PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation
by Patty Bostwick-Taylor,
Florence-Darlington Technical College

The
Respiratory
Sy...
Organs of the Respiratory System
 Nose
 Pharynx
 Larynx
 Trachea
 Bronchi
 Lungs—alveoli

Copyright © 2009 Pearson E...
Organs of the Respiratory System

PLAY Respiration: Respiratory Tract
Figure 13.1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc....
Functions of the Respiratory System
 Gas exchanges between the blood and external
environment
 Occurs in the alveoli of ...
The Nose
 Only externally visible part of the respiratory
system
 Air enters the nose through the external nostrils
(nar...
Pharynx (Throat)
 Muscular passage from nasal cavity to larynx

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as B...
Larynx (Voice Box)
 Routes air and food into proper channels
(epiglottis – flap that covers the trachea/larynx
when food ...
Trachea (Windpipe)
 Four-inch-long tube that connects larynx with
bronchi
 Walls are reinforced with C-shaped hyaline
ca...
Upper Respiratory Tract

Figure 13.2
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Main (Primary) Bronchi
 Formed by division of the trachea
 Bronchi subdivide into smaller and smaller
branches

Copyrigh...
Main Bronchi

Figure 13.1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Main Bronchi

Figure 13.4b
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Lungs
 Occupy most of the thoracic cavity
 Apex is near the clavicle (superior portion)
 Base rests on the diaphragm (i...
Lungs

Figure 13.4a
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Respiratory Zone
 Structures
 Respiratory bronchioles
 Alveolar ducts
 Alveolar sacs
 Alveoli (air sacs)
 Site of ga...
Bronchial (Respiratory) Tree Divisions

Figure 13.5a
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cumm...
Respiratory Membrane (Air-Blood Barrier)

Figure 13.6 (2 of 2)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Ben...
Gas Exchange
 Gas crosses the respiratory membrane by
diffusion
 Oxygen enters the blood
 Carbon dioxide enters the alv...
Four Events of Respiration
 Pulmonary ventilation—moving air in and out of
the lungs (commonly called breathing)
 Extern...
Four Events of Respiration
 Respiratory gas transport—transport of oxygen
and carbon dioxide via the bloodstream
 Intern...
Mechanics of Breathing
(Pulmonary Ventilation)
 Two phases
 Inspiration = inhalation
 flow of air into lungs
 Expirati...
Inspiration
 Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
contract
 The size of the thoracic cavity increases
 External a...
Inspiration

Figure 13.7a
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Expiration
 Largely a passive process which depends on
natural lung elasticity
 As muscles relax, air is pushed out of t...
Expiration

Figure 13.7b
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
External Respiration, Gas Transport,
and Internal Respiration Summary

Figure 13.10
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, In...
Nonrespiratory Air (Gas) Movements
 Can be caused by reflexes or voluntary actions
 Examples:
 Cough and sneeze—clears ...
Neural Regulation of Respiration
 Normal respiratory rate (eupnea)
 12–15 respirations per minute
 Hyperpnea
 Increase...
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
 Normal breathing moves about 500 mL of air with
each breath
 This respiratory volume...
Hyperventilation and Hypoventilation
 Hyperventilation
 Results from increased CO2 in the blood
(acidosis)
 Breathing b...
Hyperventilation and Hypoventilation
 Hypoventilation
 Results when blood becomes alkaline
(alkalosis)
 Extremely slow ...
Respiratory Disorders: Chronic Bronchitis
 Mucosa of the lower respiratory passages
becomes severely inflamed
 Mucus pro...
Respiratory Disorders: Emphysema
 Alveoli enlarge as adjacent chambers break
through
 Chronic inflammation promotes lung...
A Closer Look: Lung Cancer
 Accounts for one-third of all cancer deaths in the
United States
 Increased incidence is ass...
A Closer Look: Lung Cancer

Figure 13.14
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Developmental Aspects of
the Respiratory System
 Asthma
 Chronic inflamed hypersensitive bronchiole
passages
 Response ...
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Ch13ppt respiratory system standard

