modules on project cycle, planning and the logical framework, aimed at team leaders of international NGOs in developing countries.

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  • The first in a series on Project Cycle and general management for NGO mid level staff in developing countries. This course will take around 4 - 5 hours
  • This list asks a lot… All the skills of Buddha – if we had all of these we would all be Avolokitsevara, our face would be on Angkor Thom
  • (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973)
  • With the last one the leader can become the ‘servant – leader’
  • Only delegate to staff who have the capacity to do it
  • Leaders here have an interpretor role to bridge this gap between national normal and international / expat style. Adds an extra dimension of difficulty to the approach.
  • Leaders here have an interpretor role to bridge this gap between national normal and international / expat style. Adds an extra dimension of difficulty to the approach. PUT ONTO FLIP CHARTS FOR LATER
  • Explain “morale”
  • Morale? What is it?
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is the pyramid from food and water to self actualisation.
  • Herzberg's needs are specifically job related and reflect some of the things that people want from their work as opposed to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs which reflect all the needs in a person's life.
  • Another way of looking at leadership
  • Another way of looking at leadership
  • U.S. Army definitions … Go to slide 2
  • While "paternalism" is defined by Webster’s Dictionary So paternalism supplies needs for those under its protection or control - it is directed inwards , while leadership gets things done – it is directed outwards .
  • The last revolution in Sweden put out King Gustav IV, whom they thought incompetent, and surprisingly invited a French general who served under Napoleon, to become their new King. He accepted and became King Charles XIV. Soon after, he spoke to the Swedish Parliament. He tried to do the speech in Swedish, and it was so bad the Swedes roared with laughter. The new King was so upset that he never tried to speak Swedish again. He had culture shock -- never in his French upbringing and military career had he seen subordinates who laughed at the mistakes of their superior. (This story has a happy ending as he was thought very good and ruled the country for many years and his descendants still sit on the Swedish throne.) Sweden differs from France in the way its society handles inequality (those in charge and the followers).
  • In the mid-1970s, Hofstede, a Flemish academic , identified four dimensions of culture which have proven to be strong indicators both of cultural differences and of how the culture of a country (or region or sub-group) affects the behaviour (for example, how teachers teach and students learn) and the values (for example, respect for tradition) of its people.
  • In the mid-1970s, Hofstede, a Flemish academic , identified four dimensions of culture which have proven to be strong indicators both of cultural differences and of how the culture of a country (or region or sub-group) affects the behaviour (for example, how teachers teach and students learn) and the values (for example, respect for tradition) of its people. Has anyone here had a Swedish boss? Scandinavian? European? What is his management style?
  • There is no score available for Cambodia, but we can take our neighbours as an indication - Vietnam’s is 70. Thailand’s is 64. Often expatriates fill the senior positions .. What effect does this have on the style of the organisation – expats seen as the patrons and Cambodians as clients.
  • Some see paternalistic behaviour as a very rough way of getting things done. But leadership is all about getting things done for the organisation. And in some situations, a paternalistic style of decision-making might be required; indeed, in some cultures and individuals, it may also be expected by not only those in charge, but also the followers. Does this apply to Cambodia? It makes leadership styles quite interesting -- they basically run along the same continuum as Hofstede's PDI, ranging from paternalistic to consultive styles of decision making. This allows a wide range of individual behaviours to be dealt with, ranging from beginners to peak performers. In addition, it accounts for the fact that not everyone is the same. However, when paternalistic or autocratic styles are relied upon too much and the employees are ready and/or willing to react to a more consultive type of leadership style, then it can be quite damaging to the performance of the organization.
  • Power distance example: on tv Air Crash Investigation – Dutch airliner taking off at Tenerife, KLM culture is high power distance in the cockpit, the pilot was the chief pilot and so respected that he was used in their advertising, copilot was unable to question his boss, but the copilot and flight engineer BOTH thought the tower had not said the runway was clear .. (next slide)
  • they crashed into Pan Am jumbo taxiing on runway, lead to 583 deaths. This is the danger of power difference
  • The story is about two criminals who say to the King   "We are two very good tailors and after many years of research we have invented an extraordinary method to weave a cloth so light and fine that it looks invisible. As a matter of fact it is invisible to anyone who is too stupid and incompetent to appreciate its quality." But they actually make nothing and everyone is too afraid to seem stupid or to disagree, so they let the king parade through the town with no clothes on.
