Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2006. Anticipation of Bandung Waste
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Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2006. Anticipation of Bandung Waste

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This magazine published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition in August 2003.

This magazine published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition in August 2003.

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Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2006. Anticipation of Bandung Waste Document Transcript

  • 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Editorial 1 Environmental Sanitation Readers Voice 2 Published by: HeadlinesWorking Group for Water Supply and Sanitation Anticipation of Bandung waste 3 Advisor: Director General for Urban and Onsite Waste Reduction 7 Rural Development, Department of Public Works Options of Bandung Waste Management Concept 8 Board of Trustee: Mayor of Bandung City: Nothing More to do with Traditional Way 9 Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Lesson Learned from Bandung Waste Emergency Situation 12National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Interview Director of Water and Sanitation, Director of Water Resources and Irrigation, Bappenas Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Java needs New Storages 15 Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Innovation Technology, Director General on Village and Multitasks Water Filter 19 Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Regulation Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Government Regulation No. 16 of 2005 On Drinking Water Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Supply System Development 21 Telescope Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa District Water Corporation, Blend of Commitment and Management 22 Board of Editor: District Head of Sragen, H. Untung Wiyono: Supriyanto, Johan Susmono, District Water Corporation Should Be Professional 24 Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto IATPI Clinic 25 Editor: Story Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana,Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Latrine Heroines 27 Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti, Reski D. Abstract 29 Design/Illustrator: Insight Rudi Kosasih The Meaning of AMPL Institution For Sustainable Facility 30 Production: Waterworks Technological Civilization By Time 33 Machrudin Development and Empowerment 37 Distribution: Around AMPL 41 Agus Syuhada Around WASPOLA 47 Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Book Info 48 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 CD Info 49 http://www.ampl.or.id e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com Sites Info 50 redaksi@ampl.or.id Agenda 51 oswar@bappenas.go.id Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website http://www.ampl.or.id This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website This “Percik” English edition is originally translated from “Percik” Indonesian edition at www.apml.or.id
  • 2. E D I TO R I A LS enselessly, we have national government sho- been three years uld take action. So, this is with you, precisely the lesson for other cities insince August 2003 ago. At Indonesia to prevent recur-the time, Percik was only rence. Unfortunately, when24 black & white pages, few were making this paper,column, simple layout, and again waste tragedy tooklimited distribution. Percik place in Bantar Gebang,was at the time printed 500 Bekasi.exemplars. You in the local In innovation column,level possibly do not know we present a surprisingwhat Percik 1st edition water filter technology fo-looks like. und discovered by a grand- Now, Percik has pub- father in Bandung. Thislished 14 editions. Numbers water filter can handle andof rearrangements are car- purify many types of water.ried out including column It is possible that this tech-addition, page coloring, and nology can be developed aslayout improvement. Per- solution to water problemscik has been distributed in in Indonesia. In telescopeall districts/cities nation- column, we present a newwide including NGOs, univer- breakthrough in water sup-sities and embassies and some ply management. The bre-community. It seems that akthrough is made by LocalPercik gets its own position among water as there is a conflict of interests. Government of Sragen District, whichand sanitation (AMPL) stakeholders. Moreover, everyone knows that large always makes breakthroughs in go-Percik goals to be AMPL stakeholders fund is prepared for solution of the vernmental administration.information and communication media issues. Usually people will come to a In story column, we present privyhave come true. pleasant place. heroines from some regions. They ha- Nevertheless, we havent satisfied Lesson we learnt from this Ban- ve successfully established and imple-yet and we will always make improve- dung waste case is we dont give any mented free open defecation programment. In the next edition we will serious concern about cleanliness, and as model by community empo-release Percik Junior (Percik for especially relating with waste. We just werment and stakeholders for thechildren), which will contain informa- focus on other aspects. In fact, clean- successful development even thoughtion on water and sanitation especial- liness brings significant impact to they are not paid for that.ly for children so that they concern health and beauty. Ignorance of sani- Another interesting topic is that weand care about water and sanitation tary landfill, for example, has proven are allowed to interview Director ofas well. Curious about Percik Juni- to claim individual loss. Indisposed Water Resources and Irrigationor? Just wait the the next edition. waste has proven to disturb people Bappenas concerning drought that is ta- In this anniversary edition, we and affect city beauty. Waste manage- king place in some regions in Indonesia.present topic about Bandung waste ment is not easy; it needs cooperation In fact, water management is the causeissues. In our opinion, this is an inter- and coordination among regions. of the problems in addition to naturalesting topic. Until today, waste issues Bandung waste tragedy shows that and environmental conditions. Finally,in the city have not finished. The city government cannot address the we wish you success in taking benefitavailable solution is only temporary issues itself and even provincial and from Percik of this edition. Percik August 2006 1
  • 3. R E A D E R S VO I C E CARICATURE BY RUDI KOSASIH Hadits CLTS CLTS training was held on 16-20May 2006 involving three districts inLombok Island (Lotim, Loteng andLobar Districts). Each districtinvolves three villages for field tryout. Especially for Lombok TimurDistrict, CLTS training was held on16-18 May 2006 in Hotel Meliwis, Jl.Labuhan Haji - Lombok Timur.During RTL in the classroom (last dayof 18 May 2006) participants fromthree tryout villages were present,namely from Sikur, Kerongkong and There is an interesting thing from water machines from morningTeros villages. one of the women participants from till late at night (currently almost Participants were shaken up with Teros village, namely Mrs. Murni 24 hours operation)one of participants from Sikur village, (Posyandu cadre and community 2. Stink coming from one or both ofnamely Ustadz Mohamad Saleh health coordinator/TKM Health pro- the places(Head of Segire/ Binong Hamlet) motion of Taros village). She told that For the reason, we hope that Pokjawhich presented hadits narrated by she was triggered to make the closet AMPL can inspect operation feasibili-Muslim and Abu Daud in relation to by herself without having to wait her ty of the rubber factory and hog farm,CLTS, namely God will curse the husbands help as she holds principles either from aspect of tolerated noisehuman being who defecate on the that motivation should begin from her and odor or environmental impactroad or others shelter. own self and to be model for another. analysis. We are concern that this will Meaning of the abovementioned affect peoples health especially ourhadits is: family in the short or long term. 1. "Watch out of two things that will Sugito, People have previously claimed bring Gods curse", Prophet Lombok Timur this problem to the local authority Mohammads friends asked: (RT/RW) but there is no follow up "What are the two things that will Noise and Stink until today. We do hope that Pokja bring curse, Oh Gods Prophet? AMPL will give attention and find out The prophet said: "They are who I, representing people of Dago Tol solution. defecates on the road or others Vila, Serua Village, Ciputat Sub-dis- shelter" trict of Tangerang District, Banten, A. Cholid, SIP (HR. Muslim and Abu Daud) inform you that a rubber factory and (021) 74701362 2. "Anyone who defecates should be hog farm are built in our residence, in the closed rather than open precisely in front of our houses block Thank you for your attention. We place which only bordered by river flow sep- will forward your letter to the relevant (HR. Abu Daud) arating Ciputat and Serpong. authority in your residence, namely 3. "Do not harm yourself and other" Presence of the places causes prob- Bapedalda of Tangerang District. We (HR Ibnu Majah and Ad-Da- lems, namely: hope this problem will be addressed 1. ruqutni) 1. Noise generated from rubber and immediately. (Editorial) 2 Percik August 2006
  • 4. HEADLINESBecause of waste, Bandung becomes the dirtiest city inIndonesia. Some actions have been taken for solution.Is it sustainable? What measures are taken for solution in the future?I f Leuwigajah tragedy never existed on 21 Fe- closing of Leuwigajah landfill, wastes are disposed of bruary 2005, we might not give focus on waste temporarily in TPA Jelekong, Cicabe and Pasir Im- issue. The incident has awaken us to focus on pun as emergency landfills. This must be inevitablewaste issue more seriously. In fact, we dont have su- because in such a condition, Bandung city should befficient facilities, either physical or nonphysical (re- host of 50th Anniversary of Asia-Africa Conference.gulations), to solve the problem in local or national Resumption of these existing landfills is not easy.level. People around the landfill areas reject reopening of The most horrible tragedy in Indonesia took place these landfills; additionally their capacity is limited.and claimed 146 individual losses. Besides, the tra- TPA Jelekong on 10 ha area which was reopenedgedy left new problem, especially for Bandung city on March 2005 was closed on 31 December 2005. Asand surrounding area. Closing of Leuwigajah landfill substitute, waste was disposed of to TPA Cicabe on 9caused the city cannot dispose of their waste any- January 2006. Some other was disposed of to TPAmore. Pasir Impun, which has been closed since 1990, in or- Waste in Bandung city is left in amid the city. Pa- der to commemorate 50th Anniversary of Asia-Africaris van Java has changed into waste city. Stink and fli- Conference. Finally both landfills cannot accommo-es spread everywhere. Waste stacks disrupt the traf- date Bandung waste and since 15 April 2006 there isfic. Unsurprisingly, Ministry of Environment gave no more landfill.Bandung a predicate as the dirtiest city in Indonesia Indeed, Government of Bandung City has also at-during commemoration of World Environment Day, tempted to reduce onsite waste dump such as issu-the embarrassing predicate. ance of Circular Letter of Bandung Mayor No. 658.1/- SE 055-BPOD dated 28 April 2005 regarding proac-Emergency Response Plan tive measures of Bandung waste management Based on prediction, each people of Bandung and through 3R program and circular letter of Bandungsurrounding area produces 7,500 m3 waste. Since Mayor No. 658.1/SE.135-PD.KBR dated 27 Decem- Percik August 2006 3
  • 5. HEADLINESber 2005 regarding optimization of Sub-district of Bandung District standing homework is how to manageCircular Letter of Bandung Mayor No. (owned by TNI AD) on 1.5ha area; city waste in the long-term period. Or658.1/SE 055-BPOD. Various peo- Blok Cigedik, Sarimukti Village, Cipa- otherwise, this can be time bomb forples activities have been conducted tat Sub-district of Bandung District the people at anytime.(see: Peoples waste management ac- (owned by Perum Perhutani) on 21.2 The city government itself is abouttivity in Bandung). This activity can ha area; and Blok Gunung Hejo, Cian- to establish waste management plantonly reduce 10% of total waste dump. ting Village, Sukatani Sub-district of after Mayor visit to Shanghai of China In line with that, Government of Bandung District (owned by PTP and Singapore to view closer wasteBandung City is attempting to find out VIII). The latest blok is not applicable management in both cities. It showsempty land owned by government, yet. Blok Cikubang was used from 26 that waste management plant is esta-people and corporation to be used as May to 11 June 2006, while Blok Cige- blished amid the city to produce ener-waste dump area. The locations found dik was used on 28 May 2006 until to- gy with the process not leaving anyinclude Regol (200m2), Cibenying day. waste. "Bandung city will refer to thisKaler (50m2), Kiaracondong During 15 April 2006-26 May approach," said H. Dada Rosada re-(400m2), Bandung Kidul (50m2), Su- 2006, the waste dump was increasing cently.mur Bandung (60m2), Bandung Ku- with the volume about 400 thousand To meet the demand, City Go-lon (264 m2) and Arcamanik m3. This waste has been relocated to vernment has attempted new(1,800m2). The locations are full by Blok Cigedig, Sarimukti by maxi- land as plant area, which is si-waste dump. mizing the existing fleet about 140 tuated downtown, in East Ban- This condition makes Government dump trucks from Bandung Cleaning dung area on an area of 20 ha di-of Bandung City to seek alternatives Agency, rented truck and assistance vided into 5 ha for plant, 5 ha for re-but this is not easy. There are 31 loca- from army. For temporarily, waste serve area and 10 ha for revegetati-tions expected for new or emergency problem can be addressed. on. According to Mayor, the locationlandfills. From such number, three doesnt bring any problem as it isbecome nominees, namely Blok Cime- City Governments Long Term owned by only one person whorang, Citatah village of Bandung Dis- Planning doesnt mind of the plan.trict; Blok Legonk Nangka, Nagrek Bandung is clean now. Predicate of Proposal of Bandung city govern-Sub-district of Bandung District; and the dirtiest city can be omitted. But it ment is based on waste managementSumur Bandung village, Cipatat Sub- doesnt mean that waste problem in strategy, namely (i) change in viewpo-district of Bandung District. Never- the city has been finished. The out- int and perception of (waste producertheless, they are hampered by permit SOURCE:MUJIYANTOand people around the locations rejectthe scheme. Government of West Java Provin-ce takes action. Moreover, central go-vernment gives serious attention tocondition of Bandung city. ProvincialGovernment, together with Muspida,Government of Bandung City, Go-vernment of Bandung District, Go-vernment of Cimahi City, Perum Per-hutani unit III West Java, Kodam IIISiliwangi and PTP VIII through a se-ries of discussions, have agreed threelocations for temporary landfill, na- mely Blok Cikubang, Sumur Emergency Landfill: TPA Sarimukti. Bandung Village, Cipatat 4 Percik August 2006
  • 6. HEADLINESand management) on waste, from dis-posable or destroyed thing to sustain- WASTE PHYSICAL CONDITION IN BANDUNG CITY PER DAYable resources, (ii) maintaining ser-vice sustainability as management NO. COMPONENT WEIGHT AND VOLUMEsystem will minimize likeliness of co- Weight (ton) % Weight Vol (m3) %Volngestion or saturation of operational 1. Organic Waste 1.11 59,5 3.592,5 47,9link, i.e. disposal system. Congestion 2. Paper 223 11,9 2.235 29,8or saturation of disposal link will stopother service links such as waste col- 3. Textile 10 0,5 112,5 1,5lection and transportation and this 4. Plastic 236 12,6 697,5 9,3will cause waste dump in the dump 5. Fragile 26 1,4 60 0,8area and other places. 6. Metal 28 1,5 292,5 3,9 While going to realize the goal, city 7. Others 236 12,8 525 7,0government in cooperation with Ban-dung Institute of Technology (ITB) Total 1.875 100,0 7.500 100.0 Source: Pemkot Bandungwill develop small scale waste mana-gement plant. Everyday this plant will cient for plant operation), plant ma- The committee is responsible forprocess 24 ton waste and produce 500 nagement will be handled jointly by formulating strategic measureskWh energy. private company and city government in the effort of waste reduction This energy is considered too with subsidy mechanism. in Bandung Metropolitan as wellsmall and inefficient. This plant will According to Bandung Mayor, this as establishing cooperation andin turn produce 25-30 megawatt ener- plan will not affect the Greater Ban- coordination.gy and obtain 1,500 ton waste intake dung Waste Management Corpora- Through a series of meetings, theper day. This plant will also produce tion (GBWMC). He considered that ad hoc committee establishes the fol-steam and ash for concrete brick. And Bandung waste is abundant. "We will lowing strategic principles: keep implementing the program," 1. Waste reduction through 3Rthe electric power will be sold to thepeople. said Dada. (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in This plan seems to be realized. Ci- order to minimize collection,ty government has associated with PT. Ad Hoc Committees Policy transportation and disposal Waste management in Bandung 2. Polluter pays principle, namelyBandung Raya Indah Lestari (BRIL)and Daarut Tauhid, ITB and PLN. city cannot be imposed only on city any polluter is liable pay wasteCity government will serve as waste government. Many stakeholders in- management volve in this issue, including regional 3. Landfill is still necessary for cityproducer, PT. BRIL and Daruut Tau-hid as waste management and PLN as government around the capital of waste management West Java Province. So the manage- 4. Regional cooperation to findelectric power buyer and seller, whileITB provides the waste technology. If ment should be inevitably integrated landfill location and joint wastethere is no obstacle, the plant will be with all stakeholders either for short- management term (until end 2007), mid-term (2-3 5. Further development plan,established next year. In management aspect, city go- years) and long-term period (10 namely waste use for other inter-vernment prepares concept. Firstly, years). Accordingly, central govern- ests and effective reduction, suchcalculation of business operability in ment established ad hoc committee as implementation of Wasteaccordance with market mechanism on 23 June 2006. The committee con- to Energy.(business feasibility), with plant ma- sists of local team (Bandung city go- For short-term plan, onsite was-nagement referred to private compa- vernment, district government, Cima- te management will be conductedny. Secondly, if the plant cannot ope- hi, and ITB) and central team through household-scale sor- rate as per market mechanism (Bappenas, Ministry of Public Work, ting, 3R, and composting. There- (proceeds of sale is insuffi- Ministry of Environment and BPPT). fore, socialization, training and Percik August 2006 5
