Respiratory System


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Respiratory System

  1. 1. Chapter 11: Respiratory System Medical Terminology- Level 1 Medical Office Assistant Diploma program Surrey College, BC, CanadaLecture PowerPoint prepared by Nancy Joseph as part of Digital Project Submission (PIDP 3240, VCC, BC, CANADA) 1
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives On completion of Chapter 11, the students will be able to:  describe the respiratory system, naming the organs and stating their functions.  analyze and build medical words using word parts.  spell and pronounce medical words described in Chapter 11.  describe the selected pathological terms and diagnostic and laboratory tests related to the respiratory system.  identify and define abbreviations pertaining to the respiratory system. 2
  3. 3. Anatomy and Physiology OverviewThe respiratory system consists of: Thenose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, andthe alveoli in the lungsPrimary function of respiration is to furnish oxygen(O2)for individual tissue cells to use and to take away theirgaseous waste product, carbon dioxide (CO2) 3
  4. 4. Knowledge Probe Why we have runny noses when the weather is cold? 4
  5. 5. Knowledge Probe - Answer One of the function of the nose is to warm and moisten the inhaled air as it travels to the lungs. During cold weather the inhaled dry air mixes with the warm air, and the mucous membranes inside the nose increases fluid production in order to protect the sensitive lung tissue. So the excess fluid in the nose tends to drip out, creating a runny nose. 5
  6. 6. The Nose The nostrils or anterior nares are the external entrances to the nose. The nose has five functions:  Serves as a passageway for air  Warms and humidifies inhaled air  The enclosed cilia and mucous membrane trap dust, pollen, bacteria, and other foreign matter  Contains olfactory receptors, which sort out odours  Help to produce sounds and the quality of voice 6
  7. 7. The Nasal cavity  Septum - Partition in the nose  Superior, middle, and inferior conchae  Air passages that lead to the pharynx and are connected by openings with the paranasal sinuses, the Eustachian tubes, and the eyes  Paranasal sinuses  Frontal  Maxillary  Ethmoidal  Sphenoidal 7
  8. 8. The PharynxAlso called the throat The functions of the pharynx are:  Passageway for:  air  food  Aids in sound production by changing shape It is divided into three portions:  Nasopharynx  Oropharynx  Laryngopharynx 8
  9. 9. The Larynx Also called the voice box Its function is the production of vocal sounds composed of nine cartilages bound together by muscles and ligaments It contains the glottis (opening into the trachea) 9
  10. 10. The Trachea Also called the windpipe A ‘C-shaped’ cartilaginous tube for passage of air extending from the pharynx and larynx to the main bronchi The trachea is composed of:  Smooth muscle  Mucous membrane – Lining that contains cilia, which sweep foreign matter out of the passageway. (Note: Smoking can destroy cilia) 10
  11. 11. The Bronchi The trachea divides into the right bronchus and the left bronchus The depression in each lung where the two bronchi enters is called the hilum Each bronchus then subdivide into the bronchial tree composed of smaller bronchi, bronchioles, and alveolar ducts Bronchi functions as a passageway for air to and from the lungs 11
  12. 12. The Lungs Two in number; cone-shaped, spongy organs of respiration lying on either side of the heart within the pleural cavity of the thorax Each lung is covered by double-folded serous membrane, the pleura (inner is visceral pleura and the outer is parietal pleura) The main function of the lungs is to bring air into intimate contact with blood so that O2 and CO2 can be exchanged in the alveoli 12
  13. 13. The Lungs cont’d… Pleural Cavity – A space between parietal and visceral pleura; contains serous fluid that lubricates and prevents friction The Diaphragm – The musculomembranous wall that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity Mediastinum – The central portion of the thoracic cavity, between the lungs, which contains the heart and other structures 13
  14. 14. The Lungs cont’d... Lung base – Broad inferior surface of the lung which rests on the diaphragm Lung apex – The pointed upper margin that lies above the sternal end of the first rib Lobes – The divisions of the lungs  Right lung – has three lobes  Left lung – has two lobes Cardiac depression – Depression for normal placement of the heart 14
  15. 15. A flow chart to show the path of air in therespiratory system NOSE (Nares) NASAL CAVITIES PHARYNX LARYNX TRACHEA BRONCHI BRONCHIOLES ALVEOLI LUNG CAPILLARIES 15
  16. 16. RespirationRespiration consists of: External respiration = Process by which the lungs are ventilated and exchange of air occurs between alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs and the pulmonary capillaries  Inspiration/Inhalation - Process of breathing in  Expiration/Exhalation - Process of breathing out Internal respiration = Process involving an exchange of air between the systemic (tissue) capillaries and the cells of the body 16
  17. 17. Respiratory VolumeThe following terms are used by physiologist andrespiratory specialists to describe the volume of airexchanged in breathing:Tidal volume (TV), Supplemental air, Complementalair, Residual volume, Minimal air, Vital capacity(VC), Total lung capacity (TLC)An instrument called spirometer is used tomeasure the respiratory volume. 17
  18. 18. Respiration The Vital Function of Respiration  Respiration, along with temperature, pulse, and blood pressure, is a vital sign that helps in determining an individual’s state of health  A deviation from normal of any one or all the vital signs denotes a state of illness The medulla oblongata and the pons of the CNS regulate and control respiration  The rate, rhythm and depth of respiration are controlled by nerve impulses arising from these areas of the brain 18
  19. 19. Respiration Respiratory rates – The respiratory center located in the medulla oblongata regulates the rate of respiration which varies with age:  Newborn 30 – 80/min  1st year 20 – 40/min  5th year 20 – 25/min  15th year 15 – 20/min  Adult 15 – 20/min 19