  • There are many top 10 and top 12 tips on leadership . They take many different angles, from team dynamics to personal style and preference analysis (best used for recruiting). Here are 7
  • This is affected by the PDI principles. What does our time sheet system say about trust? Quote: “If you don't trust them, you need to manage them up or manage them out.”
  • Team building exercises and trips are becoming popular in western businesses. Outside work hours is not so easy to do often, so maybe at work .. celebrate something at work, maybe snacks and coffee for a UN day – breakfast? – can do without losing work time. Create rituals to bond the team – things you do regularly become a comfortable inclusion
  • One bad team member can destroy a team, it is very important to deal with issues, losing one troublesome member is better than losing one good member and demotivating the rest. Discipline – best done one on one, but unsubstantiated allegations may need a group approach
  • 3. When you give feedback, be specific. Don't say, "You ran a good meeting." Do say, "I particularly liked the way you got the men to talk so they understand that its not a women’s problem."
  • Really restates the Motivators and Satisfiers theory Example : At an African NGO - the poor workspace lead to lost papers. Employee was blamed but if the job is not well set up the people will fail.
  • What about this place?? INSERT PHOTO OF WORKPLACE HERE Ask question and straight to next slide
  • Discussion or Exercise in groups. Use Flip Charts from before: can you rethink the ideas in terms of motivators? Include why expatriates ignore the seemingly obvious and get frustrated with failed initiatives. Then - on to a specific aspect – meetings.
  • One important aspect of leadership is running meetings. “Information is power” Is this abused? Sharing is important, all together is efficient. Divide by skills or for practical needs, avoid duplication of effort and gaps.
  • Drives the meeting: 1. all must have a chance to speak, BUT control the ‘running on’ and getting off the point. 2. No personal comments. 3. Private conversations are not appropriate a) sensitive subjects b) subjects that involve only 1 team member 4. Discipline – people talking amongst themselves, wandering off, answering phones. See photo next slide
  • 5 people, 7 mobile phones !! How well is the translator (at far left) doing his job?
  • 1 Leadership Styles

    1. 1. Leadership Styles 1. Leading and working with teams
    2. 2. Overview of this session <ul><li>What is Leadership ? </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Leadership ? <ul><li>Leadership is about behaviour first, skills second. </li></ul><ul><li>Good leaders are followed because people trust and respect them, not for the skills they possess. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is different to management. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership needs management skills, plus - integrity, honesty, humility, courage, commitment, sincerity, passion, confidence, positivity, wisdom, determination, compassion, sensitivity and personality. </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is Leadership Style? <ul><li>… the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. </li></ul>Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and set three major leadership styles.
    5. 5. 3 Styles <ul><li>The three major styles of leadership are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian or autocratic - ‘Boss’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participative or democratic - ‘Teamwork’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegative or Free Reign - ‘Multidisciplined’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style. </li></ul>
    6. 7. Authoritarian (autocratic) <ul><li>“ I want both of you to...” </li></ul><ul><li>This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how, without getting the advice of their team. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be used when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time , and your employees are well motivated . </li></ul><ul><li>Some people think of this style as yelling, using bossy language and threats and abusing their power. </li></ul><ul><li>This is not the authoritarian style, it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around. It has no place in a leader's work. </li></ul><ul><li>The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Participative (democratic) <ul><li>“ Let's work together to solve this…” </li></ul><ul><li>This style involves the leader including one or more employees in decision making (decide what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision-making authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. </li></ul><ul><li>This is best used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. A leader is not expected to know everything -- this is why you employ knowledgeable and skilful employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Using this style is of mutual benefit -- it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. </li></ul>
    8. 9. Delegative (free reign) <ul><li>“ You two take care of the problem while I go…” </li></ul><ul><li>In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. </li></ul><ul><li>This is used when employees are able to see the situation and what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and give out certain tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and have confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely! </li></ul>
    9. 10. Where are we ? <ul><li>What is the system used in this country most often? </li></ul><ul><li>What about INGOs? </li></ul>
    10. 11. When? <ul><li>A good leader uses all three styles - depends on the situation and the ability of followers and leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples include: </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian style - new employee learning the job. The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn. The situation is new for the employee. </li></ul><ul><li>Participative style - a team of workers who know their job. The leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information. The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team. </li></ul><ul><li>Delegative style - a worker who knows more about the job than you. The employee needs to ‘own’ her job. Also, you might need to be doing other things. </li></ul><ul><li>Use all three : Tell your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Ask for their ideas on creating a new procedure (participative). Give tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative). </li></ul>
