Respiratory system


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  • FG24_01.JPG Title: Structures of the Respiratory System Notes: The respiratory system includes the nose, nasal cavity and sinuses, the pharynx, the larynx (voice box), the trachea (windpipe), and smaller conducting passageways leading to the exchange surfaces of the lungs. Keywords: respiratory system, nasal conchae, larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchus, lung, diaphragm
  • FG24_02A.JPG Title: The Respiratory Epithelium Notes: (a)Diagrammatic view of the respiratory epithelium. (b)Sketch and light micrograph showing sectional appearance of respiratory epithelium. (c)Surface view of the epithelium. Keywords: respiratory epithelium, cilia, goblet cell, columnar, stern cell, basement membrane, lamina propria
  • FG24_03A.JPG Title: Respiratory Structures in the Head and Neck Notes: (a) The nasal cartilages and external landmarks on the nose. (b) A frontal (coronal) section of the head showing the positions of the paranasal sinuses and nasal structures. (c)The nasal cavity and pharynx; sagittal section Keywords: respiratory structures, head, neck, nasal cartilage, dorsum nasi, apex, nares, alar cartilage, lateral nasal cartilage, paranasal sinuses, nasal conchae, meatus, maxillary sinus, trachea, vocal fold
  • FG24_03D.JPG Title: Respiratory Structures in the Head and Neck Notes: (d) Diagrammatic view of the head and neck in sagittal section, for comparison with (c). Keywords: head, neck, sagittal, nasal conchae, nasal vestibule, nares, palate, tongue, hyoid, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, trachea, glottis, vocal fold, oropharynx, tonsil, auditory tube, nasopharynx, epiglottis
  • FG24_04C.JPG Title: Anatomy of the Larynx Notes: (a) Anterior view of the intact larynx. (b)Posterior view. (c)Sagittal section. (d)Posterior view; individual laryngeal cartilages. Keywords: larynx, anatomy, cornu, hyoid, extrinsic ligament, laryngeal prominence, intrinsic ligament, tracheal cartilage, trachea, larynx, epiglottis, thyroid cartliage, cricoid cartilage, vocal fold, ventricular fold, cartilage, thyrohyoid membrane
  • FG24_05B.JPG Title: The Vocal Cords Notes: The glottis is shown in the open position (a) and closed position (b). The photograph (c) is a representative laryngoscopic view. Keywords: vocal cords, corniculate cartilage, cuneiform cartilage, ventricular fold, vocal fold, epiglottis, glottis, aryepiglotic fold, vestibular fold, aryepiglottic fold
  • FG24_07.JPG Title: Anatomy of the Trachea and Primary Bronchi Notes: (a) Anterior view on dissection, showing the plane of section for (b). (b, c) Cross-sectional views of the trachea. Keywords: trachea, primary bronchii, anterior, hyoid, larynx, trachea, lung, lobar bronchus, carina, annular ligamnents, respiratory mucosa, trachealis muscle, lamina propria, respiratory epithelium, tracheal cartilage
  • FG24_11A1.JPG Title: Bronchi and Bronchioles Notes: (a) The structure of one portion of a single lobule. (b)Diagrammatic view of lung tissue. (c)Light micrograph of lung section. Keywords: bronchopulmonary segment, respiratory epithelium, terminal bronchiole, pulmonary artery, bronchial artery, vein, nerve, elastic fibers, capillary beds, arteriole, alveolar duct, lymphatic vessel, alveoli, interlobular septum, visceral pleura
  • FG24_10D.JPG Title: The Bronchial Tree and Divisions of the Lungs, Anterior View Notes: (a)Gross anatomy of the lungs; bronchial tree and divisions. (b)Distribution of bronchopulmonary segments. (c)Bronchogram, slightly oblique, posteroanterior view. (d)Plastic cast of adult bronchial tree. Keywords: bronchopulmonary segments, distribution, bronchial tree, bronchus, apex of lung, diaphragm
  • FG24_10A.JPG Title: The Bronchial Tree and Divisions of the Lungs, Anterior View Notes: (a)Gross anatomy of the lungs; bronchial tree and divisions. (b)Distribution of bronchopulmonary segments. (c)Bronchogram, slightly oblique, posteroanterior view. (d)Plastic cast of adult bronchial tree. Keywords: bronchopulmonary segments, distribution, bronchial tree
  • FG24_13A.JPG Title: Anatomical Relationships in the Thoracic Cavity Notes: Anatomical relationships in the thoracic cavity. Keywords: thoracic cavity, lung, mediastinum, heart, pericardial cavity, pleura, visceral, parietal, pleural cavity, ventricle, interventricular septum, atrium, esophagus, spinal cord