  • 7. HEADLINESestablishment of KSM (Kelompok Mid-term plan, onsite level, in- ding of waste management, full costSwadaya Masyarakat/Self-support cludes replication of sorting program, recovery achievement and pilot projectCommunity Group), household com- 3R, household composting and pu- of regional composting. In final disposalposting and law enforcement will be nishment. In temporary disposal site site (TPA) level, implementation of RSLcarried out. In temporary disposal site (TPS), increase in transport coverage, and SL technology for TPA Leuwigajah,(TPS), increase in waste coverage will replication of regional composting construction of Integrated Waste Mana-be implemented by enhancing trans- program and study and construction gement (capacity 100m3/day on an areaportation fleet, TPS inventory and re- of landfill. In final disposal site level, 1,500 ha with investment Rp. 2.3 bil-vitalization, GIS (Geographic Infor- feasibility study, environmental im- lion); Waste to Energy - Pilot Projectmation System) based route regulati- pact analysis and DED of TPA Ci- Waste to Energy (100 ton/day), supervi-on and schedule, regional composting tiis/Legok Nangka; socialization of sion of Pilot Project Waste to Energy andprogram, and study and construction Reusable Sanitary Landfill (RSL) and evaluation.of TPS. While in final disposal site, Sanitary Landfill (SL) technology in Waste management by ad hoc co-TPA Sarimukti will be revitalized TPA Leuwigajah; feasibility study of mmittee seems result of compilation and(landfill 21.2 ha) through Detailed Regional Sanitary Landfill; interregio- compromised ide-as of stakeholders.Engineering Design (DED) and deve- nal cooperation; cooperation with (see: Options of Waste Managementlopment of composting plant together private company; DED of integrated Concept in Bandung City). Theore-with operation and maintenance in waste management, pilot project was- tically, the policy is promising. But,addition to positioning of Integrated te to (i) energy, (ii) organic fertilizer is it applicable? The question isWaste Management Plant, land acqui- and Pilot Project Landfill Gas to Ener- necessary since implementationsition, environmental impact analysis, gy (LFGTE). involving many relevant parties isDED, TPA Citiis/Legok Nangka; iden- Meanwhile, long-term plan includes usually inapplicable as expected. Ho-tification of action plan as per onsite waste management, similar to pingly it is just an apprehension. NowGBWMC result and settlement of previous plan. In temporary disposal site we just wait which action will anticipatelegal status of TPA Leuwigajah. (TPS) level, efficiency and capacity buil- Bandung waste. Mujiyanto. GBWMC P R O G R A M AT GLANCE G reater Bandung Waste Management Corporation (GBWMC) is a WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE corporation established for waste management in Bandung City WASTE MAN- Phase - 1 Phase - 2 Phase - 3 (and surrounding area). This establishment is based on MoU of AGEMENT Bandung Waste Management dated 7 March 2005, Decision of Area 1 TPA 100 ha PHASE 100 ha 100 ha Governor of West Java Province regarding Establishment of Formulation Team of Bandung Waste Management and Joint Decision Life Period 20-25 years > 25 years >>> 25 years regarding Establishment of Collective Waste Management in Bandung City dated 27 December 2005. Local government involving in this Waste TPA TPA TPA Storage GBWMC includes Bandung City, Cimahi City, Bandung District, Garut Management Sanitary District, and Sumedang District. Two other districts, Purwakarta and Cianjur, have not given any confirmation. Model Landfill Recovery Storage Waste to Energy The GBWMC implementation strategy adopts 3 principles namely: 1. Technical Products ---- - gas, compost - electric, chemical a. Onsite waste prevention: residential area, farm, stores, inclu- Revenue Rp. 0 Rp. XXX Rp. YYY ding offices and schools (regulations and enforcement) b. Sanitary landfill is still necessary 2. Institution and human resources a. Waste is public management Implementation of GBWMC (Sanitary landfill and onsite waste re- b. Capacity building of public services or outsourcing duction) requires capital cost Rp. 385 billion. There are four financing 3. Culture and spirit scenarios, (i) central-province-district/city sharing, (ii) province-dis- a. Physical waste is resulted from nonphysical waste trict/city sharing, (iii) province-district/city-investor sharing, (iv) b. Approach: culture/model and spirit (campaign/socialization) World Bank loan by involving private company as operator. There will be two sanitary landfills in Bandung City, namely one GBWMC plans to establish collective waste management not later for east region and other for west region. Based on survey, there are than 27 December 2006. Governor of West Java Province is expected two selected locations, namely Citiis (100 ha) and Legok Selong to having issued decision on the designation of sanitary landfill loca- (70ha), while phases of waste management are described as follows: tion. MJ 6 Percik August 2006
  • 8. HEADLINES Onsite Waste ReductionI n addition to seeking alternative landfill, Bandung composting in Ex TPA Pasir Impun and recycling of PET Cleaning Agency has established cooperation with and PE (plastic bottles and glasses of mineralized water) stakeholders for waste reduction onsite or in tempo- and plastic recycle to dustbin.rary disposal site (TPS). The standing partnership will be The activities include:Composting by Bitari Foundation in Ex TPA Pasir Impun Self-support activities Area = 2,000 m2 PT PINDAD Waste volume = ± 20m3/day Area = 600 m2 Compost production = 660kg/day Waste volume = 9 - 10 m3/day Compost production = 500 - 1000 Kg/Day Type of waste: 90% leaves, 10% office refuse (paper + food remnant). Inorganic residues are incinerated.Plastic recycle by CV. Fajat in ex TPA Pasir Impun andJl. Holis Area = 2,000 m2 RW 1 1 C i b a n g k o n g Volume of plastic waste = ± 0,5 - 1 ton/day Area = ± 400 m2 Production = chips and containers (including land for revegetation pilot project) Waste volume ± 400 m2 Compost production = 1 - 1,5 ton/Day Inorganic residues are sorted and sold. J h o n Pi e t e r s Location: RW 06 and Jl. Cipamokolan No. 77 Cipamo- kolan Village, Rancasari Area = ± 2.500 m2 Plastic waste volume = ± 6 ton/dayBesides, other activities are implemented through Metals waste volume = ± 8 ton/dayWJEMP-CEF program, from which the work having Product: plastic pelletbeen carried out is composting in 5 RW ofGegerkalong village, Sukasari Sub-district Composting with Green Phoskko RW 04 Cipadung vil- Area = ± 300 m2 lage, Cibiru Sub-district Waste volume = ± 2-3 ton/day Compost production = ± 1 - 1,5 ton/day Area = ± 100 m2 Inorganic residues are sorted and sold Waste volume ± 2 m3/day Compost production = ± 0.35 m3/day Inorganic residues are sorted and sold Leachate is used for making liquid fertilizer Composting with Green Phoskko RW 14 Palasari vil- lage, Cibiru Sub-district Area = ± 100 m2 Waste volume = ± 1,2 m3/day Compost production = ± 0,2 m3/day Inorganic residues are sorted and sold Inorganic residues are incinerated, ash is used for bricking. Percik August 2006 7
  • 9. HEADLINES OPTIONS OF BANDUNG WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTI n fact, Bandung waste has been ITB 22.66% (total transported waste anticipated even just temporari- Integrated waste management, na- 3,200 m3/day). Implementation of ly. This tragedy calls stakehol- mely: 3R concept for long term period mayders for brainstorming in solving the Household composter achieve 30-60% of total dump.problems. There are at least three Composting in RT/RW level Capital cost required during 2006institutions contributing their con- about 10 RT : 3 waste cart with will be Rp. 2 billion.cepts in addition to Bandung city go- volume 4.5-5m3/dayvernment itself. The concepts are sug- Integrated waste management, BPPTgested by Technological Studies and capacity 100m3/day; requiring Scenario 1Implementation Board (BPPT), Ban- 1,500 m2 area; main hangar, Rehabilitation TPA Leuwi-dung Institute of Technology (ITB) composting hangar, greenhouse, gajah (if applicable) intoand Ministry of Environment. The fol- conveyor belt, organic waste qu- reusable sanitary landfilllowing are concepts of each institu- antifying machine, composting and 3R-based integratedtion: aeration system, gasification and waste management. Mana- biogas reactor, compost filter, in- gement cost per ton waste is BANDUNG CITY GOVERNMENT cinerator, brick casting machine, Rp. 79,074 Short-term before application of weighing scale, etc. Operating Scenario 2 waste management technology cost at minimum capacity Implementation of reusable sani- Community participation through (20m3) is Rp. 27,000/m3 and at tary landfill (if TPA Leuwigajah is 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) maximum capacity (100 m3) is inapplicable and new adequate Composting, small scale incine- Rp. 5,400/m3. landfill area is found) and 3R- ration based integrated waste manage- Local dump MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT ment. Two RSL locations are Advanced waste management Implementation of 3R concept by required with capacity 13,000 Development of waste manage- maximizing 6 potential dump area m3/dasy and 7,000 m3/day. ment plant to produce energy, during 2006. This method is expect- Management cost will be Rp. organic fertilizer or other products; ed to reduce 725 m3 waste or about 87,079 per ton waste plant capacity 1,500 Scenario 3 ton/- day; 24 hours FOTO:MUJIYANTO Implementation of waste to ener- operation; energy gy through incinerator, small output 30 M watt scale RSL and 3R-based in- Management is de- tegrated management (if TPA signated to private Leuwigajah is inapplicable and company if business new but small landfill area is fo- calculation is suita- und). Incinerator will have ca- ble with market me- pacity 1,000 ton waste per day chanism. If not, the equipped with heat to energy plant will be jointly system. It requires 5 ha and operated by city go- two RLS areas with capacity vernment and pri- 8,000m3/day, respectively. vate company Cost management per ton waste will be Rp. 124,870. MJ 8 Percik August 2006
  • 10. HEADLINES Mayor of Bandung City, H. Dada Rosada Nothing More to Do with Traditional Way SOURCE:MUJIYANTOC an you explain waste mana- gement in Bandung beforeemergency response? waste dump raised on 26 May 2006, which lasted 41 days. There was 7,500 m3 waste everyday and, if multiplied by So far, waste management is carri- 41 day, produced 400 thousand m3ed out traditionally, namely sanitary waste. Therefore I asserted thatlandfill to maximally control landfill. Bandung is under waste emergency.In sanitary landfill, waste is disposed And this is not national issue but alsoand leveled at a certain location, while international. I kept attempting solu-in control landfill, waste is disposed tion. On 26 May, Governor and Com-of, leveled and overburdened with so- mander of Kodam III Siliwangi tookil. Either sanitary or control landfill action to provide us with 21 ha area inwill bring serious problems if theyre Sarimukti owned by Perhutani. In theleft unmanaged. meantime, we used Kodam land area Sanitary landfill needs wide area. of 2.5 ha in Cikubang but it was appli-If the land is small, the waste dump cable only for 10 days. Now we usewill in turn cause accident. For exam- vestors. The three investors made land in Sarimukti. In Sarimukti,ple, TPA Leuwigajah tragedy. If we consortium called PT. Bandung Raya Governor executed MoU with Per-overburden it with soil, the result re- Indah Lestari (BRIL). On September hutani on 7 August as legality for themains the same because of leachate 2005, we executed MoU with the land use. That waste produced byand potential collapse. We cannot company, in which they should seek Bandung district, Cimahi, Bandungeven dump it vertically. With the Leu- an area and acquire it for factory. Pre- city will be processed as compostwigajah incident, we have to do better viously, on July-August 2005, we visi- based on ideas of the team establishedand do not repeat the same mistake, ted Shanghai China for comparative by Minister of National Planning andwhich will just cause incident and loss study to see waste management plant Development/Head of Bappenas,to people and city government. in the city. So we will adopt their tech- State Minister of Environment, Mi- nology although Head of Bandung nister of Research and Technology. What will local government District and I have ever been trained The government granted Rp. 14 billi-do after Leuwigajah collapse? about waste management so that I can on to build compost plant in Sari- Upon Governors verbal approval, complement the comparative study in mukti. After visit to Singapore onearound March 2005, we invited 15 in- Japan and China. On September week ago, I found that there is avestors who have concern of waste 2005, BRIL sought the area and it downtown waste management tomanagement that produces compost, seemed uneasy. Some government energy, water treatment. We havefertilizer, energy, briquette, brick, ce- agreed but the people disagreed. So it four locations and for power energy,ment, etc. They come from domestic is not easy. The last, we still disposed Bandung city is potential because itand foreign investors. To select them, of waste in Jelekong, Bandung Dis- uses only 5 ha area for plant, 15 ha forwe established a formulation team trict, and then closed. We also have greenbelt and 5 ha for reserve, and 10consisting of city government, envi- landfill area 7 ha in Pasir Impun but it ha for revegetation. Based on experi-ronmental specialists and Unpad re- was closed, also we have in Cicabe but ences from visiting some countries,presentative. The team worked hard it was closed on 14 April. So, on 15 the waste management remains noand selected five and finally three in- April no more landfill at all. Until residue at all because waste is Percik August 2006 9
  • 11. HEADLINES ILLUSTRATION BY: RUDI KOZ Local the important thing G o v t. is ACTION, man....processed continuously. Bandung ci- results in collective landfill in Sari- difficulty in finding out the plant area.ty will refer to thee approaches. I ho- mukti, Bandung District. Bandungpe, if realized, this will be the first in district and Cimahi have less waste. From the waste tragedy, doesIndonesia. Bandung city produces 7,500 m3 per Bandung still maintain the exis- day while Cimahi produces only 450 m3 ting master plan or prepare the Does city government only per three months. We are who want new one?cooperate with private compa- the waste changed into electric power. We prepare the new master plan.ny? By chance, PLN has not been able to The existing one is sanitary landfill, On 31 July ago, cooperation of serve all people. isnt it? It is inapplicable anymore.Bandung city government was exten- Now were preparing a new masterded with ITB, PLN san Darut Tauhid. Where will the plant be estab- plan, which consists the locationThe decision: City Government is lished? points, while in RT/RW and RDTRK,waste producer; PT. BRIL and Darut It will be established in Bandung we plot Bandung Timur as non-pollu-Tauhid are management, PLN is ener- Timur. It is under process now. Insya tant industry and warehousing area.gy buyer and seller, and ITB provides Allah we dont have any problemdesign and technology. Previously because the land is owned by one per- What you just explained re-ITB and PLN have made small-scale son and he has agreed with. We hope fers to how management of finaljoint-operation of 24 ton waste/day the plant establishment will not be the waste is. Hows community em-producing 500 Kwh electric power. same as in Bojong. We have made powerment in waste reduction?This was considered too small so that socialization to our community and We encourage the community toPLN suggested cooperation with city they agree with our plan. sort their household waste as applica-government as the latter has abun- ble in the developed countries. Atdant waste supply. We plan to change How do you think of budget? least, they sort between organic and1500 ton waste per day into 25 It will be given gradually. inorganic waste. We then pick up andmegawatt electric power. bring their waste to the depot. And How much will it be alloca- there, the waste is sorted again. In the What kind of regional coope- ted? management plant, we will prepareration you establish with local We havent fixed it yet. All to do casual until skilled workers.government? now is legality. We havent prepared Cooperation with government of the business plan as we are encoun- How is your cooperation withBandung district and Cimahi city tering many problems, for example private company?10 Percik August 2006
  • 12. HEADLINES We refer the work to them. They transport from the TPS to final dis- incident as Bandung has?invest and operate the plant; we give posal site (TPA) without any treat- Firstly, there must be behavioralour waste and pay them so they take ment. Community should pay retribu- change. We should not dispose ofprofit from our payment. Besides, tion for waste transport we conduct waste carelessly. We should sortthey sell waste energy to PLN. from TPS to TPA. wastes, and local government should not adopt traditional waste manage- What is impact of waste mana- Is there any special regula- ment, such as sanitary landfill.gement plant to performance of tion on this agreement?Bandung Cleaning Service Agency? It is just MoU. What should other local go- Well, well make it gradually; vernment do if they were toprobably we involve them in the It means that legality must be encounter waste emergency?operation. The plant will be returned prepared for this? They should refer to high techno-to city government if BOT or BTO is Yes, it must. Moreover, this agree- logy waste management, either collec-completed, wont it? ment involves ITB, PLN and Darut tive (joining with other local govern- Tauhid. ments) or individual management. How long the work agree-ment with private company? How much budget will be Do you mean, in emergency? Well, minimally 20 years required for this waste manage- Yes, we with all levels of communi- ment? ty implement 3R, reduce, reuse and Does local government pre- We obtain Rp. 20 billion from recycle. But it is highly emergency andpare special regulations to le- local government. But charge im- it didnt work maximally. During 41galize this agreement? posed on Cleaning Service Agency for days were facing about 400 thousand Yes, it does. The local regulation retribution is only 53% of budget m3 waste. By implementing 3R, wehas been issued. It regulates Waste demand of more than Rp 20 billion. could only reduce 10 thousand m3.Management, transport from houses Besides, the process will not immedi-to temporary disposal site (TPS) is Do you have any suggestions for ately bring revolution. This model isconducted by RT/RW community and other cities to prevent the similar only for long-term plan. Not all people SOURCE:MUJIYANTO can implement waste management in their houses. So change in waste ma- nagement from traditional way to high technology is a must. When will the plant be ope- rated? Construction is under way this year. It needs 1 year. And for the peri- od of time, we dispose of waste in Sarimukti and so far so good. Is your plan not causing con- flict with GBWMC program? It doesnt matter with GBWMC. We keep following the GBWMC pro- gram. Moreover, Bandung waste is abundant. So there is nothing to worry about with Sarimukti. MJ. Corner of Bandung city that is already clean. Percik August 2006 11
  • 13. HEADLINES Lesson Learned from Bandung Waste Emergency SituationW aste in Indonesia has been needs immediate actions. Eventually, so apprehensive, signalized By: Endang Setyaningrum* not less than four ministers (Minister by numbers of waste pollu- of Public Work, Minister of Envi-tion and get the peak when TPA Leu- 300,000 m3 waste was retained ronment, Bappenas and BPPT) andwigajah collapsed on February 2005 downtown as no other landfill will even ITB were rushed with wasteago which claimed 146 victims and accommodate the waste of 4,000m3 emergency response plan even thoughfollowed by hot debate and blaming per day, or precisely, peoples strong Presidential Instruction was referredeach other. Nevertheless, as common- resistance against alternative landfills only to Minister of Environment.ly happening in out country, Leuwi- (TPA Jelekong, TPA Babakan, etc.). In this emergency response plan,gajah tragedy is not followed by ade- With such a condition, it is sure that Indonesian Army also took action toquate improvement, either technical Bandung, which is known as cool and evacuate waste out of the city (certain-or political. The incident seems to be beautiful city has now changed into ly with assistance of local governmentlowest anticlimax in Indonesia waste the city of stink and disgusted wastes personnel and cleaning service agen-management. and even potential diseases spreading cy) by deploying personnel, heavy Although government of Indone- everywhere. equipments and providing dump lo-sia makes official announcement of Whether there is or not waste cation in Cikubang, Darangdan Sub-waste "emergency" in Bandung, the emergency statement officially from district of Purwakarta District (4 hafact shows that since May 2006, after government, we should admit that the area). This was probably referred toLeuwigajah collapse, a total of condition has been supercritical and emergency situation as similar to war condition where TNI was in the front SOURCE:ENDANG SETYANINGRUM line as well as establishment of Taskforce and Ad Hoc Committee. Besides, the waste was also dumped in plantation area owned by Perhutani in Sarimukti village (21 ha), Cipatat- Rajamandala Sub-district, Bandung District. Actually there are optional loca- tions for emergency landfill but upon peoples resistance against the waste, governor chose 3 locations: - Cikubang (4 ha), 28km from Bandung city, an area owned by Army in Purwakarta District - Sarimukti (21 ha), 42 km from Bandung city, an area owned by Perhutani in Bandung District - Gunung Hejo (8 ha), 33km from Badung city, an area owned by Waste piles up at temporary disposal site (TPS) PTP VIII in Purwakarta District12 Percik August 2006
