Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seventh ...
Function of the Respiratory System Slide 13.2 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul...
Organs of the Respiratory system Slide 13.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><...
Slide 13.3b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.2 Upper Respiratory Tract
Anatomy of the Nasal Cavity Slide 13.4a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>O...
Anatomy of the Nasal Cavity Slide 13.4b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>L...
Paranasal Sinuses Slide 13.5a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Cavities wi...
Paranasal Sinuses Slide 13.5b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Function of...
Pharynx (Throat) Slide 13.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Muscular pass...
Slide 13.3b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.2 Upper Respiratory Tract
Structures of the Pharynx Slide 13.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Audi...
Larynx (Voice Box) Slide 13.8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Routes air ...
Structures of the Larynx Slide 13.9a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Thyr...
Structures of the Larynx Slide 13.9b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Voca...
Trachea (Windpipe) Slide 13.10 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Connects l...
Primary Bronchi Slide 13.11 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Formed by div...
Lungs Slide 13.12a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Occupy most of the tho...
Lungs Slide 13.12b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.4b
Coverings of the Lungs Slide 13.13 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Pulmon...
Respiratory Tree Divisions Slide 13.14 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Pr...
Bronchioles Slide 13.15a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.5a <ul><li>Sma...
Bronchioles Slide 13.15b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.5a <ul><li>All...
Bronchioles Slide 13.15c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Terminal bronchi...
Respiratory Zone Slide 13.16 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Structures <...
Alveoli Slide 13.17 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Structure of alveoli ...
Respiratory Membrane  (Air-Blood Barrier) Slide 13.18a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cum...
Respiratory Membrane  (Air-Blood Barrier) Slide 13.18b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cum...
Gas Exchange Slide 13.19 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Gas crosses the ...
Events of Respiration Slide 13.20a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Pulmon...
Events of Respiration Slide 13.20b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Respir...
Mechanics of Breathing  (Pulmonary Ventilation) Slide 13.21a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjam...
Mechanics of Breathing  (Pulmonary Ventilation) Slide 13.21b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjam...
Inspiration Slide 13.22a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Diaphragm and in...
Inspiration Slide 13.22b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.7a
Exhalation Slide 13.23a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Largely a passive...
Exhalation Slide 13.23b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.7b
Nonrespiratory Air Movements Slide 13.25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>...
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.26 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <u...
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.27a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <...
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.27b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <...
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.28 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <u...
Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.29 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <u...
Respiratory Capacities Slide 13.30 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.9
Respiratory Sounds Slide 13.31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Sounds are...
External Respiration Slide 13.32a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Oxygen ...
External Respiration Slide 13.32b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Carbon ...
Gas Transport in the Blood Slide 13.33a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>O...
Gas Transport in the Blood Slide 13.33b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>C...
Internal Respiration Slide 13.34a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Exchang...
Internal Respiration Slide 13.34b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.11
External Respiration, Gas Transport, and Internal Respiration Summary Slide 13.35 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc....
Neural Regulation of Respiration Slide 13.36 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul>...
Neural Regulation of Respiration Slide 13.37 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figu...
Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and Depth Slide 13.38 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin...
Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and Depth Slide 13.39a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and Depth Slide 13.39b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Respiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Slide 13.40a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. ...
Respiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Slide 13.40b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. ...
Respiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Slide 13.40c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. ...
Emphysema Slide 13.41 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Alveoli enlarge as ...
Chronic Bronchitis Slide 13.42 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Mucosa of ...
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Slide 13.43 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin C...
Lung Cancer Slide 13.44 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Accounts for 1/3 ...
Sudden Infant Death syndrome (SIDS) Slide 13.45 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <...
Asthma Slide 13.46 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Chronic inflamed hyper...
Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System Slide 13.47a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjam...
Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System Slide 13.47b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjam...
Aging Effects Slide 13.48 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Elasticity of l...