    11. 12. Things that decide the style to use include: <ul><li>How much time you have. </li></ul><ul><li>Are relationships based on respect and trust or on disrespect? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has the information - you, your employees, or both? </li></ul><ul><li>How well your team is trained and how well you know the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of task. Is it structured, unstructured, complicated, or simple? </li></ul><ul><li>Laws or procedures (such as safety or training plans). </li></ul>
    12. 13. What style will you use next week? <ul><li>What sort of work is planned? </li></ul><ul><li>Why will you choose this style? </li></ul>
    13. 14. Positive and Negative Approaches <ul><li>Different ways leaders approach their team: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, independence, etc. to motivate employees, while negative employers use penalties. </li></ul><ul><li>The negative approach has a place in a leader's tools, but it must be used carefully because it hurts morale. </li></ul>
    14. 15. Positive and Negative Approaches <ul><li>Negative leaders act bossy and above people. They think the only way to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay, reprimand employees in front of others, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>They think their authority is increased by frightening everyone. But when this approach is used badly morale falls; and also productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that most leaders do not use one or the other, but are somewhere in the middle. People who always work by negatives are bosses while those who mostly work by positives are real leaders. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Motivation <ul><li>Wanting to do something </li></ul><ul><li>Demotivator: makes you not want to do it </li></ul><ul><li>These can start and stop good work </li></ul>
    16. 17. Stoppers and Starters <ul><li>Herzberg (1966) developed a list of factors like Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs , but more closely related to work. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Things that demotivate <ul><li>You need to get these right: </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and administrative practices </li></ul><ul><li>Salary and Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal life </li></ul>
    18. 19. Motivators <ul><li>These encourage staff: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Job challenge </li></ul>
    19. 20. Get it right <ul><li>The right conditions must be there in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate people. That is, you cannot use motivators until all the stoppers are fixed. </li></ul><ul><li>Building on this, Herzberg used the term &quot; job enrichment &quot; about redesigning work to build in motivators. </li></ul>
    20. 21. Consideration and Structure <ul><li>Two related approaches that leaders use are: </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration (care for employee) - Leaders are concerned about the human needs of their employees. They build teamwork, help employees with their problems, and provide psychological support. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul>
    21. 22. Consideration and Structure <ul><li>Two related approaches that leaders use are: </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Structure (task orientation) - Leaders believe that they get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders who are considerate in their leadership style are higher performers and are more satisfied with their job </li></ul><ul><li>consideration and structure are separate, and not opposites. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a leader who becomes more considerate, does not become less structured. </li></ul>
    22. 23. Paternalism <ul><li>Paternalism is confused with leadership . </li></ul><ul><li>But most definitions of leadership talk about influencing . </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is influencing people - by providing purpose, direction, and motivation - while doing the job and improving the organization.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Influence is a means of getting people to do what you want them to do. It is more than passing along orders. The example you set is just as important as the words you speak. You set an example - good or bad - with every thing you do and word you say. With your words and example, you must communicate purpose, direction, and motivation. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Paternalism <ul><li>Paternalism is confused with leadership . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Paternalism&quot; is: </li></ul><ul><li>a system under which an authority undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of those under its control ... </li></ul><ul><li>So paternalism supplies needs for those under its protection or control, while leadership gets things done. </li></ul>
    24. 25. Power Difference <ul><li>Power Difference is the amount of inequality , between people in a group. </li></ul><ul><li>It shows how much the less powerful members of organisations (for example, the family) accept and expect that power is unequal. </li></ul><ul><li>The inequality is accepted by the followers as much as by the leaders. </li></ul>
    25. 26. Power Difference Index (PDI) <ul><li>Geert Hofstede (1977) studied culture within organisations. </li></ul><ul><li>He developed a Power Difference Index (PDI) for 53 countries; scores ranged from 11 to 104 and averaged 55. </li></ul>
    26. 27. Power Difference Index (PDI) <ul><li>Geert Hofstede (1977) studied culture within organisations. </li></ul><ul><li>He developed a Power Difference Index (PDI) for 53 countries; scores ranged from 11 to 104 and averaged 55. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the number, the more autocratic and/or paternalistic the usual leadership is, which means employees are afraid or unwilling to disagree with their bosses. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower numbers mean a more consultative style of leadership, and employees who are not as afraid of their bosses. </li></ul>Malaysia has the highest PDI score, 104, while Austria has the lowest with 11. As the story before shows, Sweden has a low score (31), while France is higher (68). The USA's is 40.