  • 14. HEADLINES SOURCE:ENDANG SETYANINGRUM Disposal in Cikubang area wasconducted by army using adequateemergency disposal namely cut andfill method. I think that army person-nel understand not only military butalso familiar with the "cat method".Unfortunately, waste dumped in Ci-kubang was only about 50,000 m3(land area used was only 1.5 ha of 4 haarea) for 30 days. Meanwhile, disposal in Sarimuktiis more emergency because it reliedonly on open dumping with com-paction (without backfilling as imple-mented in Cikubang) with disposalcapacity 800m3/day (today it accom-modates 70,000 m3). Actually land Waste trucks stand in line to enter TPA Cikubanguse permit in Sarimukti area is forcomposting but due to emergency sit-uation, composting has not been com- dination cost, waste delivery cost,menced yet until today. Currently which was repeatedly rejected by peo- ple, cost of ill people due to waste pol- In the meantime, land use in only Rp. 15,000.-/m3Gunung Hejo (8 ha, and 5.5 ha lution in the city, cost for reduced is available far below local tourists which cancelled theirusable) situating in the edge ofCipularang toll road, has not been im- reasonable cost of waste visit to Bandung, etc.plemented. Although quick detailed What expensive a waste emer- management. gency situation in Bandung is. Wereengineering design has been imple-mented for better waste disposal due And finally we just TPA Leuwigajah not to collapse; were TPA Leuwigajah able to be operatedto presence of spring around the area, make suppositions.Local House of Purwakarta rejected with appropriate sanitary landfill;the land use although water supply were fund allocation adequate (cur- for 3 months equals Rp. 8.1 billion rently only Rp. 15,000.-/m3 is avail-requirements for people around the - Disposal cost in Cikubang (heavy able far below reasonable cost ofarea (Cibentar and Pasirmalaka vil- equipments, personnel and safe- waste management). And finally welage) have been fulfilled by Ministry of ty infrastructures) just make suppositions.Public Work. Even access permit via - Disposal cost in Sarimukti (heavytoll road was being under process by equipments, personnel and When will waste emergencyMinister of Public Work. repair of access road to location) situation last? - DED Cost of Sarimukti After 3 months passes and based onCost of Emergency Response - Preparation cost of Gunung Hejo calculation of waste volume having beenPlan location (DED, water supply) evacuated from Bandung and Cimahi to Emergency response plan, which - Seven units of heavy equipments emergency landfill, there are in fact tensinitially expected to finish for 1 month costing Rp. 11 billion of thousands m3 waste retained in thepursuant to Presidential Instruction, - Cost of water supply in the Gu- city even it is not as dirty as it was.takes 3 months. During the period, nung Hejo location Bandung gradually returns back to bethere have numbers of cost payable by Such costs do not include those clean and even crowded by tourists fromseveral parties for the following items: difficult to estimate such as land cost Jakarta, especially during holiday and - Transport cost (Rp. 750,000/trip) either in Cikubang or Sarimukti, coor- weekend. of 180 dump trucks (2 trips/day) Percik August 2006 13
  • 15. HEADLINES Does it mean that emergency Executives and legislatives sho-response plan ends? How is uld not be reluctant in allocatingcontinuity of landfill improvement Executives and budget for better waste manage-in Sarimukti which is conducted ment, especially for improving land- legislatives should notonly through open dumping method fill quality after emergency responseand possible contaminating by be reluctant in (TPA Sarimukti) and actualizingleachate? How is continuity of inte- allocating budget large-scale integrated compostinggrated composting in Sarimukti (as plant.per Perhutani permit)? There is still for better waste Finally, waste master plan sho-a number of problems requiring fol- management uld be prepared as long-term refer-low up to prevent "waste emergency ence for stakeholders, including spa-volume 2". tial allocation for landfill area com- plete with buffer zone and applica-Scenarios After Emergency been alleviated from Bandung, we tion of "landfill borderline". LandfillResponse should think and learn lessons from allocation is also for long-term in- For scenario post emergency Bandung incident as starting point vestment because we will obtainplan, infrastructure improvement in toward spirit of better waste ma- "new land" after landfill, possibly asCikubang and Sarimukti is recom- nagement. green open land.mended to overcome contamination People awareness of waste reduc- * Staff at the Directorate oflikely visible in Sarimukti, especially tion by means of composting and Settlement Sanitary Development,leachate contamination and prepa- recycling should be supported, for Directorate General of Humanration of integrated waste manage- example, by giving them incentives. Settlement, Ministry of Public Work.ment (composting and recycling). SOURCE:ENDANG SETYANINGRUM Further step is returning back toGBWMC scenarios consisting of: - Socialization to community and stakeholders to prevent social conflict as it was - Land acquisition (Citiis and Kebon Nangka-Nagrek) with appropriate compensation - Preparation of adequate landfill area and waste management facility especially relating to preparation of buffer zone, environmental conservation facility, etc. - Landfill operation in professio- nal ways and causing adverse impact or social conflict as well as TPA Leuwigajah manage- ment after collapse and TPA Jelekong.Lessons Learned Although storm (of waste) has Entered condition to TPA Cikubang14 Percik August 2006
  • 16. I N T E RV I E W Director of Water Resources and Irrigation, Bappenas, Ir. M. Dony Azdan, MA, MS, PhD Java Needs New Storages SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE water to the river when rain and retain it when dry. Irrigation pattern Drought is occurring several regions in in Indonesia is commonly gravitation- Indonesia recently which brings significant al irrigation. So, it only dams up and losses. Amazingly, the regions are flooded dur- raise water level. There is no water ing rain. This is an interesting phenomenon to control except dam. That is what big be discussed. Why does it happen and is this dams do for. It is full control. But merely natural phenomenon or human inter- most our irrigations are semi control, vention? Accordingly, Percik is allowed to meaning irrigation by raising water interview Director of Water Resources and level. Irrigation Bappenas, M. Dony Azdan in his office as quoted below. What kind of environmental intervention will be? Talking about environment, we do nothing but recommendation such asD rought is hitting Indonesia. What causes it? There are three main causes; first- progressively. Until today we have technical irrigation of 4.6 million ha in full control. There are also semi no cutting forests. Low-income far- mers in the upper catchments area usually plant crops such as cassavaly global climate change because rain technical and simple irrigation of and corn, which are unsuitable withand dry take place outside the fixed almost 7.2 million ha. There is also the river flow as the crops are not ca-months. Secondly, environmental fac- the so-called rained irrigation, which pable of retaining water. Many devel-tors. Thirdly, water infrastructure. is usually applied in the rural area opers forget that the new settlementsEnvironmental factors are clear; there without technical irrigation. they build are parking area of theare significant factors outside water water. For example, Jakarta was usedsystem such as forestry, dry farm, etc. How far does it affect dro- to have a lot of swamps, which retainso that capacity of natural or artificial ught? water before flowing to the sea. Now,water flow will deplete. We can see If we talk about drought, it looks the area is developed and raised, etc.dams with very high deposits. like two-sided coin. One side is dro- so that water has no place to stay and ught and another side is flooded. This this often causes flood. How about infrastructures? indicates change in ability of a river to For infrastructures, we have in- retain sufficient water as the catch- Is there relationship betweenvestment of almost Rp. 10 billion in ment area has been destroyed, etc. drought and river characters?water resources including irrigation, What were focusing in our research is Rivers in Java are commonly steepriver control and swamp development whether the dry area is flooded during but short so that they have rapidin the beginning of New Order era. rain. In fact, big rivers commonly act flushing. In the meantime, we have noThe largest investment is allocated for so. But for development areas such as storages to save water for dry season.irrigation as the time being we were irrigation areas, the fact is not neces- Today we have 120 dams. But if weencouraged to food self-support and sary like that. This refers to control. observe, especially in Java Island, wethis made irrigation was developed Artificial irrigation areas will release can only save 10% water, while other Percik August 2006 15
  • 17. I N T E RV I E W90% is never used until the water dition Java Island has based on wet or dry. If this year is dry, all out-reaches the sea. Thus, it has steep and the study? lets are closed to allow water raise toshort flow, rapid flushing and too bad We have regencies with potential optimum level rather than releasing itthat we have no storages. Until 1990s, water deficits based on hydrology and at anytime. If this year is wet, somewe have developed numbers of dams. demand for agricultural and industri- outlets are opened. Lets say this yearSince early 1980s to end 1990s, many al sectors. A total of 77% districts in we have storage, then we will haveconflicts arose from friends of envi- Java are water deficits. Such deficits planting pattern, especially in the ter-ronmental ministry to build dams are divided into three categories, minate area. So, in Karawang andwith reasons that it will change envi- namely light category between 0-3 Purwakarta districts will have definiteronment, etc. that it is so difficult to months per year; moderate category water supply according to plantingbuild dams. They compare with US or between 3-6 months per year and acreage. For regions with small waterEurope. The US has 25 thousand severe category more than 6 months debit, we make classification. Untildams while we have only hundreds. per year. If this condition is left with- certain extent, if water is depleted,Indeed, there are two influential fac- out infrastructure intervention, then there should be predetermined plan-tors, land acquisition and environ- in 2015, 78% regions will undergo ting pattern. In Indramayu for exam-mental change, but I personally consi- deficit, with light to moderate or to ple, because water debit is small, riceder the storages to be necessary. If we severe category will increase. Location planting is delayed. Then plantingneed to build dams, it means we sho- will not significantly change but classification is provided, for exampleuld do it because it is really necessary. deficit is severer. In 2025, deficit may from rice-rice-intercrops to rice-inter- reach 80.5%. And if we list the avail- crops-intercrops. This planting mana- Does it mean, we could pre- able information, there are 26 gement was previously controlled bydict the drought based on natu- regions, which will subject to dry, for ulu-ulu with strict authority. But inral condition? example Bandung. This region is the present, farmers are difficult to be From all regions in Indonesia, quite severe. Garut has light deficit. controlled. Although they know it isthere are two regions with potential Indramayu is severe. Kebumen is dry season, they plant rice. And whenwater deficit, namely Java and Nusa quite severe. Wonosobo is unusual. It water supply is insufficient, they getTenggara, while others are based on should not be deficit, but the fact angry. Indeed, farmers may not takeglobal water balance, not deficit. shows that it is deficit. So there is a water along the bed channel becauseUnfortunately, we see it locally. In problem of water management. Se- it is allocated for the terminate areas.essence, if we see by island, the Java marang is light deficit. Purbalingga Everyone will get quota. Sometimes,Island has potential water deficit. should not be deficit as it obtains wa- they pump water into their rice fieldAccording to our global calculation, ter from Comal and Serayu rivers, but and then terminated area will drybased on study of water resources the fact shows that it is dry. This is earlier.management in Java Island, Java is due to water management, and this iswater deficit 5 billion m3 per year. what were studying now. What do you think of enforce-This means saving level should be ment?raised. We need large storages. The Which management should It is difficult to implement nowa-current strategy is, because of many be implemented to prevent the days. Previously farmers followed ulu-conflicts from environmental factor drought? ulu instruction, now they dont. Thisarise in building the dams, we should Lets take an example of Jatiluhur water management has slightly cha-build large number of small and with full control. It has west channel nged with regional autonomy. Whomedium scale dams such as embung- for Jakarta supply, east channel for will hold responsibility? Although re-embung. Each district, for example, Indramayu and surrounding areas, gulations have been applicable, res-should have one dam. and north channel for coastal areas. ponsibility for irrigation over 3 thou- Actually in the end or mid of rainy se- sand ha lies on central government, 1- Could you explain what con- ason, we can see whether this year is 3 thousand ha lies on provincial res-16 Percik August 2006
  • 18. I N T E RV I E W SOURCE:MUJIYANTOponsibility and below one thousandha lies on district responsibility; thequestion: is institution ready? Over 3thousand ha for example, who holdsresponsibility in the central level?Inevitably there should be secondingassignment to local level. In that case,region holds more responsibility. Li-kewise, provincial level has not prepa-red person in charge, and finally sec-onding assignment is required. Theseunits are changing. Previously, al-though from central level, the person-nel can be used by district/ provincial Water storage in Situ Cibereum, Bandung, is decreasing.level. Therefore, it is still under im- How is our water infrastruc- and secondary one remains on go-provement if seen from management ture nowadays? vernment control and that is prone topoint. From infrastructure aspect, we ha- conflict because the users are not only ve problems with operation and main- farmers. We hope that farmers will be How much storage do we tenance. It is fact that if we build con- responsible for this tertiary channelneed? struction in one place, we often forget by establishing farmers group to Java Island needs 5 billion m3. As maintenance in the previous place. maintain the infrastructure. In case ofillustration, Indramayu is a dry re- Operation and maintenance have financing, government will give aid.gion. It is supplied from Jatiluhur. So been problems since 1980s. Forthere is a design for Cimanuk, namely example, the existing irrigation net- How is composition of waterJatigede dam. If Jatigede dam has work has limited maintenance period use?been built, the storage will be used for so that it must be repaired in 5 years. Irrigation is actually 89-94 per-Indramayu and Sumedang regions If we have good planning, rehabilita- cent; DMI municipal and industry isand this will minimize consumption tion should be carried out in 15 years. between 4-11 percent; developingof Jatilihur water supply. And we allo- This is the problem in water infra- region is 8-9 percent. For examplecate Jatiluhur supply more to west or structure and our priority forward. Bekasi and Karawang. So, large pro-north. For example, if Jatigede water We understand that our government portion is still available for irrigation.volume is almost 500 million m3, it itself cannot conduct the operationwill need 10 dams as large as Jatigede and maintenance; there should be It means that agriculturalregion. But we can also build small ownership system. In our approach, sector will bear loss of dry?dams. It is ideal if we have embung- the most benefited person is farmer Dry brings significant impact toembung in district or sub-district le- because he knows which is to be ma- agricultural sector but it is not alwaysvel. Even there is a brilliant idea: dam intained first. It is different from ser- the case. There are regions, which areis provided per hectare. The problem vice staffs where they only see physi- dry previously, for example Pacitan oris: owners in Java have small areas, cal appearance of the infrastructure Indramayu. The question: if we talkaveragely 0.25 hectare and so are fer- although they dont know its function. about municipal or industry, especial-tile lands, almost 100% have no prob- Therefore since 1990s we have intro- ly municipal, water quality becomeslems with water. But in the arid land, duced our approaches that for opera- problem. Our major problem changeswater is difficult to find. For example, tion and maintenance, we involve far- from agricultural to urban area, fromsomeone have to find water until 23 mers. We even wanted to deliver it to which water cannot be automaticallykm long; if storage is provided in the the farmers but serious complaints transformed. For dry urban or ruralarea, water resources may or may not occurred. However, it is applicable areas, people depend highly on aqui-be available. only to tertiary channel, the primary fer. Aquifer and surface water is high- Percik August 2006 17
  • 19. I N T E RV I E Wly different where layers between 30- of Bappenas; daily director being stakeholders. Besides, we are intro-60m subsurface may have contact Minister of Public Work and 11 minis- ducing integrated water resource ma-with surface. But if it is more than ters as members. This team is aimed nagement and we focus on the imple-60m deep, aquifer will have no con- in discussing intersectoral water mentation. We should be aware thattact with surface water and it is possi- issue. There are Minister of Energy everything will strongly relate tobly difficult for recovery. In the re- and Mineral Resources, Minister of water.mote area, it is difficult to find surface Health, Minister of Environment, Mi-water as well as make well. Aquifer nister of Communication, etc. So that Do we have grand design onbasin has catchment area in the up- all problems can be solved according- water?stream; maintenance of the upstream ly. This team made draft regulations; Yes, participation. The most im-area will bring two advantages; clean one of them is Law No. 7 on Natural portant thing is that this is not onlywater and good capacity and good Resources. In this Law No. 7, we have government responsibility. It is thepercolation so that we can maintain introduced authority of central to dis- people who can manage water appro-the aquifer level for the depth 30- trict government as well integration priately. The important thing is how60m. For 125m deep, for example, between exploitation and manage- to make them aware of water. If ne-water sources will be difficult to reach ment of the natural resources as well cessary, we introduce it to educationas it may lies behind other catchment as appointed person for natural re- level. Water salvation is not onlyareas. source management. This will be physical activity; it must be imparted elaborated into PP (government regu- since childhood. We will make design How is cooperation estab- lation) on rivers, PP on irrigation, etc. and plan along catchment areas. Eachlished with relevant institution as well as ministerial and presidential river should have one design andto maintain our natural resour- decrees. This integration requires plan. We are used to have master plances? involvement of relevant sectors. Besi- for Bengawan Solo containing proce- In 2001, TKSDA (Tim Koordinasi des, there is also GNKPA (Gerakan dures how to build dam, embank-Sumberdaya Air/Water Resources Nasional Kemitraan Penyelamatan ment, dredging and other physicalCoordinating Team) was established Air/National Partnership for Water works. The design is aimed at arrang-based on Presidential Decree No. 123, Salvation); we hope this will come in- ing sustainable water source manage-which chaired by Coordinating Minis- to implementation. The program fo- ment. In the plan we do not focus onlyter for Economy, Finance and Indus- cuses on river rehabilitation. This in- on physical works and this is beingtry and deputy chairman being Head volves not only government but also implemented in Citarum River. We SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE are making design on sector with rele- vant work and district with relevant responsibility. What will you recommend to the people? I hope they will follow workshops and trainings, especially farm extension. If the region capacity is possible, we should build water storages, although small. I hope that people will be aware of water saving from now on. This is the case of culture. They regard river a dis- posal place. This is still prominent in Java. People should also control water use and water disposal to the river. If necessary, we sue the perpetrator. MJ18 Percik August 2006