Respiratory Rate Changes Throughout Life Slide 13.49 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummi...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Respiratory

7,296 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Respiratory

  1. 1. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 13 The Respiratory System
  2. 2. Function of the Respiratory System Slide 13.2 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Oversees gas exchanges (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the blood and external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of gasses takes place within the lungs in the alveoli(only site of gas exchange, other structures passageways </li></ul><ul><li>Passageways to the lungs purify, warm, and humidify the incoming air </li></ul><ul><li>Shares responsibility with cardiovascular system </li></ul>
  3. 3. Organs of the Respiratory system Slide 13.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Nose </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs – alveoli </li></ul>Figure 13.1
  4. 4. Slide 13.3b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.2 Upper Respiratory Tract
  5. 5. Anatomy of the Nasal Cavity Slide 13.4a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Olfactory receptors are located in the mucosa on the superior surface </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the cavity is lined with respiratory mucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moistens air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traps incoming foreign particles </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Anatomy of the Nasal Cavity Slide 13.4b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Lateral walls have projections called conchae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases surface area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases air turbulence within the nasal cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the palate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior hard palate (bone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior soft palate (muscle) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Paranasal Sinuses Slide 13.5a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Cavities within bones surrounding the nasal cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sphenoid bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethmoid bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxillary bone </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Paranasal Sinuses Slide 13.5b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Function of the sinuses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighten the skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as resonance chambers for speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce mucus that drains into the nasal cavity </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Pharynx (Throat) Slide 13.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Muscular passage from nasal cavity to larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Three regions of the pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasopharynx – superior region behind nasal cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oropharynx – middle region behind mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laryngopharynx – inferior region attached to larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The oropharynx and laryngopharynx are common passageways for air and food </li></ul>
  10. 10. Slide 13.3b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.2 Upper Respiratory Tract
  11. 11. Structures of the Pharynx Slide 13.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Auditory tubes enter the nasopharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Tonsils of the pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids) in the nasopharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatine tonsils in the oropharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lingual tonsils at the base of the tongue </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Larynx (Voice Box) Slide 13.8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Routes air and food into proper channels </li></ul><ul><li>Plays a role in speech </li></ul><ul><li>Made of eight rigid hyaline cartilages and a spoon-shaped flap of elastic cartilage (epiglottis) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Structures of the Larynx Slide 13.9a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Thyroid cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest hyaline cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protrudes anteriorly (Adam’s apple) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior opening of the larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routes food to the larynx and air toward the trachea </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Structures of the Larynx Slide 13.9b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Vocal cords (vocal folds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibrate with expelled air to create sound (speech) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glottis – opening between vocal cords </li></ul>
  15. 15. Trachea (Windpipe) Slide 13.10 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Connects larynx with bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Lined with ciliated mucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beat continuously in the opposite direction of incoming air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expel mucus loaded with dust and other debris away from lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Walls are reinforced with C-shaped hyaline cartilage </li></ul>
  16. 16. Primary Bronchi Slide 13.11 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Formed by division of the trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Enters the lung at the hilus (medial depression) </li></ul><ul><li>Right bronchus is wider, shorter, and straighter than left </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi subdivide into smaller and smaller branches </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lungs Slide 13.12a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Occupy most of the thoracic cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apex is near the clavicle (superior portion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base rests on the diaphragm (inferior portion) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each lung is divided into lobes by fissures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left lung – two lobes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right lung – three lobes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Lungs Slide 13.12b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.4b
  19. 19. Coverings of the Lungs Slide 13.13 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Pulmonary (visceral) pleura covers the lung surface </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal pleura lines the walls of the thoracic cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Pleural fluid fills the area between layers of pleura to allow gliding </li></ul>
  20. 20. Respiratory Tree Divisions Slide 13.14 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Primary bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchioli </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal bronchioli </li></ul>
  21. 21. Bronchioles Slide 13.15a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.5a <ul><li>Smallest branches of the bronchi </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bronchioles Slide 13.15b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.5a <ul><li>All but the smallest branches have reinforcing cartilage </li></ul>