  20. 20. Life Span Considerations:The Child The lungs of the fetus take a definite shape at 12 weeks of gestation The alveoli of the lungs are complete at 20 weeks of gestation The alveoli begin to produce surfactant at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation The lack of surfactant in pre-term infants contributes to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) 20
  21. 21. Life Span Considerations:The Older Adult The respiratory system is vulnerable to injuries The mucous barriers breakdown, cilia decrease in effectiveness, and the composition of the connective tissue in the lungs changes Diaphragmatic breathing is predominant and it becomes difficult to breathe lying down 21
  22. 22. Life Span Considerations:The Older Adult The respiratory system is vulnerable to injuries The mucous barriers breakdown, cilia decrease in effectiveness, and the composition of the connective tissue in the lungs changes Diaphragmatic breathing is predominant and it becomes difficult to breathe lying down Vital capacity declines with age. The elastic recoil of the lungs begins to decline and an increase in the stiffness of the chest walls Voice may become gravelly and softer with a rise in pitch, making communication more difficult, especially if there is impaired hearing 22
  23. 23. Pronunciation Exercise Use the pronunciation guide provided in the medical vocabulary section (p. 300) in Chapter 11, to spell and pronounce the medical terms. Also learn meaning for the listed word parts and the medical terms. 23
  24. 24. Combining forms (provide meaningand build medical term for each) alveol/o : bronch/o : lob/o : ox/o : phon/o : phren/o : rhin/o : spir/o : tel/o : 24
  25. 25. Combining forms alveol/o = alveolus, air sacs - alveolar bronch/o = bronchus, bronchial tubes - bronchospasm lob/o = lobe of the lung - lobectomy ox/o = oxygen - hypoxia phon/o = voice - dysphonia phren/o = diaphragm - phrenic nerve rhin/o = nose - rhinorrhea spir/o = breathing - spirometer tel/o = complete - atelectasis (collapsed lung) 25
  26. 26. Suffixes (provide meaning and buildmedical term for each) -ema: -itis: -osis: -phasia: -pnea: -ptysis: -sphyxia: -us: 26
  27. 27. Suffixes -ema: condition [empyema - collection of pus in the pleural cavity] -itis: inflammation [bronchitis - inflammation of the bronchi] -osis: condition (usually abnormal) [cyanosis - Abnormal condition of the skin and mucous membrane caused by oxygen deficiency in the blood] -phasia: speech [aphasia - lack of ability to speak] -pnea: breathing [dyspnea - difficulty in breathing] -ptysis: spitting [hemoptysis - spitting of blood from respiratory tract, lungs] -sphyxia: pulse [asphyxia - lack of pulse (condition)] -us: pertaining to [alveolus - pertaining to small air sacs in the lungs] 27
  28. 28. Pathological terms Apnea - A temporary cessation of breathing Asthma - Chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by wheezing, dyspnea, and a feeling of constriction in the chest caused by edema, bronchoconstriction, and increased mucus production Cystic fibrosis (CF) - Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick, mucous secretions that do not drain normally Epistaxis - Nosebleed Emphysema - Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls, making it difficult to exhale air from the lungs Pertussis - Whooping cough (bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea) 28
  29. 29. Pathological terms Pneumonia - An inflammation of the lung (or lungs), caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and chemical irritants Pneumoconiosis - abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs e.g. asbestosis Stridor - Strained, high-pitched sound during inspiration (due to obstruction of the larynx or trachea) Tachypnea - Fast breathing Tuberculosis (TB) - A contagious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is carried in droplets 29
  30. 30. Diagnostic and Lab Tests Bronchoscopy - Process of viewing the larynx, trachea, and bronchi with a flexible bronchoscope. Culture, Sputum - Examination of the sputum to determine the presence of microorganisms. Laryngoscopy - Visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope Nasopharyngography - X-ray examination of the nasopharynx 30
  31. 31. Diagnostic and Lab Tests Pulmonary function test - Series of tests performed to determine the diffusion of O2 and CO2 across the cell membrane in the lungs. Tests are done on all phases of respiration, with abnormal results indicating various respiratory diseases and conditions. Rhinoscopy - Visual examination of the nasal passages Rhinoplasty - Surgical repair of the nose Thoracocentesis - Surgical puncture of the chest for fluid removal Tracheostomy - Creation of a new opening into the trachea 31
  32. 32. Abbreviations Cystic fibrosis CF Shortness of breath SOB Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS Upper respiratory infection URI Chest x-ray CXR Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD Respiratory distress syndrome RDS Human immunodeficiency virus HIV Pulmonary embolism PE Arterial blood gases ABGs Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS 32
  33. 33. Abbreviations cont’d… Postnasal drip PND Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS Ear, nose, throat (otorhinolaryngology) ENT Endotracheal ET Chronic obstructive lung disease COLD Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy T&A Vital capacity VC Respiratory disease RD Inspiratory capacity IC Adult respiratory distress syndrome ARDS 33
  34. 34. Summary of Chapter 11 Let us recap the main points of what we covered in this lesson. We learned about the organs of the Respiratory system and their functions. We also learned new medical terms (pathological, diagnostic and laboratory tests). We got familiarized with a few selected abbreviations. We also learnt to pronounce terms related to the Respiratory system. 34
  35. 35. Quick Recap Name the organs of the Respiratory system. What is the role of trachea in the respiratory system? Name the two processes of respiration? In order to assess the respiratory functioning, which three aspects of respiration should be considered? Next we will be learning about the Nervous system. 35
  36. 36. References Rice, Jane. Medical Terminology: A Word-building Approach, Sixth Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc., 2008. Chabner, Davi-Ellen. The Language of Medicine, Eighth Ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B Saunders Company, 2007. 36