  • 20. I N N O VAT I O N Multitasking Water Filter Ala H. Ali DinarY ou possibly understand active sample. He will compose the right of Bandung City. At the time being, sand filter, which is composed composition then. Of the test result is the water was taken from Sub-district of gravel, charcoal, sand, dust, good, he will produce the filter, either office nearby from H. Alis house. Testand palm fibers. It is used to purify in individual or mass. Previously he result is presented in the followingdirty/turbid water. However, the re- also tested water quality in the labora- table.sult is not satisfactorily. As consequ- tory to ensure it is ready to drink. "For This multitasking water filter hasence, people will buy factory-made quality assurance", said the grandfa- been distributed throughout regions,water filter, either local or imported ther who is not graduated from ele- from Jakarta, Karawang, until Riau.one with high cost and sometimes less mentary school. The users know this filter from rumor.durable. This water filter is cylindrical, 6" And the production achieves more In fact, right composition will re- diameter, 30cm height and 2cm thick- than one thousand units.sult in best water filter. Any water can ness. For capacity 500 liter, this filter Today, H. Ali is designing waterbe filtered ready to drink. You wont is only 1 kg weight. Filter size can be filters for three districts along Siak Ri-believe it, will you? But this has been adjusted according to water volume. ver of Riau Province, which is beingproven by H. Ali Dinar, people of Ci- "It can work on water with any volu- ordered by large oil company.pamokolan, Bandung. This equip- me", he said. "Theyre waiting for the product", hement is called "Water Filter Ala H. Ali Test of this equipment was firstly said.Dinar". done in 2004 upon grant of Head of H. Ali collects sample from nine According to H. Ali, this equip- Rancasari Sub-district. Quality con- stations in the region. "This water isment consists of three major compo- trol was conducted by Health Service black like lube oil. Its easy for me,sitions namely dust, sand and palm fi- TEST RESULT OF INITIAL WATER FILTER OF H. ALI DINARbers. However, he has his one recipein blending this composition to filter No. Parameter Unit Maximum Tolerance Test Resultany types of water. Today, the equip- Level A. PHYSICAL PROPERTIESment, which has been applied since 1. Odor - - Odorless2003 is being patented. 2. Total Absolved Solid mg/L 1.000 3. Turbidity Scale NTU 5 0.00 Besides major composition, it has 4. Taste - - Tastelessadditional natural blend, which is 5. Temperature Celcius Temperature 3º Ceasily found in the market, such as red 6. Color Scale TCU 15 1,5 B. CHEMICAL PROPERTIEScement, lime and wood adhesive. 1. Al mg/L 0,20 0,00"The use of these materials depends 2. Fe mg/L 1,0 0,03on water type to be filtered", said H. 3. Fl mg/L 1,5 0,30 4. Cd mg/L 0,025-1,0 0,00Ali, the 58 years old grandfather. 5. Hardness mg/L 500 10 This equipment is not sold imme- 6. Cl mg/L 250 7diately in the market; it must be orde- 7. Mn mg/L 0,05 0,00 8. Nitrate, as N mg/L 10 0,05red in advance. Why? Because each 9. Nitrite, as N mg/L 1,0 0,002water in an area has its own characte- 10. pH mg/L 6,5-9,0 7,8ristics. The filter is also different for 11. Cyanide mg/L 0,002-0,1 0,04 12. Sulphate mg/L 400 60each water resource. Then H. Ali will 13. Copper mg/L 0,05-2,0 0,35make experimental filtering of the 14. Lead mg/L 0,01-5,0 0,0 Percik August 2006 19
  • 21. I N N O VAT I O N SOURCE:MUJIYANTOeven easier than water available in Ci-pamokolan", he said. He designed thewater filter in the house, assisted bytwo men. Result of filtering is delive-red to laboratory in Jakarta. He alsoconfirms that he is able to design salt-water filter. This water filter costs Rp. 1.2 milli-on for 500 liter capacity and Rp. 1.5million for 1,000 liter capacity, whilefor the use in mosque, he gives it freeof charge. It is one-year money backguarantee and this equipment maylast for five years. Although getting success with thefinding, he is continuously develo-ping the product. Currently he is try-ing to filter used soft drink such as H. Ali with his water filter in front of his house.Fanta and coca cola. Result indicatesthat these liquids can be filtered suc- building ruins. his wife from her observation to thecessfully. "The color is transparent Besides inventing water filer, H. fishpond, which is composed of guavaand tasteless, so it is like plain wa- Ali also has successfully developed leaves, salmon leaves and the secretter," he said while asserting that for simple indicator for water quality roots. With this blend, we can deter-addition of filter, he uses pulverized control. This indicator is invented by mine water quality. Inspired Dream SOURCE:MUJIYANTO I f scientists invented something trying how to prevent ash from from a long, tiring and cost- being flowed into the filtered consuming research, H. Ali in- water. And he succeeded in that vents this water filter from dream- day. "But Im not sure whether this ing. At the beginning, this family water is potable. We only use it for was difficult to find clean water in bathing while we buy the drink wa- 2002. To overcome the problem, ter," he said. they bought imported water puri- In 2004, he met with Head of fier. However, this equipment didnt Rancasari Sub-district who asked work well until H. Alis family bo- him to filter the water in the sub- ught the same equipment for three district office. The very dirty water times with costs Rp. 2 million, Rp. was successfully filtered into clean 2.5 million and Rp. 750 thousand. and clear water. The Head of Sub- However, those filters cannot purify district suggested H. Ali to check his the ground water taken from beside his wife was visited by an elder who filtered water to the laboratory. "I of their house. ordered her to make water filter asked, what for?" he said. According This fact made his wife, Hj. De- from ash, sand and palm fibers. The to Head of Sub-district, result is sa- deh, got angry. "She forced me to dream was told to me. "In the follo- tisfied because it seems clear physi- buy the water purifier costing Rp. 8 wing morning I did what has been cally. Head of Sub-district then million. I didnt want," he remem- told to my wife," said H. Ali. The ef- granted H. Ali for the finding. The bered. And quarrel began. The fort failed. "Water is clear but con- result is very satisfactorily. Hence, spouse has their bed separated. taining ash." H. Ali Dinar developed his invention In such a situation, said H. Ali, Without desperation, he was until now. Mujiyanto20 Percik August 2006
  • 22. R E G U L AT I O N Government regulation No. 16 of 2005 On Drinking Water Supply System DevelopmentA s a follow-up of Article 40 of quality requirements pursuant to mi- are operation and maintenance cost; Law No. 7 of 2004 on Water nisterial regulation in health sector. depreciation/amortization cost; loan Resources, the government No unqualified drinking water is dis- interest cost; any other costs; and fairstipulates Government Regulation on tributed to the community. profit. Regional Head must fix this ra-Drinking Water Supply System Deve- In addition to drinking water, the te by virtue of recommendation of bo-lopment. This regulation on Drinking standard water thereof must also ful- ard of directors, after approval by Su-Water Supply System Development is fill the given quality standard for drin- pervisory Board.intended to realize quality drinking king water supply in accordance with In relation to roles of the coopera-water management and service at provisions. The government and re- tive, private corporation, and commu-affordable price; attain equal interest gional administration are responsible nity, this Government Regulation lim-between subscribers and service ma- for securing the availability of this its only to any areas or regions not yetnagement; and improve efficiency and standard water. Standard water ex- reached by State-Owned Corporati-scope of drinking water service. ploration for the purpose of drinking on/Regional-Owned Corporation ser- This Government Regulation cov- water exploration must be based on vice. In addition, they must transferers Drinking Water Supply System water business concession permit. their entire assets in case of termina-Management, Standard Water Protec- In respect of Drinking Water Supply tion of agreement.tion; Implementation; Authorities System Development, the Government What makes this regulation ad-and Responsibilities; Drinking Water and Regional Administration must be vanced is the existence of rights of theSupply System Development Sup- responsible for securing rights of every subscribers, in addition to obliga-porting Agency; Financing and Rate; people to receive drinking water as a tions. The subscribers are entitled toTasks, Responsibilities, Roles, Rights, basic requirement to fulfill healthy, receive Drinking water service ful-and Obligations; Development and clean, and productive life. State-Owned filling quality, quantity, and continui-Supervision; Administrative Sanc- Corporation or Regional-Owned Corpo- ty requirements in accordance withtions; and Transitional Provisions. ration specifically formed has to manage the given standard, obtain informati-This Government Regulation consists the same. Cooperative, private corpora- on on structure and amount of rateof nine chapters and 79 articles. tion, and/or the community may and bill; file suit for any service har- By virtue of this government regu- participate in case the State-Owned ming them before the court of justice,lation, Drinking Water Supply System Corporation or Regional-Owned Corpo- obtain proper compensation in conse-Development must be integrated with ration fails to improve service quality quence of service negligence; and re-Sanitation Facility and Infrastructure and quantity. ceive waste water disposal and sewageDevelopment relating to drinking wa- Particular for rate and dues, this mud suction.ter-namely waste water and matters government regulation stipulates that This regulation asserts that allpertaining to solid waste-as well as drinking water rate is drinking water Drinking Water Supply System De-based on principles of conservation, service and waste water service fees. velopment organizers must possessequality, public use, integrity and har- Drinking water rate calculation and master plan. Otherwise, they mustmony, sustainability, justness, inde- fixing must be based on affordability complete the same within not laterpendence, accountability as well as and justness; service quality; cost re- than January 1, 2010. While, those al-transparency. covery; water consumption efficiency, ready possessing the master plan, Drinking water of Drinking Water transparency and accountability; and they shall adjust to this GovernmentSupply System Development con- standard water protection principles. Regulation within not later thansumed by the users/subscribers fulfill While, cost components so calculated January 1, 2008. MJ Percik August 2006 21
  • 23. TELESCOPE District Water Corporation Sragen Blend of Commitment and ManagementD SOURCE:MUJIYANTO istrict Water Corporation lusion and nepotism, best result-ori- (PDAM) is usually identical ented, etcetera; secondly redesigning with losses, debts, low com- cultural system development, such aspanys performance, unprofessional restructuring, rotation, extension ofmanagement, and un-quality human study and incentive facilities, recruit-resources. Various reasons base this ment of special staff of contract sys-condition. tem, etcetera. In addition, the compa- For several District Water Cor- ny reformulates its determinationsporations, such a myth seems to be and missions in concrete forms,hard to change. Consequently, most of ration Sragen. He is Joko Supriyanto, namely (i) being a reliable clean waterthe District Water Corporations are SE, MM, a professional selected in fit provider, (ii) optimising companysunable to revive from their fall. They and proper test held by District profit, and (iii) improving humanstill have a lot of debts. Then, will this Administration Sragen. The District resources and welfare.condition still continuously occur? head fully authorizes him to manage Change of this cultural system isWhen are the District Water Cor- the District Water Corporation pro- apparently uneasy. It at least takes aporations able to be healthy compa- fessionally. year to gain the result. Joint commit-nies and regional pride? ment of around 115 employees emer- District Water Corporation Sragen Improvement gences. "We have a strong commit-is one of the District Water Corpo- Those already accustomed to a ment. Our death, life, welfare dependrations exerting to change such a condition are sometimes hard to take on how we work," explained Supardi,myth. In three years, the company a change. "It is like one asks us to run Head of Planning Department ofpreviously suffering a loss has been while we sleep. We must be startled," District Water Corporation Sragen.able to gain profit simultaneously pay said Siswanto, Head of Personnel De- Work motivation is also jacked up.its debts. partment of District Water Corpora- Companys incentives, such as grad- This success is not irrespective of a tion Sragen. But, whether or not we li- ual pay and old age security are fulfil-strong commitment of District Head ke it, steps of a new locomotive must led. Several persons are sent to higherof Sragen H. Untung Wiyono, to make be followed by all cars. level school. "In the past, we have aDistrict Water Corporation Sragen a The new president director of Dis- minimum fund for human resources,"pure business institution. "Business" trict Water Corporation Sragen highly said Supardi while adding that themust be managed professionally," he realizes that gaps between the existing companys attention to human re-asserted. Therefore, he takes meas- culture and the expected culture still sources is highly prominent.ures probably uncommon to any other exist. It is a serious challenge to enco-District Water Corporation in Indo- unter, including how to equalize per- To A Healthy Companynesia namely by taking over debts of ception of companys missions and vi- Since 1997, rate of District Waterthe District Water Corporation and sions to make proper strategies and Corporation Sragen never increases. Thesettle the same in 2003 to Ministry of implementation emergence. rate is around Rp. 425 per cubic meter. ItFinance. In addition, he finds profes- Steps taken in this preliminary is not surprising if the company alwayssionals to manage the same. phase are, firstly formulating compa- suffers a financial loss. This condition Since 2003, the outsider has been nys core values to take such as ho- can not be neglected if a companycontrolling District Water Corpo- nesty, discipline, anti corruption, col- intends to be a healthy company. The22 Percik August 2006
  • 24. TELESCOPE made various preparations to attain Income Statement of District Water Corporation Sragen the ideal. It is planned that in 2001-2005 (in million) September the water ready to drink can be enjoyed by around 1,000 sub- NO ESTIMATION 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 scribers. Next year, the service will 1 Operation Income 4.550 4.572 4.776 5.355 7.907 reach 4,500 new subscribers. 2 Operation Direct Expense 2.896 3.311 3.813 3.964 4.774 In addition, the District Water Cor- 3 Operation Gross Profit (Loss) 1.654 1.261 963 1.390 3.133 poration still encounters various obsta- 4 Indirect expense 1.807 2.197 1.985 1.547 2.626 cles. Life time of transmission pipelines 5 Operation Profit (Loss) (153) (936) (1.022) (156) 507 of 300 mm diameters along 4,551 meters 6 Other Incomes (Expenses) 87 89 94 98 99 has expired (installed age is 26 years). It 7 Profit (Loss) Before Tax (66) (847) (928) (58) 606 is not surprising if the underground 8 Net Profit (Loss) (66) (847) (928) (58) 606 pipelines are broken or its rubbers are worn-out. At least three points of leakagestep to take is by increasing the rate. The fact makes the District Water are found in three locations every But, this step is also uneasy as en- Corporation able to pay its debts to month. Disturbance also occurs to col-countered by any other District Water District Administration. In 2007, all lecting and distributing pipelines. RepairCorporations in Indonesia. It encoun- debts of the District Water Corporati- of all these ACP pipelines take a consid-ters many obstacles and barriers from on will be settled. Therefore, the Dis- erable investment.various parties. Moreover, the propo- trict Water Corporation has become a The current homework of the Dis-sed increase is quite high from Rp. reliable source of income by the dis- trict Water Corporation is providing425 to Rp. 1,300. therefore, a break- trict administration. Moreover, it is the subscribers with service. The sub-through to the increase in rate is re- predicted that the District Water Cor- scribers to the same increase morequired. The District Head proposes poration will gain profit by more than and more but the installed capacitythat the increase is implemented 2 billion rupiah next year. does not yet fulfill the demand. Thestarting 2005, 2006, and 2007 and efforts to construct production wellsthe management agrees the same. Development Challenges simultaneously dam are hampered by The management prepares sociali- This year, the District Water Cor- considerable investment cost. But thezation strategies amidst the commu- poration Sragen has a determination determination to continuously servenity. One of the strategies is by using to produce water ready to drink. It has the community never ends. (MJ)radio frequency. The District WaterCorporation holds talk shows every Technical Data on District Water Corporation Sragen 2001-2005Sunday for a full year. At the same ti-me, the company improves red spots NO DESCRIPTION VOLUME 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005(leakage areas) as well as its services. 1 Installed capacity Liter/second 346,50 335,35 366 373 398 On another occasion, District Wa- 2 Production capacity Liter/second 267,25 274,14 288 293 332ter Corporation facilitates all stake- 3 Water production m3 6.434.266 7.814.004 8.127.869 8.945.614 3.085.863holders to discuss the increase in rate 4 Distributed water m3 6.225.341 7.748.894 8.030.926 8.943.288 3.085.863at District pendopo. The result is achi- 5 Sold water m3 5.388.313 6.064.776 6.327.604 6.850.579 2.277.308evement of goal in respect of the in- 6 Water loss m3 947.028 1.684.118 1.800.185 2.095.035 808.555crease. "Complaints are only 0.05 per- 7 Served community Individual 169.124 170.324 173.151 170.073 181.306cent," said Supardi. 8 Subscribers Customer 27.481 28.270 28.761 29.725 30.132 9 Employees Person 114 114 116 114 113 The increase in rate directly gives apositive impact on the companys con- Scope of service in Sragen City : 90 percentdition. In 2005, District Water Cor- Total scope of service : 65 percent Total deep wells : 21 unitsporation can obtain a considerable com- Springs : 2 unitspanys profit by Rp. 605,615,652.77. Service area : 14 sub-districts of the existing 20 sub-districts Percik August 2006 23