    27. 28. Where are we? What do you think Cambodia’s score is? Malaysia 104 France 68 USA 40 Sweden 31 Austria 11
    28. 29. Where are we? <ul><li>Cambodia has a high PDI. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Western countries have a low PDI. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership styles show this. </li></ul>
    29. 30. Big Power Difference
    30. 31. <ul><li>620 people dead </li></ul>Big Power Difference
    31. 32. The Emperor’s New Clothes
    32. 33. Take a Break Back in 20 minutes
    33. 34. Leadership Tips <ul><li>Team building success is when your team can accomplish something bigger and work more effectively than a group of the same individuals working on their own. </li></ul>
    34. 35. Set Goals <ul><li>Make sure that the team goals are totally clear and completely understood and accepted by each team member. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure there is communication and you and your people stay fully informed. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Divide the jobs <ul><li>Make sure it is clear who does what. </li></ul><ul><li>Do your best to avoid overlaps of authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: if two team members have control of a task, try to divide that task into two distinct parts and give each control of one (may be by skill strengths, what they like, or just divide by districts or similar) </li></ul>
    36. 37. Involve all <ul><li>Involve the whole team in the decision making process. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, use group discussions of possible options. </li></ul><ul><li>What you want is each team member to feel ownership in the final idea. </li></ul><ul><li>The more he or she feels this way, the more they will commit to the action. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Trust in you <ul><li>Build trust with your team members by spending one-on-one time in an atmosphere of openness and honesty. </li></ul><ul><li>Be loyal to your employees, if you expect the same. </li></ul>
    38. 39. Trust each other <ul><li>Allow your office team members build trust and openness between each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>team building activities and events. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extra social time with each other in an atmosphere that encourages open communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, have a group meal on Friday </li></ul></ul>
    39. 40. Behaviour <ul><li>Be careful with interpersonal issues. Recognize them early and deal with them till full resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Act on any broken rules or poor behaviour. </li></ul>
    40. 41. Encourage <ul><li>Do not only give negative feedback. Be fair. Whenever there is an opportunity, give positive feedback as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Say thank you or show appreciation of an individual team player's work. </li></ul><ul><li>Never miss opportunities to encourage your employees. Be specific. </li></ul>
    41. 42. Be friends <ul><li>You can still be friends with your staff. </li></ul><ul><li>They need to understand that you are being held accountable for their work and so there will be times when you have to be directive </li></ul><ul><li>… but … </li></ul><ul><li>there will be more times when you have to rely on them to help you. </li></ul><ul><li>Good managers do not build barriers against people. </li></ul>
    42. 43. Another view: don’t manage your people! <ul><li>Forget the idea that people can be managed. It’s not possible. The more you try to manage people the more likely they are to ‘fight back'. If you do fully control of people's behaviour you end up with a team that is unable to think for themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Give up managing people and start to manage systems. Systems and processes are controllable. They can be defined, measured and managed. The good part is that most people value a well-developed system because it makes life easier and more rewarding, so they will use it. By developing a good system you get the outcome you want - increased productivity and quality performance from your team. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the tools – the ‘servant leader’. </li></ul>
    43. 45. What will work best for us? <ul><li>What style will work well in your team? </li></ul><ul><li>What suits you as team leader? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your staff used to? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your staff ready for? </li></ul>
    44. 46. Meetings <ul><li>Essential for the team to communicate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all team effort directed to the same clear goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divide tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be a very effective way to focus and improve efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a complete waste of time </li></ul>
    45. 47. Running Meetings <ul><li>Start with an Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>All talk is “through the Chair” </li></ul><ul><li>The Chairperson drives the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Keep to the Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>What are the outputs? </li></ul>
    46. 49. Meeting Outputs <ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Team spirit </li></ul><ul><li>List: Actions, Responsibilities, Times </li></ul>
    47. 50. Feedback <ul><li>Practice working in a low PDI situation </li></ul><ul><li>Please give your feed back </li></ul><ul><li>Too technical? </li></ul><ul><li>Not detailed or practical? </li></ul><ul><li>Too much, too little, off target, confusing, …. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk, email, piece of paper … </li></ul><ul><li>What about notes – can you use a handout or copy of this presentation? </li></ul>
    48. 51. <ul><li>With the support of Australian Volunteers International </li></ul><ul><li>For more in the series contact </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Thank You Produced by Tony Hobbs Health Unlimited, Ratanakiri, Cambodia www.healthunlimited.org © 2009 HU. Use with Acknowledgement