  • FG24_12C.JPG Title: Alveolar Organization Notes: (a) Basic structure of a lobule, cut to reveal the arrangement between the alveolar ducts and alveoli. (b)Connective tissue layers and alveolar vascular supply. (c)SEM of lung tissue. (d)Diagrammatic view of alveolar structure and respiratory membrane. Keywords: alveolar organization, alveolar sac, alveolar duct, respiratory bronchioles, alveoli, capillaries, surfactant cells, elastic fibers, alveolar macrophage, endothelial cell, respiratory membrane, basement membrane, surfactant
  • Respiratory system

    2. 2. * It is the system, consisting of tubes and is responsible for the exchange of gases in Humans by filtering incoming air and transporting it into the microscopic alveoli where gases are exchanged * Your respiratory system provides the energy needed by cells of the body to funtion accroding to their designated tasks. THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    4. 4. The organs of the “ Respiratory Tract” can be divided into two groups “ STRUCTURALLY” ** The Upper Respiratory Tract ** The Lower Respiratory Tract * Nose * Nasal cavity * Sinuses * Pharynx * Larynx * Trachea * Bronchial Tree * Lungs
    6. 6. The organs of the “ Respiratory Tract” can be divided into two groups “ FUNCTIONALLY” ** The Conducting Portion - system of interconnecting cavities and tubes that conduct air into the lungs ** The Respiratory Portion - system where the exchange of respiratory gases occurs * Nose * Pharynx * Larynx * Trachea * Bronchi * Respiratory bronchioles * Alveolar Ducts * Alveoli
    7. 7. The Respiratory Epithelium
    8. 8. THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>I. N O S E </li></ul><ul><li>A. N a s a l C a v i t y </li></ul><ul><li>B. P a r a n a s a l S i n u s e s </li></ul><ul><li>P H A R Y N X </li></ul><ul><li>III. L A R Y N X </li></ul><ul><li>A. E p I g i o t t i s </li></ul><ul><li>B. V o c a l C o r d s </li></ul><ul><li>IV. T R A C H E A </li></ul><ul><li>v. B R O N C H I </li></ul><ul><li>A. B r o n c h i a l T r e e </li></ul><ul><li>VI. L U N G S </li></ul><ul><li>A. L o b e s o f t h e L u n g s </li></ul><ul><li>B. P l e u r a l C a v i t i e s </li></ul><ul><li>C. A l v e o l i </li></ul>
    9. 9. THE NOSE
    10. 10. * It provides an entrance for air in which air is filtered by coarse hairs inside the nostrils. * It has 2 portions : the external and internal * The external portion is supported by a framework of bone and cartilage covered with skin and lined with mucous membrane. * The internal portion is a large cavity in the skull, merging with the extrenal nose anteriorly and communicating with the throat posteriorly. THE NOSE
    11. 11. The Nasal Cavity
    12. 12. <ul><li>* Interior area of the nose; lined with a sticky mucous </li></ul><ul><li>membrane and contains tiny, surface hairs, </li></ul><ul><li>cilia. divided medially by the nasal septum. </li></ul><ul><li>* Nasal conchae divide the cavity into passageways </li></ul><ul><li>that are lined with mucous membrane, </li></ul><ul><li>and help increase the surface area available </li></ul><ul><li>to warm and filter incoming air. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles trapped in the mucus are carried to the </li></ul><ul><li>pharynx by ciliary action, swallowed, </li></ul><ul><li>and carried to the stomach where gastric juice </li></ul><ul><li>destroys any microorganisms in the mucus. </li></ul>The Nasal Cavity
    13. 13. Paranasal Sinuses
    14. 14. * Sinuses are air-filled spaces within the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones of the skull. * These spaces open to the nasal cavity and are lined with mucus membrane that is continuous with that lining the nasal cavity. * The sinuses reduce the weight of the skull and serve as a resonant chamber to affect the quality of the voice. Paranasal Sinuses
    15. 15. THE PHARYNX
    16. 16. * The “throat” is a funnel shaped tube that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity and larynx; and anteriorly to the cervical vertebra. * It is composed of: Nasopharynx – uppermost portion Oropharynx – middle portion Laryngopharynx – lowermost portion * It is a common passageway for air and  food and it provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds THE PHARYNX
    17. 17. THE LARYNX
    18. 18. * It is an enlargement in the airway superior to the trachea and inferior to the pharynx. * It helps keep particles from entering the trachea and also houses the vocal cords. * It is composed of a framework of muscles and cartilage bound by elastic tissue THE LARYNX
    19. 19. The Epiglottis
    20. 20. * It is a large leaf-shaped piece of cartilage. * A flap of cartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea (or windpipe). * During swallowing, there is elevation of the larynx The Epiglottis
    21. 21. The Vocal Cords