  • 25. TELESCOPE District Head of Sragen, H. Untung WiyonoDistrict Water Corporation Should Be ProfessionalW hat makes you take a poli- correct administration system. SOURCE:MUJIYANTO cy to appoint a person Thirdly, maintenance, how long livefrom outside of the bureaucracy time of the installed pipeline. Only ato manage District Water Corpo- few people know it. Fourthly, serviceration Sragen? to the community. Fifthly, economic Firstly, the core of District Water system, financial management. It isCorporation is business. Business the absolute one. Those running ashould be professional. We find a pro- business should be balanced. It is usu-fessional outside if we could not be. ally uneasy to control a lot of cus-Secondly, business should be mana- tomers. Therefore, internal control,ged on business basis. The manage- auditing control should be created.ment should also be business mana- pany can pay its debts, therefore District administration Sragen settled So, it is not just a managersgement regardless of who manages it. its debts first to third parties. Thats figure, isnt it? Doesnt your breakthrough what we did. No. it isnt.encounter bureaucrat obstacles Doesnt the breakthrough How is the process of selec-from those enjoying their posi- burden district budget? ting new management in Districttions all this time? No, it absolutely doesnt burden Water Corporation Sragen? No, it doesnt matter. Its profes- district budget. We settle the debts We made a test. They should havesional. first as we can be imposed with penal- experiences. We tested their visions. Any other regional adminis- ty if we borrow a loan from the central No corruption, collusion, and nepo-trations do not dare take the government and it means a high cost. tismbreakthrough, do you have anycomment? How far do you authorize the What is the impact of this Well, I dont have any comment. professional? change on the community?District Water Corporation Sragen used We give him a freedom to do any- They are more responsive, theyto suffering a financial loss, but now it thing because we already have district can lodge complaints, etcetera.gains profit. Water rate is also not high. regulations stipulating limitations. HeWe precisely give priority to public serv- can make innovations or anything What is your response toice. We only fix Rp. 600 per cubic meter. else, we only control him. management of any other waterBut, we still can gain profit. Its a matter corporations? How about his subordinates?of management system. How to manage. Everything relies on the manage- No problem. In fact, its goodWe should be professional. We also set- ments commitment. Every district because he has correct personnel sys-tle our 2003s debts. Now, we do not head is entitled apply its own systems tem, more orderly finance, better pub-have any debt, even we can contribute to and punishment. So, it depends on lic service, better and serious mainte-district pure revenues quite significantly. decision maker. nance. They say District Administra- What do you thing about the Can any other water corpora-tion Sragen took over debts of problems met by water corpora- tions be better?District Water Corporation in tions in Indonesia? Yes, they can. They have clearthose days, can you explain it? There are five problems. Firstly, customers. No one is in arrears. So- I want the companys balance is very high operational cost. Secondly, me bills can be scheduled and esti-clean, and in our calculation the com- thousands of subscribers requiring a mated. MJ24 Percik August 2006
  • 26. I AT P I C L I N I C Drinking Water Treatment at User Level Post Disaster or In Emergency SituationD isaster comes unexpectedly as Storage and Sedimentation already occurred in several Filtering When the water is stored for a day places in Indonesia. Infor- in a safe/clean condition, more thanmation on handling post disaster is 50 percent of bacteria will die. Inalso significant as that on how to Storage/Sedimentation addition, the dissolved materials andanticipate disaster moreover that on part of pathogenic bacteria (the causedrinking water supply being the basic of disease) will settle on storage bedrequirement. Filtration during the storage. Place used for The following article describes storing and settling should be cappeddrinking water treatment at user level to avoid re-contamination but anthat can be made after disaster or in Desinfection opening for gradual washing shouldan emergency situation. This treat- exist, for example bucket with cap.ment covers water taken from all Water should be taken from upper Diagram 1sources, but generally can only elimi- General Steps on Water Treatment at part of storage place, a part where thenate physical and biological contami- Domestic Level cleanest water and fewest containingnation. Usually, chemical contamina- pathogenic bacteria. The longer thetion can not be eliminated with this the water. The increasing oxygen storage place, the better the waterprocess for requiring a more specific degree will: quality.advanced treatment. Eliminate any gases making the Household can maximize benefit water odorous and taste of storage and sedimentation by usingFiltering Make dissolved minerals, such as "three places system" as described in Filtering water by using a clean iron and manganese oxidized that the following:cotton cloth will eliminate sediment can further be eliminated withand dissolved material. Using a clean sedimentation and filtration pro- Filtrationcotton cloth is highly important be- cesses. Filtration is a filtering process bycause a dirt cloth will add contamina- Contact between water and air can be channeling water through poroustion. If available, a special cloth able made with various methods. For ex- media (for example sand), this pro-to filter organisms, such as tapeworm, ample, by quickly shacking a half-filled cess uses a natural cleaning principle.can be used, this cloth is called "cope- water storage place (for example jer- There are several methods of filtra-pods". It must be used at the same fil- rycan) for around 5 minutes further let- tion, namely:tering level and can be cleaned by ting it for 30 minutes to make the dis-washing the same with soap and clean solved materials settle. For a bigger 1. Simple sand filterwater. scale, aeration can be made by channel- Simple filter for household can be ing water in a perforating tank divided in made of earthenware/ clayey soil, me-Aeration small parts containing pebbles. Further, tal, or plastic container/tank. This Aeration is a treatment process by also letting water collected in collecting container is filled with sand and gra-making the water contact with the air tank for approximately 30 minutes to vel layer also furnished with severalintended to increase oxygen degree in settle the dissolved materials. pipes enabling water to flow above or Percik August 2006 25
  • 27. I AT P I C L I N I C For Drinking Water: Always taking from place No. 3, this water has been stored for at least 2 days and the quality has been better. This place should be cleaned gradually and if possible sterilized with hot/boiling water. Every day when water from the source is brought home: (a) Slowly putting water stored in place 2 into place 3, clean place 2 (b) Slowly putting water stored in place 1 into place 2, clean place 1 (c) Pour water taken from the source (bucket 4) into place 1, it is recommended to filter the same with a clean cloth. To prevent sedimentation from being brought, it is recommended to use a flexible plastic hose to remove or take the water.on the contrary through the layer. 3. Ceramic filter eggs even though this method rela-This filter can also be made at a big scale Some filters are coated with cer- tively consumes the energy. Better let-by using a drum at capacity of 200 liters. tain substances/materials functioning ting the water to boil for at least 5This filter should be cleaned gradually as disinfectant but the price is rela- minutes to kill all pathogenic/ha-from any dirt or mud adhering to the tively more expensive. Currently, zardous bacteria.sand or gravel. Cleaning frequency there are many local ceramic filters. 2) Using chlorinedepends on water turbidity level. The Filtered water should remain boiled Chlorine is a chemical agent most-more the water is turbid the more fre- or disinfected before consumption. ly used for disinfecting drinking waterquent the filter is cleaned. This filter is as it is relatively easy to use, quitenot effective to eliminate pathogenic Desinfection effective, easy to obtain and its price isbacteria. Therefore, a filtration water It is important that drinking water less expensive. In case of correct use,should be disinfected or stored for at to consume should be free from chlorine will kill all viruses and bacte-least 48 hours. hazardous organisms. Storage, sedi- ria but several types of protozoa can 2. Carbon/charcoal filter mentation and filtration can reduce remain surviving. Chlorine should be Carbon/charcoal is known quite hazardous bacteria but none of them added in a sufficient amount andeffective to eliminate taste, odor and can ensure that bacteria can be totally allowed to contact with water for atcolor. Carbon/charcoal usually avail- eliminated. Desinfection is a process least 30 minutes.able at local market can be used as a of securing that drinking water to con- 3) Using sunlightmedia, but active carbon is known sume is free from hazardous organ- This method can be made by put-more effective despite more expensive isms or pathogenic bacteria. Several ting the water in transparent plasticprice. But, if the carbon is not methods of disinfecting water at container and drying the same underreplaced gradually or if the filter is not domestic level are: the sunlight for 5 hours (or 2 days inused for several times, it is suspected 1) Boiling case of cloudiness).that the carbon or the filter can Boiling is a very effective method Contributor:Lina Damayantibecome breeding places for hazardous of eliminating hazardous bacteria, (linadamayanti2002@yahoo.com) andbacteria. such as viruses, spores, and worm Winarko Hadi (winces@cbn.net.id)26 Percik August 2006
  • 28. S TO RY Latrine HeroinesS upini is her name. She is from mily since adolescence. According to flowing precisely in front of her house. Dusun Kali Gedog, Village of her, she even ever worked overseas After the triggering activity, Supini Margourip, Sub-district of even though she did not graduate ele- was chosen to participate in a discus-Ngancar, District of Kediri. She has mentary school. sion attended by Director General ofthree children. The first son is in the One day at her village, Dusun Kali P2PL, Ministry of Health of the Re-first grade of junior high school and Gedog was used as a place of trigger- public of Indonesia. Upon returningtwo others are still in elementary ing Community-Led Total Sanitation home form the evaluation meeting,school. Her husband works in Su- (CLTS) by CLTS orientation partici- this young mother thought that sherabaya. She lives with her three chil- pants of WSLIC-2 location in east must make a latrine whatever thedren. Indonesia zone situated at Insumo form is so that she and her family can Such a condition does not make Hotel Kediri. She was one of the par- be protected from any disease and liveher fainthearted. Her face shows ticipants. She followed the event cleanly and healthily.never ending spirit to face the life. She thoroughly. The result is, she was The next morning, she realized herhas been accustomed of living inde- motivated because her family and all intention. She took a mattock and anypendent and being free from her fa- her neighbours defecate on the river other supporting equipment. With SOURCE:DPMU KEDIRI her three children, she began to dig a hole behind her house. At a short time, she dug a hole of 150 cm deep. On the following day, she felled several melinjo trees bearing no fruits. These trees stems are used as a buffer of latrine hole cover. As a wall, she also planted puring flowers around the latrine to avoid other peo- ple from seeing them defecating there. She and her three children left their old habit thereafter. She is proud of her own latrine. With her capability, she can also educate her children to change their attitude. Her youngest son sitting in second grade of elementary school says that he wont defecate on the river as he could get itch and already has a latrine. At one time, Supini was given an opportunity by DPMU Kediri to Supini is explaning her experience in constructing latrine explain her experience before social Percik August 2006 27
  • 29. S TO RY SOURCE:EXCLUSIVEorganizations and the commu- and her team successfully madenity in Kediri participating in the community in her village,CLTS orientation program. Dusun Margodadi, leave theirUnexpectedly, she sang a song habit of defecating at any places.she composed, namely "Figh- Mrs. Suparti usually called Mrs.ting For Making Latrine". This Inggih visited every house therecreativity made the participants after CLTS trial test program at herunnerved. village for the first time. "I always Away from Kediri, a young says that being sick is costly there-mother is also persevering in fore we need latrine to avoid thefighting for latrines for the com- disease," she says.munity. She is a dentist simulta- This teacher of elementaryneously Head of community school also has many ideas. She Agustin is training her staffhealth centre in Sub-district of collects coffees from members ofLembak, District of Muara the community to assist in mak- change successfully change 100 per-Enim, South Sumatera. Her name is ing new latrines. In addition, she asks cent. This success does not stop herAgustin P. Siahaan. them to cooperate. "The point is we intention. "I should change any other Her spirit to motivate the commu- should cooperate because it is hard to villages, I am embarrassed if this pro-nity to make latrines is also triggered work alone," she says. gram does not develop," she said.by CLTS training. And factually, only For the success, Mrs. Suparti is now With the intention and spirit, shea few of people defecates in latrine. frequently invited to participate in vario- continuously moves to all villages in"Well, I should change this attitude," us events relating to CLTS in central and sub-districts. The result is extraordi-she thought in those days. regional levels. Her village also becomes nary, all sub-districts have been free She compared CLTS program to a destination area for comparison study. from defecating at any places. Theany other programs. She thinks that "I never dreamt it before," she says. success is also her separate point toany other programs consider the go- Latrine heroines are in every- choose as a model doctor throughoutvernment apparatuses cleverer than where. In Jambi, precisely in Sub-dis- South Sumatera. Therefore, she isthe community so that the messages trict of Jambi Luar Kota, District of entitled to go to Jakarta to commemo-are not heard. "CLTS makes more Muaro Jambi, a woman perseveringly rate moments of proclamation. "I ne-humane approaches," she said. invites her community to leave the ver dreamt all of this," said Agustin. To realize her intention, she trai- habit of defecating at any places. She She feels that this program hasned her staff. Thereafter, she and her is Mrs. Habibah, a wife of Sub-district become a trigger for any other pro-staff directly went to villages just right Head of Jambi Luar Kota. Her days grams. The community, she explains,the activity in the community health are filled with triggering villagers of is now easier to motivate for examplecentre is a little loose. After 12:00, she Sukamenanti, a village being CLTS in case of matters pertaining to waste,and her staff went to villages. "We trial test area in Jambi. It is not sur-sometimes did not wear uniform to sanitation, etcetera. Now, she even prising if the villagers know her.make us more familiar with the com- develops an Integrated service post She is determined to make her hus-munity. I also did not say my profes- Tumbuh Kembang Anak. Two trial band working area free from defecatingsion," said this one child mother. tests are successful and now ex- at any places considering that most of She also had to extend her working panded. the areas in Jambi is on the riverbankhour from until 2 pm to 5 pm due to Another figure also perseveringly thereby making them prefer to defecatedifficulty to gather the community. triggering her community is Mrs. on the river. She has various creativeThey could only gather at noon. "We Suparti. She is a wife of Village Head ideas to trigger the community, such assometimes had to visit them from of Kenongo, Sub-district of Guci Alit, cleanliness competition, mutual coope-home to home," she recalled. District of Lumajang, East Java. Only ration to make latrines, etcetera. MJ/ Her efforts yielded. One village in a month of six months target, she DPMU -Kediri District28 Percik August 2006
  • 30. ABSTRACT Analysis of Use of Solid Waste Final Disposal Site Post Operation Community-Based (Bantar Gebang Case Study)B antar Gebang final disposal site compost management. Dominant fac- ties or improve the damaged ecosystem has operated since 1989. Use tors in determining strategies for the use as well as save land use of final disposal contract period by DKI Jakarta of solid waste final disposal site post site; (iii) for the agricultural improve-expires on December 31, 2003. Study community-based operation are among ment, produced compost can reduceand analysis to see any possibilities in the others extent of land, Waste Water agricultural land acidity level due to con-future based on the current conditions Management Installation (IPAS), legis- tinuous use of chemical fertilizer, insuch as resources and natural environ- lation, funding, involvement of private addition compost can increase acid pro-ment, socio-economic, physical, chemi- parties, technology, and donor agency. ductivity; (iv) local economic develop-cal, microbiological aspects, as well as The success of Integrated Final disposal ment, the concentration of manpower inthe community involvement in the use of SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE a considerable amount can open newsolid waste final disposal site post com- business opportunities for any othermunity-based operation are required to activities in the form of stall service,encounter any problems pertaining to financial service, catering service forsolid waste final disposal site post opera- workers as well as boarding/contractingtion. houses business, and (v) for regional Intention and benefit of this study administration, manpower hired in thisare among others (i) evaluating quality of activity can reduce social crime-infestedwell water, river water, lye, and micro- due to absence of work opportunity.biology; (ii) selecting appropriate alter- Products of this activity can be source ofnatives for the use of solid waste final regional pure revenues for regionaldisposal site post community-based administration and source of tax reve-operation. This study uses physical che- nues for the state.mical, socio-economic aspects, and ana- This study recommends that DKI Situation and condition at TPA Bantargebanglysis prospective as well as Analytic Hie- Jakarta continuously handles lyerarchy Process (AHP). site also depends on the communitys treatment at IPAS 1-4 but the han- This study reveals that physical, che- support. dling thereof should be improved bymical, and biological qualities of well wa- The use as Integrated Final disposal reducing BOD and COD until theter, river, and lye are still below the per- site will generate double impacts both on required limit of environmental qual-mitted threshold, except for river water the environment, the community sur- ity standard, load of Solid Wasteturbidity, nitrate, nitrite contents, BOD5, roundings and the government. The Water Treatment Installation shouldCOD of lye. In addition, this study indi- impacts are (i) for the community be maintained by adding interceptorscates that this final disposal site is still around the final disposal site, the cre- and furnishing the same with aera-used as an Integrated Final disposal site ation of work opportunity starting from tors. In addition, DKI Jakarta andwith the following division of zones. planning, construction to operation Municipal Administration BekasiZone I and Zone II as city forest/green- phases as well as the involvement in sort- should better use the Integrated Finaling. Zones III, IV, and V as solid waste ing solid waste, producing compost, and disposal site. In relation to this use offinal disposal site. The use as an Inte- building materials; (ii) for the environ- Final disposal site, a dynamic analysisgrated Final disposal site becomes a sy- ment, produced compost can be benefi- is required to predict any change fromnergy between solid waste management cial to improve environmental fertility time to time. MJ/Source: Dissertationand city forest/greening, recycling, and level through greening, recovery activi- of Dr. Royadi IPB Post-Master Degree Percik August 2006 29