  23. 23. Bronchioles Slide 13.15c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Terminal bronchioles end in alveoli </li></ul>Figure 13.5a
  24. 24. Respiratory Zone Slide 13.16 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory bronchioli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar duct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Site of gas exchange </li></ul>
  25. 25. Alveoli Slide 13.17 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Structure of alveoli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar duct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar sac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas exchange </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Respiratory Membrane (Air-Blood Barrier) Slide 13.18a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Thin squamous epithelial layer lining alveolar walls </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary capillaries cover external surfaces of alveoli </li></ul>
  27. 27. Respiratory Membrane (Air-Blood Barrier) Slide 13.18b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.6
  28. 28. Gas Exchange Slide 13.19 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Gas crosses the respiratory membrane by diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen enters the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide enters the alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macrophages add protection </li></ul><ul><li>Surfactant coats gas-exposed alveolar surfaces </li></ul>
  29. 29. Events of Respiration Slide 13.20a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Pulmonary ventilation – moving air in and out of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>External respiration – gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli </li></ul>
  30. 30. Events of Respiration Slide 13.20b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Respiratory gas transport – transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Internal respiration – gas exchange between blood and tissue cells in systemic capillaries </li></ul>
  31. 31. Mechanics of Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) Slide 13.21a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Completely mechanical process </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Volume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of gases to equalize pressure </li></ul>
  32. 32. Mechanics of Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) Slide 13.21b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Two phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiration – flow of air into lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expiration – air leaving lung </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Inspiration Slide 13.22a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the thoracic cavity increases </li></ul><ul><li>External air is pulled into the lungs due to an increase in intrapulmonary volume </li></ul>
  34. 34. Inspiration Slide 13.22b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.7a
  35. 35. Exhalation Slide 13.23a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Largely a passive process which depends on natural lung elasticity </li></ul><ul><li>As muscles relax, air is pushed out of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Forced expiration can occur mostly by contracting internal intercostal muscles to depress the rib cage </li></ul>
  36. 36. Exhalation Slide 13.23b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.7b
  37. 37. Nonrespiratory Air Movements Slide 13.25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Can be caused by reflexes or voluntary actions </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cough and sneeze – clears lungs of debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yawn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiccup </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.26 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Normal breathing moves about 500 ml of air with each breath (tidal volume [TV]) </li></ul><ul><li>Many factors that affect respiratory capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Residual volume of air – after exhalation, about 1200 ml of air remains in the lungs </li></ul>
  39. 39. Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.27a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually between 2100 and 3200 ml </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 1200 ml </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.27b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Residual volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air remaining in lung after expiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1200 ml </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.28 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Vital capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The total amount of exchangeable air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital capacity = TV + IRV + ERV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead space volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air that remains in conducting zone and never reaches alveoli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About 150 ml </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Slide 13.29 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Functional volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air that actually reaches the respiratory zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually about 350 ml </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respiratory capacities are measured with a spirometer </li></ul>
  43. 43. Respiratory Capacities Slide 13.30 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.9
  44. 44. Respiratory Sounds Slide 13.31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Sounds are monitored with a stethoscope </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchial sounds – produced by air rushing through trachea and bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicular breathing sounds – soft sounds of air filling alveoli </li></ul>
  45. 45. External Respiration Slide 13.32a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Oxygen movement into the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The alveoli always has more oxygen than the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen moves by diffusion towards the area of lower concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary capillary blood gains oxygen </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. External Respiration Slide 13.32b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Carbon dioxide movement out of the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood returning from tissues has higher concentrations of carbon dioxide than air in the alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary capillary blood gives up carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood leaving the lungs is oxygen-rich and carbon dioxide-poor </li></ul>
  47. 47. Gas Transport in the Blood Slide 13.33a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Oxygen transport in the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside red blood cells attached to hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin [HbO 2 ]) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A small amount is carried dissolved in the plasma </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Gas Transport in the Blood Slide 13.33b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Carbon dioxide transport in the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most is transported in the plasma as bicarbonate ion (HCO 3 – ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A small amount is carried inside red blood cells on hemoglobin, but at different binding sites than those of oxygen </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Internal Respiration Slide 13.34a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Exchange of gases between blood and body cells </li></ul><ul><li>An opposite reaction to what occurs in the lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide diffuses out of tissue to blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen diffuses from blood into tissue </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Internal Respiration Slide 13.34b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.11