  1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Respiratory System 13 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. Organs of the Respiratory System  Nose  Pharynx  Larynx  Trachea  Bronchi  Lungs—alveoli Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. Organs of the Respiratory System PLAY Respiration: Respiratory Tract Figure 13.1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4. Functions of the Respiratory System  Gas exchanges between the blood and external environment  Occurs in the alveoli of the lungs  Passageways to the lungs purify, humidify, and warm the incoming air Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. The Nose  Only externally visible part of the respiratory system  Air enters the nose through the external nostrils (nares)  Interior of the nose consists of a nasal cavity divided by a nasal septum Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  6. 6. Pharynx (Throat)  Muscular passage from nasal cavity to larynx Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. Larynx (Voice Box)  Routes air and food into proper channels (epiglottis – flap that covers the trachea/larynx when food enters throat)  Plays a role in speech  Made of eight rigid hyaline cartilages and a spoon-shaped flap of elastic cartilage (epiglottis) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  8. 8. Trachea (Windpipe)  Four-inch-long tube that connects larynx with bronchi  Walls are reinforced with C-shaped hyaline cartilage  Lined with ciliated mucosa  Beat continuously in the opposite direction of incoming air  Expel mucus loaded with dust and other debris away from lungs Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. Upper Respiratory Tract Figure 13.2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Main (Primary) Bronchi  Formed by division of the trachea  Bronchi subdivide into smaller and smaller branches Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  11. 11. Main Bronchi Figure 13.1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  12. 12. Main Bronchi Figure 13.4b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  13. 13. Lungs  Occupy most of the thoracic cavity  Apex is near the clavicle (superior portion)  Base rests on the diaphragm (inferior portion)  Each lung is divided into lobes by fissures  Left lung—two lobes  Right lung—three lobes Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  14. 14. Lungs Figure 13.4a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  15. 15. Respiratory Zone  Structures  Respiratory bronchioles  Alveolar ducts  Alveolar sacs  Alveoli (air sacs)  Site of gas exchange = alveoli only Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  16. 16. Bronchial (Respiratory) Tree Divisions Figure 13.5a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  17. 17. Respiratory Membrane (Air-Blood Barrier) Figure 13.6 (2 of 2) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  18. 18. Gas Exchange  Gas crosses the respiratory membrane by diffusion  Oxygen enters the blood  Carbon dioxide enters the alveoli  Alveolar macrophages (“dust cells”) add protection by picking up bacteria, carbon particles, and other debris  Surfactant (a lipid molecule) coats gas-exposed alveolar surfaces Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  19. 19. Four Events of Respiration  Pulmonary ventilation—moving air in and out of the lungs (commonly called breathing)  External respiration—gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli  Oxygen is loaded into the blood  Carbon dioxide is unloaded from the blood Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  20. 20. Four Events of Respiration  Respiratory gas transport—transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via the bloodstream  Internal respiration—gas exchange between blood and tissue cells in systemic capillaries Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  21. 21. Mechanics of Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation)  Two phases  Inspiration = inhalation  flow of air into lungs  Expiration = exhalation  air leaving lungs Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  22. 22. Inspiration  Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract  The size of the thoracic cavity increases  External air is pulled into the lungs due to  Increase in intrapulmonary volume  Decrease in gas pressure Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  23. 23. Inspiration Figure 13.7a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  24. 24. Expiration  Largely a passive process which depends on natural lung elasticity  As muscles relax, air is pushed out of the lungs due to  Decrease in intrapulmonary volume  Increase in gas pressure  Forced expiration can occur mostly by contracting internal intercostal muscles to depress the rib cage Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  25. 25. Expiration Figure 13.7b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  26. 26. External Respiration, Gas Transport, and Internal Respiration Summary Figure 13.10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  27. 27. Nonrespiratory Air (Gas) Movements  Can be caused by reflexes or voluntary actions  Examples:  Cough and sneeze—clears lungs of debris  Crying—emotionally induced mechanism  Laughing—similar to crying  Hiccup—sudden inspirations (spasms of the diaphragm)  Yawn—very deep inspiration Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  28. 28. Neural Regulation of Respiration  Normal respiratory rate (eupnea)  12–15 respirations per minute  Hyperpnea  Increased respiratory rate often due to extra oxygen needs Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  29. 29. Respiratory Volumes and Capacities  Normal breathing moves about 500 mL of air with each breath  This respiratory volume is tidal volume (TV)  Many factors that affect respiratory capacity  A person’s size  Sex  Age  Physical condition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  30. 30. Hyperventilation and Hypoventilation  Hyperventilation  Results from increased CO2 in the blood (acidosis)  Breathing becomes deeper and more rapid  Blows off more CO2 to restore normal blood pH Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  31. 31. Hyperventilation and Hypoventilation  Hypoventilation  Results when blood becomes alkaline (alkalosis)  Extremely slow or shallow breathing  Allows CO2 to accumulate in the blood Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  32. 32. Respiratory Disorders: Chronic Bronchitis  Mucosa of the lower respiratory passages becomes severely inflamed  Mucus production increases  Pooled mucus impairs ventilation and gas exchange  Risk of lung infection increases  Pneumonia is common  Called “blue bloaters” due to hypoxia and cyanosis Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  33. 33. Respiratory Disorders: Emphysema  Alveoli enlarge as adjacent chambers break through  Chronic inflammation promotes lung fibrosis  Airways collapse during expiration  Patients use a large amount of energy to exhale  Overinflation of the lungs leads to a permanently expanded barrel chest  Cyanosis appears late in the disease; sufferers are often called “pink puffers” Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  34. 34. A Closer Look: Lung Cancer  Accounts for one-third of all cancer deaths in the United States  Increased incidence is associated with smoking  Three common types  Squamous cell carcinoma  Adenocarcinoma  Small cell carcinoma Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  35. 35. A Closer Look: Lung Cancer Figure 13.14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  36. 36. Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System  Asthma  Chronic inflamed hypersensitive bronchiole passages  Response to irritants with dyspnea, coughing, and wheezing Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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