  • 31. INSIGHT The Meaning of AMPL Institution For Sustainable FacilityE xperience during evaluating various problems arising, as long as By: Alma Arief * drinking water and environ- within the limits that can be con- mental sanitation (AMPL) de- water facilities function well, while the trolled. The problems are:velopment and facilitating the opera- remaining ones absolutely do not func-tion of Community-Based AMPL De- tion. 12 out of the 14 facilities ha-ve A. Environmental Problemvelopment National policy has con- managing institutions functioning well In various areas, environmentalcluded that "water facility managing too, while two others have managing problem highly determines the sus-institution has a very significant role institutions but failing to function. On tainability of AMPL facility. At Villagefor the sustainability of facility and the contrary, 14 facilities not functioning of Lewolaga, District of Larantuka,service". Result of evaluation by well also have managing institutions but Village of Wonda, District of Ende,WASPOLA in cooperation with Pra- also failing to function. Village of Adiwarno, District ofdipta Paramitha Foundation (Flores The information indicates that Kebumen, drinking water facilitiesrevisited: 2002) reveals that there is a important role on drinking water are frequently broken due to landslidepositive correlation between institu- facility managing institutions. This and/or rockslide. At Lewolaga, intional function and water dues, as well article will describe complexity aris- addition to landslide and/or rock-as between institutional function and ing from drinking water management slide, flood and falling big trees everwater dues and sustainable AMPL and service based on the experiences broke drinking water pipeline. Heavyfacility (spearman rho correlation). in making field evaluation and study. rain on river sweeps away iron pipes Also experience during facilitating as they are hung on the river. Atthe operation of AMPL-BM National Various Problems Adiwarno, water collection tank col-Policy in Central Java Province and Management of AMPL facility, lapse and are brought by landslide,Gorontalo Province. Field study on particularly pipeline water facility, is while at Wonda, pipeline stretchingsuccess and failure of AMPL develop- not a simple thing. In several cases, it along the road on the sloping river-ment at several villages, namely Ta- is precisely very complex. Not only bank is crushed due to landslide.lumelito, Molintogupo, and Tangga due to wide and varying dimension of In East Sumba, AMPL problemJaya, obviously indicates the signifi- problem, but also its very local cha- relating to the environment is dif-cance of role of AMPL institution for racteristic, so that the problems in ferent from any other areas. In thissustainable facility. At these villages, one area, even between one village District, a lot of livestock (cows)all water facilities have been seriously and another, can be highly different. swarming about can break pipelinedamaged, while drinking water mana- Water problems can change starting due to the lunge of the cows. Recently,ging institution absolutely does not from problems relating to environ- environmental problem in Gorontalofunction. mental condition, applied technology, begins to emerge, for example In District of Kebumen, informa- finance, socio-culture, and water ma- Talumelito case. In Talumelito, watertion on sustainability of drinking wa- naging institution. As the nature of facility does not function as waterter facility is obtained both from field the problems can be very wide and debit in reservoir are not sufficient. Itvisits and secondary data. The exis- complex, it is highly recommended can occur because the forest in waterting data obviously indicates that that AMPL facility is managed by catchment area has been replaced byfunction of managing institution those really having courage, wisdom, the community with food crop (corn).highly determines sustainability of and wide perception. A strong manag- While, in Molitogupo, the problemswater facility. 14 out of 28 pipeline ing institution can be able to control are pipeline and reservoir existing30 Percik August 2006
  • 32. INSIGHTamidst the river are brought by heavy very local, can be rooted from socio- catchment area that never occurredflood. cultural values in the community, before. Reduction of water debit Forests in Bangka Belitung Pro- conflicts inter villages, management makes the community never findingvince are damaged due to illegal min- internal conflict, uneven income rate, water difficulty all this time, particu-ing due to using hazardous chemical etcetera. larly those in upstream area closing toagents in the processing, therefore In Sub-district of Solor Timur, spring, get mad and break down bron-drinking water raw material fails to District of Larantuka, sustainability of captering. Further, as the manage-fulfil standard for drinking water. water supply highly depends on regu- ment of the water facility is sup- larity and capability to pay the sum of pressed by most of the members ofB. Technological Problem money in the amount of Rp. the community, they resigned and the In many cases, technological prob- 1,250,000.00/annum to those pos- water management is not yet formedlem relates to the environment. Types sessing/ controlling spring. While, at to date. Whereas, previously the man-of technology applied are highly de- Village of Wonda, District of Ende, agement was very orderly, includingtermined by environmental condition. NTT, as the spring is in any other vil- dues bookkeeping, how to requestAt Kelurahan Dembe I, Gorontalo, lages, traditional negotiations and water connection, penalty in case ofand Kelurahan Wonokromo, District agreements should first be made delay, etcetera.of Kebumen, water pipeline is some- before supplying the spring to the vil- At Talumelito, Gorontalo, a treat-times broken, particularly at night lagers of Wonda. At Desa Lewolaga, ment unit does not absolutely func-when the use of water highly reduces Larantuka, as the spring is in any tion after water supply highly reducesdue to strong water pressure to other villages of which the distance (only those residing on upstream areapipeline thereby requiring pressure can be more than 10 km, traditional obtain water) due to drastic reductionrelease tank or pressure release valve. marriage should first be made before of water debit, and those residing on In District of Sumba Timur, due to a using the spring. upstream area tend to use water asvery hot sunlight, various water facilities Socio-cultural problem also re- they like, for example not turning offare constructed by combining solar pan- lates to conflicts inter villages because the faucets, etcetera, and followedels as a power energy generator to acti- pipeline passes through any other vil- with denial to pay water dues by somevate water pumps. But, due to quite lages. At Desa Lewogala, because members of the community (onsophisticated technology and difficult pipeline passes through forest and downstream area). The treatmentmaintenance, the constructed facilities rice field of any other villagers, pipes facility finally does not function auto-are damaged and not repairable, in addi- (PVC) are frequently destroyed by matically. Reduction of water debit attion, the solar panels are slowly but sure unknown people. According to infor- Talumelito is resulting from change ofgone due to theft. In East Sumba, in mation, people residing at villages forest on water catchment area toaddition to solar panels technology, passed through by pipeline desire that food crops (corn) by the community.windmills are also applied as sources of they are given water allotment. Desaenergy to pump water and make ices. All Haikatapu, District of Sumba Timur D. Financial Problemthese 10 windmills are now damaged. likewise, where many pipes are lost by Water consumption dues is ab- At several villages in Kebumen, as unknown people thereby practically solutely required in the framework ofthe water is turbid, it can not be di- making the facility unfunction maintenance and development. Eva-rectly consumed by people but should because pipeline passing through rice luation result and field survey indi-first be filtered (can use domestic fil- fields of the villagers not having cate that not all villages possessingter or slow sand filter). drinking water service. drinking water facility (pipeline) col- At Desa Banyumudal, Kebumen, lect dues due to uneven water supplyC. Socio-Cultural Problem socio-cultural problem combines with making some members of the com- Socio-cultural problem seems to the environmental problem. Drastic munity wont pay the dues. conse-be more complicated than any other reduction of spring in dry season quently, the dues stop and the man-variables, and the nature thereof is occurs due to forest felling at water agement collapsed. It is also known Percik August 2006 31
  • 33. INSIGHTthat water consumption dues is highly East Sumba that the writer ever met). tion. At Village of Lonuo, Gorontalo,insufficient. At Desa Lonuo, Go- At this village, there is a non govern- Facility Managing Unit suddenly diedrontalo, monthly dues is Rp. 500, ment organization facilitating facility due to denial of the community towhile that at Desa Balaweling, Solor construction and institutional prepa- obey the rules and pay the water dues.Timur, Rp. 200/person/month. The ration. All organizational structure Precedence of election village head ofdues is certainly insufficient and ma- and regulations for users are prepared which one of the candidates promisedking it unable to develop or repair any by the community themselves by "water dues free", and siding of facili-damage. meeting. Even though, editing con- ty managing unit with one of the can- tent of the regulations are legal stan- didates becomes the main cause of theE. Institutional Problem dard, but the members of the commu- sudden death of the facility managing Basically, institutional problem nity obey the same as they are results unit.relates to norms and human being. of joint agreement. At any other places, facility ma-Roles of water facility management as naging units do not function soonalready explained above are highly after the operation of services due toimportant. Complex problem requires Institutionalization also damage of the facility as occurred attough people having courage, wis- relates to norms/ Village of Molinto Gupo and Village ofdom, and wide perception. Those to regulations stipulating Tangga Jaya. While in Talumelito,serve as the management should be Gorontalo, facility managing unit pre- rights and obligations ofselected by all parties relevant to viously functioning very good in per- both the management andwater consumption as they will have formance suddenly died due to une-support/legitimacy, and qualified the users. In this case, the ven and irregular water distributionpeople should be selected. issue of regulations thereby making the community wont Institutionalization also relates to involving all parties rele- pay the dues. There may be any othernorms/regulations stipulating rights vant to water consumption causes at any other places, therefore aand obligations of both the manage- will be very legitimate. profound study is required.ment and the users. In this case, theissue of regulations involving all par- Solutionties relevant to water consumption Various methods of solving thewill be very legitimate. Now, there is Why Institutionalisation does problem pertaining to non continua-only facility management standardi- not Function? tion of the facility originating fromzation. Water managing institution Non function of water managing non function of water managing insti-has the same name (even throughout institution can occur due to very va- tution are as follows:the areas). In addition, the existing rying variables. A through study 1. The community selects the quali-rules and institutional structures should therefore must be held to fied persons capable of solvingthereof are also the same. It means, obtain an accurate answer. The study various complicated problems.the existence of water management is result can be used for making an 2. Immediately selecting/replacingstill the formation from above and not intervention to solve the problem and the management in case of fai-based on initiatives of the community determine which institutionalisation lure to implement their function.themselves. It will be better if in the is ideal. 3. Immediately solving the prob-institutional aspect, the community is At Village of Banyu Mudal, for lems on amicable basis.also widely authorized to prepare the example, water facility managing 4. The users prepare organiza-same on their own. institution is dissolved as the manage- tional structure and rules stipu- At Village of Tamburi in East ment resigned and failed to form a lating rights and obligations ofSumba, there is a very maintained new one. They resigned as they feel the users adjusted to the localwater facility seemingly to be continu- unable to settle the conflicts inter vil- need.ous (the only good water facility in lages in relation to water consump- *WASPOLA Consultant32 Percik August 2006
  • 34. INSIGHT Waterworks Technological Civilization By TimeT his article is the second part of By: A. Hafied A. Gany* water for its cities. In the middle of the previous article with the the first century B.C., the Romans same title. The first part was (Part Two) built a dam in the Near East regiontelling about water technology arti- and further introduced Israelite dam,facts found in Egypt, Persia, Greece, ally renown as the birth place of sky- Nabatean and Ptolmatic Dam tech-Turkey, Yemen, and Asia. In this sec- scraper in the modern world today. nology.ond part, the writer describes several Aztecs Relic Dam and Em- During the early infrastructureother ancient water technology found bankment: Several centuries before development by the Romans, they hadin the other part of the globe. occupation of the Spain in 1518, the used various land measuring equip- Aztecs has attained the high civiliza- ments and leveling devices for bu- Toltec Reservoir for Irriga- tion supremacy in Mexico. In the ildings, abacus for calculating, rulertion and Water: Parallel with the time, they built Tenochtitlan as its and measuring tape, as well as craft-development undertakings during capital city amidst Mexico city. The ing equipment, leveling thread,Zapotek and Maya civilization, it was capital was an enclave at the west of plumb, etcetera - that are still usedsuspected that one of the Toltec civi- Texcoco Lake, a lake that covered now.lization had come up to its flourishing most of the valley in Mexico City. ATperiod between 500 AD and 1100 AD. the east of the downstream, part of its Old Islamic Civilization RelicDuring which it was also discovered water contains nitrate acid that haz- By utilizing the experiences ofthe largest reservoir in the area to ardous to plants on man-made island their ancestors and enhanced by thefacilitate irrigation and clean water consisting of mud sedimentation and Islamic civilization, the Arabs rapidlysupplies in the form of long storage aquatic plants, known as "Floating developed within a century, particu-furnished with river-training dam and Gardens, that can still be seen in larly in North Africa and Spain, also indiversion structure at the downstream Xochimileo at the south of Mexico South West of Asia through Indussite. City. River and Uzbekistan. It is predicted Anasazi Reservoir Network: that as a continuation of the oldApart from the development that had Roman Glorious Relic Yamanians tradition, they built sever-been undertaken in Mexico, particu- Approaching the fifth century al dams for irrigation in the center oflarly in north west of the United B.C., the Romans built rural drainage Islamic civilization in Mecca andStates of America, several traditional network for the city of Forum with Medina.communities had developed quite Cloaca Maxima sanitation network. At Abbasid Dam at Adhaim River andadvanced hydraulic techniques in the the same time, they also built Aricca Bujid Dam at Kur River: In the ninthefforts to preserve its appropriate valley drainage channel, a tunnel with century A.D., King Abbasid ofenvironmental equilibrium, which 607 m length situated around 30 km Baghdad built a dam at Adhaim Riverwas in fact, relatively under the arid at the south east of Rome City. In 396 with 130 m width, located 150 km atcondition. Several reservoirs had been B.C., they lowered Albano lake surface the north of Baghdad city.uniquely constructed by the using a 1,200 m tunnel to obtain addi- Within a century later, severalAnasazian at the south of Colorado tional land for agriculture. Between dams on Kur River at the south ofand others in New Mexico, which had 312 B.C. to 52 A.D., the Romans also Shiraz in the southern part of Iranlater been recognized with it stag- constructed nine water gutters with were constructed to run watermillsgered occupancy system, and eventu- 423 km total length to supply clean (the dams served around 30 water- Percik August 2006 33
  • 35. INSIGHTmills). Dams to operate "Aruban Mill" records that there are three concrete water infratructure in Indonesia isin the second century A.D. in Israel, proofs on ancient water resources Chandra Bhaga Canal on Cakungand in Deh Luran, Iran, were also development and management devel- River built in the fifth century notbuilt to serve the same purpose. opment. They are an inscribed stone Harinjing Embankment built in the General problem encountered Harinjing found at Village of Kepung, year 804.during that time was high sedimenta- Sub-district of Pare, on Brantas River Hypothesis on Mystery of Ancienttion due to erosion - particularly area, East Java Province. The finding Artifact: In relation to historic proofcaused by limited vegetation cover- was in the form of epigraph dated 726 in water resources development anding. Most of the water reservoir was the year Caka, or the year 808 AD. management, some people suggestfull with sedimentation, however the The second finding was in the form of that Indonesia as a tropical countryinfrastructure was quite stable against epigraph dated 843 the year Caka, or will find it very difficult to keep relicrolling force. the year 921 AD. The third finding was sites of small buildings with small dated 849 the year Caka or the year organic building materials in a longTechnological Blend Between 927. However, an inscribed stone time due to weathering. Therefore,Roman and Islamic Era Tugu proves that the first (the oldest) the relics as the abovementioned his- In 711, the Moslems crossed waterworks infrastructure in Indo- torical proofs will not be left or be dif-Gibraltar Straits and continuously nesia is Chandra Bhaga Canal around ficult to find after thousands of years.moved to the south west of Spain Cilincing River. If the hypothesis is correct, it is pre-passing through Visigothic Spain dicted that many proofs on prehis-Kingdom to the border of South toric civilization in Indonesia remainFrance in the efforts to spread Islam. Based on this mysterious and are unable to trackIn Valencia, around 300 km at the argumentation, it is after thousands of years.south east of Madrid City, they recon- understandable that water On the other hand, the othersstructed irrigation network, including technology with simple argue that considering Indonesia hasweirs stretching along Turia River. In infrastructure that been formed naturally to be a group ofeleventh century, the Moslems built have been used for tropical islands with various culturesapproximately nine weirs in an area at thousands of years didnt spread in small groups, people duringa distance of 12 km around the Turia leave any significant that time didnt need big reservoir orRiver. permanent water infrastructure to artifact or ruins which Parada Big Dam: In around 970 preserve their livelihood. Moreover, are could be studiedAD, Parada big dam was constructed the water abundance in Indonesia by future generation. makes many plants able to grow with-on Segura river at the upstream ofMurcia, around 350 m at the south out any big or permanent water infra-west of Madrid City. In that time, the structures.area was occupied by the Yemens who The epigraph indicates that King Even though supposing that theintroduced their irrigation culture Purnawarman decreed to dig an inter- simple infrastructure was washedand dam infrastructures for more ception canal on Chandra Bhaga River away by flood in each rainy season,than a thousand years. to flow water directly to the sea, along they would be able to repair it without Chandra Bhaga Palace (Bekasi River). any complicated construction efforts.Water Civilization Relic in Meanwhile, geomorphologic analysis They would prefer to spend their timeIndonesia predicts that Chandra Bhaga was at a and energy by repairing the existing Compared to water and environ- location that currently known as simple infrastructure rather thanmental technological civilization Cakung River. This inscribed stone maintain the permanent infrastruc-revealed in ancient community from indicates that the lowland that where ture all year long.around the world, ancient artifacts Jakarta City located now, has been Based on this argumentation, it isfound in Indonesia are relatively affected by flood since the fifth centu- understandable that water technologyyounger. The history in Indonesia ry. It gives a new proof that the oldest with simple infrastructure that have34 Percik August 2006