    22. 22. * Inside the larynx, 2 pairs of folds of muscle and connective tissues covered with mucous membrane make up the vocal cords.    a. The upper pair is the false vocal cords.    b. The lower pair is the true vocal cords.    c. Changing tension on the vocal cords controls pitch, while increasing the loudness depends upon increasing the force of air vibrating the vocal cords. The Vocal Cords
    23. 23. * During normal breathing, the vocal cords are relaxed and the glottis is a triangular slit. * During swallowing, the false vocal cords and epiglottis close off the glottis. The Vocal Cords
    24. 24. THE TRACHEA
    25. 25. * It is a tubular passageway for air, located anterior to the esophagus * It extends from the larynx to the 5 th thoracic vertebra where it divides into the right and left bronchi. THE TRACHEA
    26. 26. THE TRACHEA
    27. 27. * The inner wall of the trachea is lined with ciliated mucous membrane with many goblet cells that serve to trap incoming particles. * The tracheal wall is supported by 20 incomplete cartilaginous rings. THE TRACHEA
    28. 28. BRONCHI
    29. 29. * The Bronchi are the two main air passages into the lungs. * They are composed of the: ** “Right Primary Bronchus” - leading to the right lung. ** “Left Primary Bronchus” - leading to the left lung. BRONCHI
    30. 30. The Bronchial Tree
    31. 31. * The bronchial tree consists of branched tubes leading from the trachea to the alveoli. * The bronchial tree begins with the two primary bronchi, each leading to a lung. * The branches of the bronchial tree from the trachea are right and left primary bronchi;     these further subdivide until bronchioles give rise to alveolar ducts which terminate in alveoli. * It is through the thin epithelial cells of the alveoli that gas exchange between the blood and air occurs. The Bronchial Tree
    32. 32. THE LUNGS
    33. 33. <ul><li>The paired soft, spongy, cone-shaped lungs, </li></ul><ul><li>separated medially by the mediastinum and are </li></ul><ul><li>enclosed by the diaphragm and thoracic cage. </li></ul><ul><li>2 layers of serous membrane, collectively known as </li></ul><ul><li>pleural membrane, enclose and protect each lung. </li></ul><ul><li>** Parietal Pleura </li></ul><ul><li>- outer layer attached to the thoracic cavity </li></ul><ul><li>** Visceral Pleura </li></ul><ul><li>- inner layer covering the lung itself </li></ul>THE LUNGS
    34. 34. Right-3 lobes Left-2 lobes THE LUNGS trachea
    35. 35. * The two organs that extract oxygen from inhaled air and expel carbon dioxide in exhaled air. * This is the main and primary organ of the Respiratory System. * The bronchus and large blood vessels enter each lung. THE LUNGS
    36. 36. Lobes of the Lungs
    37. 37. * The right lung has three lobes. * The left lung has two lobes. * Each lobe is composed of lobules that contain air passages, alveoli, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and connective tissues. Lobes of the Lungs
    38. 38. The Pleural Cavities
    39. 39. * A layer of serous membrane, between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura. * It contains a lubricating fluid secreted by the membranes that prevents friction between the membranes and allows their easy movement on one another during breathing. The Pleural Cavities
    40. 40. The Alveoli
    41. 41. <ul><li>* They are cup-shaped out pouching lined </li></ul><ul><li>by epithelium and supported by a thin elastic </li></ul><ul><li>basement membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>With that you can imagine having bunch of grapes </li></ul><ul><li>with each grape indicating and alveolus. </li></ul><ul><li>* Alveolar sacs are 2 or more alveoli that </li></ul><ul><li>share a common opening. </li></ul><ul><li>* This is where the primary exchange of gases occur. </li></ul>The Alveoli
    42. 42. Summary of FUNCTIONS   the functional respiratory units in the lung where gases (oxygen & carbon dioxide) are exchanged (enter & exit the blood stream) alveoli   a network of smaller branches leading from the bronchi into the lung tissue & ultimately to air sacs bronchioles   two branches at the end of the trachea, each lead to a lung bronchi   tube from pharynx to bronchi  rings of cartilage provide structure, keeps the windpipe &quot;open&quot;  trachea is lined with fine hairs called cilia which filter air before it reaches the lungs trachea (windpipe)   the voice box, where vocal chords are located larynx   passageway for air, leads to trachea pharynx (throat)   warms, moistens, & filters air as it is inhaled nose / nasal cavity FUNCTION STRUCTURE