  51. 51. External Respiration, Gas Transport, and Internal Respiration Summary Slide 13.35 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.10
  52. 52. Neural Regulation of Respiration Slide 13.36 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Activity of respiratory muscles is transmitted to the brain by the phrenic and intercostal nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Neural centers that control rate and depth are located in the medulla </li></ul><ul><li>The pons appears to smooth out respiratory rate </li></ul><ul><li>Normal respiratory rate (eupnea) is 12–15 respirations per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Hypernia is increased respiratory rate often due to extra oxygen needs </li></ul>
  53. 53. Neural Regulation of Respiration Slide 13.37 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.12
  54. 54. Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and Depth Slide 13.38 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Physical factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volition (conscious control) </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional factors </li></ul>
  55. 55. Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and Depth Slide 13.39a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Chemical factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level of carbon dioxide in the blood is the main regulatory chemical for respiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased carbon dioxide increases respiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in carbon dioxide act directly on the medulla oblongata </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and Depth Slide 13.39b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Chemical factors (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in oxygen concentration in the blood are detected by chemoreceptors in the aorta and carotid artery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information is sent to the medulla oblongata </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Respiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Slide 13.40a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Exemplified by chronic bronchitis and emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Major causes of death and disability in the United States </li></ul>
  58. 58. Respiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Slide 13.40b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Features of these diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients almost always have a history of smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labored breathing (dyspnea) becomes progressively more severe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coughing and frequent pulmonary infections are common </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Respiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Slide 13.40c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Features of these diseases (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most victimes retain carbon dioxide, are hypoxic and have respiratory acidosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those infected will ultimately develop respiratory failure </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Emphysema Slide 13.41 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Alveoli enlarge as adjacent chambers break through </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic inflammation promotes lung fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Airways collapse during expiration </li></ul><ul><li>Patients use a large amount of energy to exhale </li></ul><ul><li>Overinflation of the lungs leads to a permanently expanded barrel chest </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanosis appears late in the disease </li></ul>
  61. 61. Chronic Bronchitis Slide 13.42 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Mucosa of the lower respiratory passages becomes severely inflamed </li></ul><ul><li>Mucus production increases </li></ul><ul><li>Pooled mucus impairs ventilation and gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of lung infection increases </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia is common </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoxia and cyanosis occur early </li></ul>
  62. 62. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Slide 13.43 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13.13
  63. 63. Lung Cancer Slide 13.44 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Accounts for 1/3 of all cancer deaths in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Increased incidence associated with smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Three common types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous cell carcinoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenocarcinoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small cell carcinoma </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Sudden Infant Death syndrome (SIDS) Slide 13.45 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Apparently healthy infant stops breathing and dies during sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Some cases are thought to be a problem of the neural respiratory control center </li></ul><ul><li>One third of cases appear to be due to heart rhythm abnormalities </li></ul>
  65. 65. Asthma Slide 13.46 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Chronic inflamed hypersensitive bronchiole passages </li></ul><ul><li>Response to irritants with dyspnea, coughing, and wheezing </li></ul>
  66. 66. Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System Slide 13.47a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Lungs are filled with fluid in the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs are not fully inflated with air until two weeks after birth </li></ul><ul><li>Surfactant that lowers alveolar surface tension is not present until late in fetal development and may not be present in premature babies </li></ul>
  67. 67. Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System Slide 13.47b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Important birth defects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis – oversecretion of thick mucus clogs the respiratory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleft palate </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Aging Effects Slide 13.48 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Elasticity of lungs decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Vital capacity decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Blood oxygen levels decrease </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating effects of carbon dioxide decreases </li></ul><ul><li>More risks of respiratory tract infection </li></ul>
  69. 69. Respiratory Rate Changes Throughout Life Slide 13.49 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Newborns – 40 to 80 respirations per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Infants – 30 respirations per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Age 5 – 25 respirations per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Adults – 12 to 18 respirations per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Rate often increases somewhat with old age </li></ul>

×