  • 36. INSIGHT to plant rice on wet rice field, for example, are obviously readable on two relief saved in Trowulan museum, East Java, how the farmers were planting rice seeds on wet rice field. The relief obviously shows that plant- ing rice seeds on wet rice field is dif- ferent from planting rice on unirrigat- ed rice field, where the rice seeds should be spread or planted. So, the 5 6 relief must mean that rice should beFigure 5. planted by using water medium toKarmawibangga relief on Borobudur Temple describe water utility of ancient community to cook at that soften the soil. No matter how simpletime.Figure 6. it is, but it is definite that they haveKarmawibangga relief on Borobudur Temple describe water utility to drinks. exerted to obtain the water or at least dug wells or purified water in order to be quite clear to consume.been used for thousands of years flask and pour the same in a cup - of Supposing that the relief amazing-didnt leave any significant artifact or which the form and function are not ly made in the era of Borobudur,ruins which are could be studied by far different from kitchen equipment Prambanan Temples, etcetera werefuture generation. used in this modern era. made in the seventh - eighth cen- Relief on various temples: despite Indeed, the relief does not obvi- turies, it can be ascertained that thethe younger technological proofs in ously shows whether they have used water technological civilization per-Indonesia, our ancestors have been water technology or not, but if we link fectly illustrated in the relief, must belong experienced in water and envi- it with various relics of the same type, longer than the construction of theronmental technologies in the archi- in Prambanan Temple, for example, temples themselves. Unfortunately, topelago. They apparently have tried to during that time they had certainly date we can not yet reveal historicalcommunicate their experience and involved water technology for water proofs, since when our ancestorsskill in water and environmental tech- supply and environmental conserva- knew water and environmental tech-nologies by carving their innovations tion. Relief on walls of Prambanan nologies as proven by any other coun-on temple walls spread in several Temple obviously shows water tech- tries in the world. Whether or not weplaces in Java Island, which some of nology had developed for water sup- are later than any other countries orthem may not yet be found. ply and ecosystem conservation, not the archaeological proofs thereof are Even though the time when the only human being, but also for the not yet found? Or the relics with sim-water civilization started is not yet existing flora and fauna (See Figures 7 ple construction have been destroyedknown, the actual illustration by relief and 8). by oxidation and weathering in tropi-on Borobudur Temple (built in the Figure 7 obviously shows efforts of cal climate? The questions are ouryear 7 - 8) obviously indicates a mes- men to use water with integrity future challenges to reveal the actualsage of water usage for cooking and approach of water resources infra- facts.drinking (see Figures 5 and 6). structure supply and sustainable Figure 5 obviously shows how to ecosystem conservation. While, Time Tunnel Mysteryuse the water to cook, boil water, Figure 8 obviously shows the role of Even though the facts do not yetwhile a man in front of them was water by using shower to support become an argumentation represent-cleaning a fish to cook. Figure 6 shows water for the life of not only men but ing the actual condition, as long as thehow a woman was serving a drink. also fauna and flora as well as water archaeological proofs have been re-The relief obviously shows how to ecosystem conservation. vealed by modern men, we can tem-store the water in an earthenware Irrigation practice and technology porarily conclude water technological Percik August 2006 35
  • 37. INSIGHTcivilization by time until this modern infrastructures are not facilitated withera. It is worth reflecting that since tunnel thereby making them broken From various archaeological find- down in a flood period before comple- thousands years ago, men hasings on human life cultures, we can tion of construction. applied an integrated watertrace until 7000 years ago, but in case In flood control and water resources managementof water and environmental techno- resources conservation sector, manylogical civilization, not fact can reveal technology, whereas lessons that can be learned froma mystery of early application thereof. demography did not yet exist in Nabaten people who constructed In Indonesian archipelago, history the time. Imagine how Iraqi check dam to keep erosion, where theof water and environmental techno- on Tikris river valley and occurring sedimentation is used as alogical development with concrete Euphrate since thousands years land for tilling the soil. It is simultane-proof is the construction of Chandra ago has applied an integrated ously land and water conservationBagha canal in the year 500, preced- water resources management with technology precisely being a centraling the construction of Borobudur physical separated irrigation issue of water resources developmenttemple occurring between the seventy network management. and management in this modern era.century and eighth century. It is worth reflecting that since As recorded in the existing archae- thousands years ago, men has appliedological proofs, there is seemingly a Lessons learned for the an integrated water resources man-quite long time tunnel of water and Future agement technology, whereas demog-environmental technological civiliza- Many lessons can be learned from raphy did not yet exist in the time.tion, namely since King Scorpion the existing proofs starting from plan- Imagine how Iraqi on Tikris river val-from Egypt officially opened one of ning, development phases through ley and Euphrate since thousandshis irrigation networks in 3-100 B.C. water resources management and years ago has applied an integrateduntil this modern era or at least 5,100 water ecosystem conservation. In water resources management withyears ago. No one can deny that the planning technological sector, for physical separated irrigation networkperiod is a quite long Mystery of Time example, many experiences of the management, namely Kisrawi,Tunnel seen from age of human civi- occurrence of under-designed or over- Tamara, and Nahrawan, so that thelization and culture, but it is very designed are met, where under- use of water is integrated and sustain-short if we measure the same with designed results in small capacity to able.geological age of the earth of which collect heavy flood, so that the infra- With the skill of experts in ancientthe time parameter is millennium not structure can not stand longer, nega- history in this modern era, many find-century or year. tive impact of over-designed likewise. ings are still continuously revealed In construction sector, many ancient from time to time. It proves that many mysteries of life in respect of human civilization are not yet revealed to date. Men civilization experiences in the application of water and envi- ronmental technologies can not be neglected by modern men in this Planet Earth. * Widya Iswara Utama Ministry of Public Works "Technology 7 8 and Water Management"; Board of Director, International Networks on Participatory Irrigation Management; and Member of Working Group on IrrigationFigure 7.Relief on Prambanan Temple describe about water utility technology. and Drainage History of the World,Figure 8. ICID, representing Indonesia.Relief on Prambanan Temple describe about water role for life. 36 Percik August 2006
  • 38. INSIGHT Development and EmpowermentE mpowerment is the most fre- right to have "something". For exam- By: Riant Nugroho Dwijowijoto* quent concept in the last five ple, the target is a poor group of com- years. Nevertheless, we fre- munity. They are given an under- vulgar language, Dont you have anyquently do not profoundly understand standing that they can be well-to-do if eyes? Anarchy by university studentsthe meaning thereof, we even fre- they can have a capacity to get out of along 1998-2001 is also resultingquently change the word. Indeed, no their poverty. from total emasculation of freedomunderstanding is absolutely correct In this phase, programs to do are power in their campuses. Mass des-but the efforts to understand a con- for example, giving cognitive know- truction of the properties of the Chi-cept is a preliminary step of a good ledge, belief and healing. The basic nese upon the riot is also resultingdevelopment program. principle is making the target under- from emasculation of their economic stand that they should (build "de- rights by the government and its cor-Not Just Power mand") be empowered, and the em- ruption, collusion and nepotism. If we Empowerment originates from the powerment process starts from inside always tie a pet, it will be wild when ittranslation in English "empower- themselves (not from the outsiders). is released. Thats why we need anment" which can also mean as "gran- After realizing, then the second empowerment, particularly to theting of authority", as power is not just phase is capacity. It is what we call as "weak" and "powerless" people.a "power" but also "authority", so that "capacity building", or in a simple la-the word "power" means not only nguage is enabling. To be given power Three Sides of Empowerment"able" but also "have power". Here, or authority, the relevant person Empowerment is a "process of be-Lord Acton proportion is used rever- should first enable. For example, coming", not an instant process". As asibly. English philosopher says that before giving a regional autonomy, process, empowerment has three phases:power tend to corrupt, absolute power regions to subject to autonomy are awareness, capacity building, and em-corrupt absolutely. Indeed, if a ruler given capacity building to make them powerment as described in the following:becomes an absolute ruler, for exam- "skilful" in managing the given auto- The first phase is awareness. Inple a dictator, he tends to corrupt any- nomy. Capacity building process con- this phase, a target to empower isthing because he absolutely corrupts sists of three types: human being, given "enlightenment" in the form ofthe power. organization, and value system. giving an awareness that he/she has a We are frequently romantic that Men capacity building meansthe poor of absolute power "may not to enable men, both in individualcorrupt". On the contrary, absolute context and group context. Weno-power corrupt absolutely, too. If are familiar with this conceptan individual or a group does not because we frequently hold"absolutely" has a power, he/she or it trainings, workshops, se-"corrupts" absolutely too. In English, minars, and others of thewe know the word "amock" meaning awareness capacity EMPOWERMENT like. In a "New Order" pe- buildingbeing suddenly angry and then ma- riod, we also frequentlyking destruction without any reason. used the term "simulation"In Surabaya and Malang, you should for P4 socialization. Its ba-never brush against a pedicab because sic meaning is to give capacitythe pedicab man can abuse you with to individual and group of men Percik August 2006 37
  • 39. INSIGHT SOURCE:DOC/POKJAto be able to take power or authorityto give. Organizational capacity building ismade in the form of restructuringorganization to take the power or au-thority. For example, People-OwnedCorporation is made before a poorgroup is given a business opportunity.To be efficient in the management,organization of an autonomous regionis rearranged thereby having a struc-ture follow function pattern. We fre-quently neglect this organizationalcapacity building, like "preparing amedium before placing a supply"; andlike preparing the land before plantingcorn seeds. Isnt it impossible for us tostrew corn seeds as we like? Strewingcorn seeds on a reef or highway will not also given "rules of game" in order on administrative requirements, foryield, right? It should be acknowledged that if their business become big in example at least three sub-districtsthat this second capacity building is in- the future, they do not fight for the should exist. In Sulawesi and Northfrequently made as we frequently say ta- business and dispute each others har- Maluku, it is predicted that more thanke it for granted by thinking that "well, if ming themselves. Regional autonomy 50 percent of new districts are unablea has been subject to capacity building, likewise, it is facilitated to make Re- to implement regional autonomy cor-he will make a capacity building on his gional Regulation stipulating "rule of rectly due to insufficient regional skillown". This premise sometimes applies, the game" in autonomous region, to implement the regional autonomy.but in practice, it frequently does not inter autonomous regions, as well as Therefore, regional autonomy ex-apply. inter autonomous region and central penses become very costly because ca- The third capacity building is government. Organizational capacity pacity building after the giving ofvalue system. After a man and the building likewise, we make capacity autonomy meets with resistance andorganization are subject to capacity building of value system as we have a tensions not properly occur.building, the value system likewise. stereotype that "if the men are subject Procedures in this third phase isValue system is a "rule of the game". to capacity building, they will make a quite simple, but we are frequentlyIn an organizational scope, the value good rule of the game on their own". unable to implement the same due tosystem relates to Bylaws, Systems and Field experience indicates otherwise. ignoring an aphorism that there is aProcedures, Regulations of Coope- After capacity building of the men, measurement in an simplicity. Therative, and others of the like. In a they are left as "scattered" individuals point of idea is the process of givingmore advanced level, value system "without sole value system". power or authority must comply withalso consists of organizational prac- Third phase is empowerment in a the recipients skill. Credit extensiontice, ethics, and good governance. narrow meaning. In this phase, a tar- to a poor group already passing Capacity building of value system get is given power, authority, or through awareness and capacityis made by assisting the target in ma- opportunity. This empowerment com- building processes still has to beking "rule of the game" among them. plies with quality of skill already adjusted to the capability to manage aIn BUMR program in Lumajang and owned. This phase is highly signifi- business. If their turnover only attainsBengkalis, after the men are given cant because at this time the forma- Rp. 5 million, it is not wise if they aremanagerial capacity, given organizati- tion of new districts tends to be made given a loan or capital in the amounton or business institution, they are not based on sufficient skill but more of Rp. 50 million.38 Percik August 2006
  • 40. INSIGHTArt from Natural Process century, Frances social scientist, At last, empowerment is not a Alexis de Tocquevile, said that the"theory" as said by Ron Johnson and superiority of America is resulting How natural the empower-David Redmod (The Art of Empower- from having a strong associationalment, 1992), that empowerment is ment is makes us forget that capability. It means the country has aabout art. It is about value we believe. "the process is significant". strong capability to make its organiza-When, empowerment becomes an art, The habit of Indonesian tion and management. Indonesian isthe prominent thing is how to build a almost the same: easy to make an people to take it for grantedbeauty in an empowerment process. It organization but incapable of mana-means, empowering must not mean makes the empowerment an ging. The Republic of Indonesia is an"making one robot" or "making uni- activity considered "done organization belonging to Indonesian.form". Empowerment also gives a automatically" With an abundant wealth, stateroom to develop various capabilities administration of the Republic ofof various men by assuming that peo- Indonesia is not sufficient to produceple will complete each others. Here, more superior Indonesian, at least inwe arrive at an understanding that him to keep their own money in a li- Asia. Human Development Index ofvalue of empowerment is that it is a mited amount and spend the money Indonesia is still below that of neigh-natural process. wisely, while supervise the same. The bor countries. Empowerment is a natural process purpose is when he is released, he can Human Development Progressthat we encounter in our daily life. An also spend his money wisely. report issued by UNDP in 2004 placesinfant eats mothers milk and por- How natural the empowerment is Human Development Score Indonesiaridge. After being a child, he eats makes us forget that "the process is in rank 112 of 175 countries so sur-cooked rice, sago, corn, bread, or noo- significant". The habit of Indonesian veyed. This position is below PRCdle and after attaining a grown up age, people to take it for granted makes the (104), Sri Lanka (99),and ASEANhe needs independence. Approaching empowerment an activity considered countries namely Singapore (28),the age, parent usually begins to teach "done automatically". In eighteenth Brunei Darussalam (31), Malaysia SOURCE:DOC/POKJA (58). It even a reduction of the previ- ous achievement. In 2002, UNDP reported that Indonesia scores 0.684 or is in rank 110 below Vietnam sco- ring 0.688 (rank 109), China (0.762) (rank 96), the Philippines 0.754 (rank 77), Thailand 0.762 (rank 70), Malay- sia 0.782 (rank 59), Brunei Darus- salam 0.856 (rank 32), Singapore 0.885 (rank 25) and Japan 0.933 (rank 9). For cognizance, HDI is an mixture index being an average signif- icant achievement standard of three basic dimensions in human develop- ment, namely (a) health (a long and healthy life); (b) knowledge; (c) decent standard of living. Meanwhile, in case of corruption, according to Transparency International, Indone- sia "still" occupies the fifth position of the most corrupting country in the Percik August 2006 39
  • 41. INSIGHT SOURCE:DOC/POKJAworld (better than the second positionin the last year). Empowerment is a concept that eventhough life is a natural process, the lifeitself should and must be managed."Management" concept is different from"engineering" because managementmore focuses on improving "valueadded" of "an asset". Therefore, empow-erment is not solely a management con-cept. And, as a management concept,empowerment should finally have anindicator of success. Social volunteers, particularlythose operating in gender main-streaming usually give four indicatorsto quality of gender equality which isapparently quite sufficient to measureempowerment. Firstly, access, whichmeans a target to empower finally has Social volunteers, particularly those operating in genderan access to resources it requires for mainstreaming usually give four indicators to qualitydevelopment. Secondly, participation, of gender equality which is apparently quitewhich means a target to empower can sufficient to measure empowerment.eventually participate in making effi-cient use of resources it accesses.Thirdly, control, which means a targetto empower eventually has a capabili- standing is built, people will be able to "not me!". Because in Indonesia, pro-ty to control process of making effi- jointly sacrifice in a difficult economy. duces stomach gas is considered wrong -cient use of resources. Fourthly, For example, in case of unavailable whereas it is good for health - moreoverequality which means in case of con- subsidy for fuel oil, people can be doing anything else.flict in a certain level, a target has a asked to talk and make a decision that Development should make empo-equal position to another in problem "we dont need another subsidy". werment value and choice of policysolving. A state with "powerless" people will simultaneously social learning which consist of a government facing with means that we always learn how toDevelopment Agenda spoiled, egoistic, and irresponsible peo- make empowerment better from day Finally, government administra- ple. We can see them today. A pressure to day. Therefore, as an intellectual,tion of President Yudhoyono should to have the strong leader, or "The Just Soejatmoko, says that development isarrive at a joint understanding that King" concept is a concept from "power- learning to live better than yesterday.Indonesia has to build empowerment less" people, and simultaneously informs And learning is the core of develop-as a national development method. It us on an "immature people" phenome- ment in the present and, possibly, inis because not only "the government non. As a political joke: Prime Minister the future.does not have sufficient money to of England, Prime Minister of France, * Strategic management consultant formake a government driven-pattern and President of Indonesia jointly make business and public sectors. a tour. They have stomach gas suddenly. Writing more than 40 books.development" but also because this Currently, occupying Board Member ofmodel will make the development a Prime Minister of England says "forgive Drinking Water Service Regulatory Boardjoint obligation between the govern- me"; Prime Minister of France says "par- DKI Jakarta.ment and people. When this under- don me"; President of Indonesia says,40 Percik August 2006
  • 42. AROUND AMPL Seminar on Study of AMPL-Related Law and LegislationS SOURCE:DORMARINGAN eminar on Study of Water and nature. It applies if the service is Environmental Sanitation outside service area/coverage (AMPL)-Related Law and area. It means that private partiesLegislation in Indonesia took place do not own the concession rightJuly 13, 2006 at Bumi Karsa Bida- forever. Therefore, said Effendi,kara Hotel, Jakarta. This seminar this rule asserts more and morewas attended by representatives of that the term "privatization" doesseveral agencies, such as National not apply. Private parties shouldPlanning Board, Ministry of Health, not necessarily request for permitMinistry of Home Affairs, Ministry of from regional water corporationPublic Works, WASPOLA and to manage drinking water SupplyWorking Group of AMPL. This event 2005 on Village Administration with System development. In this case,was held by Working Group of AMPL national policy on community-based they only require permits from thethrough Directorate General of PMD, AMPL Development. government and/or regional adminis-Ministry of Home Affairs. Effendi Mansyur explained that tration in accordance with their This seminar is intended to im- legal base of Drinking Water Supply respective authorities.prove the participants knowledge on System development (drinking water, Meanwhile, Hilwan, member ofroles and functions of legislation in waste water, and domestic waste) is BPP SPAM, extends that challenge ofmotivating policy adoption process article 40 of Law No. 7 of 2004 on drinking water supply system devel-and synergic relationship between the Water Resources. The article was opment is manifestation of agreementlegislation with the national policy on debated in House of Peoples Repre- in Earth Summit Johannesburg Sep-drinking water development and envi- sentative and denied by Non Go- tember 2002 in attaining MDG target,ronmental sanitation. vernment Organization as well as and in the framework of a half of total This seminar is divided into two Constitution Court at that time, par- population not yet receiving drinkingsessions. Resource persons in session ticularly article 40 paragraph (4) water service. It is predicted thatI are Effendi Mansyur and Hilwan, reading: "Any cooperatives, private investment fund by approximatelyMSc (both members of Drinking Corporations and community can Rp. 25 trillion is required for increaseWater Supply System Development play a role in managing drinking in capacity of 61,000 l/second as wellSupporting Board - BPP SPAM). They water supply system". This article is as service connection thereof, whilerespectively discussed law No. 7 of considered to support the emergence the Governments capability per2004 on Water Resources and Govern- of privatization. Regional Water Cor- annum is around Rp. 600 billion.ment Regulation No. 16 of 2005 on poration as if has an exclusive right in Edward Sitorus, Directorate ofDrinking Water Supply System Deve- case of Drinking Water Supply System Rural Administration, Directoratelopment. While, resource persons in (SPAM) management. In this case, General of Home Affairs in thissession II are Edward Sitorus (Direc- one should see that what is exploited seminar emphasized the necessitytorate of Rural Administration, is in a public commodity highly requi- to form an organization namelyDirectorate General of PMD, Ministry of red by the community. Village-Owned Corporation calledHome Affairs) with material on rela- Government Regulation No. 16 of Rural Corporation in the form oftionship between Law No. 32 of 2004 on 2005 on Drinking Water Supply corporate body in case dinkingRegional Administration, Government System Development explains that water supply system will beRegulation No. 72 of 2005 on Villages, private parties are only given a con- organized at rural level.and Government Regulation No. 73 of cession right which is temporary in (DEW) Percik August 2006 41
  • 43. AROUND AMPL Seminar on Community-Based Urban Waste ManagementU rban waste, particularly in of matters pertaining to waste prepared organic waste briquet) by using efficient, cities in Java, is a complicated by JICA in 1987. "But, the master plan is effective, and economic anaerobic fer- problem. The current handling not implemented consistently," he said. mentation method. While TRS is totalis considered unserious. A negative Last year, DKI Jakarta restudied the recycling system. It means the entireimpact has occurred in Bandung. The master plan. The result is, action plan on inorganic waste (residues of organiccity encounters a waste disaster. It DKI Jakarta waste management in waste) undergoes a recycling processshould necessarily occur in case of a 2005-2015 has been prepared. Sub- and is reused as maximal as possible. "Itstrong commitment from the govern- stances of the action plan are among is waste to energy system," he explained.ment and stakeholder to handle the others reducing and using waste as many With this method, any waste enteringproblem. In the condition, Centre for as possible at source before disposal to landfill can be less than 5 percent of totalEnvironmental Research, Institute of final disposal site; sorting; constructing volume of waste. This technique will beSocial Research and Empowerment, waste treatment facility at various waste patented in America, but several cities inBogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB) held handling locations and zones; applying any other countries have tried the same.a seminar. high technology; handling hazardous and This handling model, said Joni, This seminar is divided into two ses- toxic waste specifically; opening regional can be engineered, constructed, andsions. Firstly, analyzing urban waste and private cooperation opportunity; and operated by Indonesians with moreproblem with resource persons, Head of changing communitys paradigm that competitive, effective, and visible resultCleanliness Service DKI Jakarta, Pre- waste can become economic resource. than waste to energy systems in anysident Director of PD Kebersihan Ban- While, President Director of PD other advanced countries. In addition,dung City, and Director of CV Sinar Kebersihan Bandung, Awan Gumelar, this method can be made as a big scaleKencana. Secondly, studying communi- said that currently Bandung City has business which is beneficial and sustain-ty-based urban management strategies been free from waste. According to him, able, environmentally-friendly withand systems with the speakers namely waste disaster has motivated inhabitants income potential of more than 3 billionDr. Joni P. Sakti (expert in environmen- of Bandung to make 3R (reuse, reduce, dollar and rate of investment return oftal engineering and management), Dr. and recycle). Now, many households above 24 percent per annum.Suryo Adiwibowo from IPB, and Direc- turn their waste into compost. Sonson Garsoni from CV Sinartor of CV Arya Kemuning. Both Rama and Awan are of the Kencana told his experience in assisting Head of Cleanliness Service DKI opinion that waste problem in urban the community in making domestic andJakarta, Rama Boedi, explained solid area is quite complicated. Many parties community scale composting in Ban-waste condition in Jakarta. Waste tends are related. The problem is not only a dung.to increase from year to year. Currently, technical matter but also more non tech- Another speaker, Illan R. Suriadiaverage accumulation of waste is around nical matter. Obvious policy in this mat- explained on plastic waste recycling6,000 tons/day. The waste (2005) is ter is required. Meanwhile, another opportunity. Types of plastic usuallycomposed of 55.37 percent of organic speaker offered alternative of handling recycled are differentiated into types ofwaste and 44.63 percent of inorganic the waste. Dr. Joni P. Sakti introduced PP (polypropylene, HDPP (high densitywaste. Almost the entire waste namely BioCORE TRS. BioCORE (BioCon- polypropylene), HIPS (high impact poly97.94 (2005) is handled. version of Organic Refuse to Energy) styrene), ABS (acrylonitile butadiene He objected that Jakarta has no con- being a process where an organic waste styrene), PVC (poly vinyl chlorine), PScept of handling waste. He mentioned is changed to energy and any other valu- (poly styrene), acralite and LDPE (lowthat DKI Jakarta has owned master plan able products (biogas, electric, and/or density polyethylene). MJ42 Percik August 2006
  • 44. AROUND AMPL Training for Field Facilitating Team SANIMASS ANIMAS will be replicated in mantan, East Nusa Tenggara, and Mojokerto and Blitar. The partici- 100 selected cities/ districts in South East Sulawesi. pants interacted with SANIMAS users this year, with pure fund from The two weeks training discussed and management thereby knowingthe home country, combination of subject materials, among others: any weaknesses and superiorities ofnational Budget, Provincial Budget, basic principles and concepts of SAN- the program. The training result wasDistrict/Municipal Budget, and the IMAS, self selection methods, rapid realized by preparing Follow-up Plancommunity. To prepare the replica- participation assessment techniques, of the respective district/municipaltion, Directorate of PLP, Directorate basic communication in the commu- TFL to apply in the respective regions.General of Human Settlement, Minis- nity, and preparation of community One of the problems put forward bytry of Public Works held a training for working plan. the participants of TFL is village area/-Field Facilitating Team (TFL) SANI- As a part of understanding of SAN- location has been determined/appointedMAS on June 4 - 14, 2006 at BP IMAS approaches to the participants, by mayor/district head. Therefore, self se-ABPLP Surabaya. Participants being the training used a participative me- lection practice is less implemented pro-the prospective members of TFL orig- thod. Amidst the training, the partici- perly. It is therefore worried that theinate from five provinces, namely: pants were asked to visit successful area/location has no a strong intention toJambi, Bangka-Belitung, South Kali- pilot locations of SANIMAS namely build or maintain SANIMAS facility. MJ Dialog Forum on Investment In Domestic Waste Water HandlingD irectorate General of Human pal/district performance in handling Waste water management service Settlement, Ministry of Public waste water, represented by PDAM rate varies from Rp. 5,000 to Rp. Works, August 23 - 25, 2006, Surakarta and PDAM Banjarmasin. 100,000. It depends on category of ser-held a Dialog Forum on Investment In President Director of PDAM Sura- vice user. Unfortunately, the rate of pay-Waste Water Handling. The event was karta, Abimanyu, explained that sanita- ment is still low namely 30 percent.attended by the relevant agencies to tion development in Surakarta City has Meanwhile, one of the directors ofdomestic waste water handling both been implemented in 1995 - 2001 in the PDAM Banjarmasin, explained conditionfrom central level and regional level, and amount of Rp. 41.4 billion through of waste water management in the city.several non ministerial institutions/or- Integrated Urban Facility Development The city has several IPALs, such as inganizations (PDAM, Forkalim, Borda, Project with Semarang City in the imple- Lambung Mangkurat area, and Pekapu-BEST, PSLH-UI and several private mentation thereof. The project is SSUDP ran Raya area at a capacity of 500 m3/-companies). (Semarang-Surakarta Urban Develop- day. Now, there is an efforts to form PD This dialog forum was opened by ment Program). PAL with capital placement from munici-Director General of Human Settlement Currently, Surakarta City has had off pal administration by Rp. 4.3 billion.PU, and Director of Settlement and site waste water management facility Alfred from WASPOLA explainedHousing - National Planning Board fur- with service percentage of around 10.64 Community-Based Waste Waterther explained National Policy on Waste percent. In line with increase in total Management. While, Director of UrbanWater, as well as Director of PLP- population and activity of Surakarta City Area, Ministry of Home Affairs gaveDirectorate General of Human Settle- being a centre for cities surroundings, it alternative of form of waste water ma-ment-PU explained Investment in and is considered necessary to make profes- naging institution. The event was endedImplementation of Waste Water Pro- sional and sustainable management and with visit to Setiabudi Dam managed bygram. This dialog explained munici- increase in scope of service. PD PAL Jaya. (RAH) Percik August 2006 43
  • 45. AROUND AMPL Community Awareness Raising Program on Introduction To Drinking Water AspectsF ORKAMI, in coopera- SOURCE:FORKAMI condition at the area whereas the tion with TPJ, NZAID, area is in Capital City Jakarta. This ESP-USAID and rural area is always flooded every year.administrations along Ciliwung This CAR event was attendedRiver held series of events in the by tens of villagers. They wereframework of raising Commu- involved in group discussion withnity Awareness/CAR) in water the facilitator assistance. The dis-quality sector at domestic scale cussion took place interactively.and surroundings. This activity They were previously given en-took place at three places, name- lightenment by resource personsly in Kelurahan (Village) Cawang on water quality, such as meaning(8-12), Kelurahan (Village) Ba- of pH, what causes turbidity onlimester (8-26), and Kelurahan faucet water, why water produces(Village) Kebon Manggis (9-9). odor, etcetera. This activity is intended to Thus activity was also enli-raise the community knowledge on nary phase for all members of the com- vened by consumer goods producers,drinking water quality aspects, improve munity in treating water surroundings such as Unilever and Nestle. The produ-change of critical behavior to drinking correctly. The selection of Ciliwung River cers distributed consolation prize to thewater quality, and serves as a prelimi- area is based on a bad environmental participants. MJ Facilitating Basic Skill Training in the framework of Implementing Community-Based AMPL Development PolicyT SOURCE:DOC/POKJA o improve knowledge, skill and Central Java, District Planning Board attitude of participants as train- Tangerang, and Provincial Planning ers/facilitators, Directorate Ge- Board Central Kalimantan.neral of Social and Rural Development, In this facilitating basic training, theMinistry of Home Affairs held Fa- participants are given knowledge oncilitating Basic Skill Training in the techniques of communicating, pre-framework of Implementing Commu- senting activities, facilitating media andnity-Based AMPL Development Policy ethics of facilitator and how to commu-on July 3-7 in Yogyakarta. nicate in front of many people, pre- This training was followed by repre- senting an activity which media that cansentatives of Directorate General of PMD, be used for making a facilitation.Ministry of Home Affairs, Directorate In general, this facilitating basicGeneral of Regional Administration, training ran well. There were several out-Directorate of PLP, Directorate General of Kebumen, District Planning Board puts, among others training location isHuman Settlement, Secretariat of ISSDP Purbalingga, Provincial Planning Board too closed to shopping centre therebyJakarta, Provincial Secretariat of Working Banten, Office of Provincial Infrastructure being less conducive, time allocation isGroup South Sulawesi, District Planning Banten, Provincial Planning Board less given so that several subject materi-Agency Brebes, District Planning Board Central Java, Provincial Health Service als were given only in a glance. MJ44 Percik August 2006
  • 46. AROUND AMPL Evaluating and Planning Meeting of AMPL Working Group Activities of Budgetary Year 2007W SOURCE:MUJIYANTO ater and Environmental Sa- is necessary to give attention to the pre- nitation Working Group vailing provisions as a legal grounds of (AMPL Working Group) held transfer of assets to association, forma-a meeting in Cibogo, Bogor on July 18 - tion of association, etcetera.19, 2006. This activity with the topic"Evaluating and Planning Meeting of CLTSAMPL Working Group of Budgetary Structured evaluation study on CLTSYear 2007" was attended by all compo- will be made so that proof of CLTS suc-nents of AMPL Working Group and any cess can be properly recorded. It is wor-relevant projects (CWSHP, WSLIC, ried that CLTS will be a problem in theProAir, CLTS, Plan, and WASPOLA). future as the intention to replicate CLTS This meeting discussed two main does not originate from the communityagendas, namely evaluation of activities but from regional administration. In CLTS activity in Sukabumi, West Javaof AMPL Working Group in semester I of addition, CLTS should better not onlybudgetary year 2006 and planning of depend on budget 69, but also useAMPL Working Group of budgetary year ProAir National Budget. CLTS should better be2007. Evaluation of activity results in The necessity to involve the commu- made as a movement, such as 3M move-semester I are among others: nity in projects by 4 percent in cash ment Dengue Fever, but a study on a becomes an obstacle as the project itself precise marketing strategy should beWASPOLA has no limitation of ceiling. Several areas made. WASPOLA activities mostly em- requiring complex technology make thephasizes on policy socialization and project value increase thereby influen- Plan Indonesianot yet enters strategies of imple- cing the amount of in cash to provide by Cooperation of Plan Indonesia andmenting policies nationally. It is the community. It makes the activities in National Planning Board does not yetexpected that in 2007 - 2008, all several areas have to be added several have a Standard Operating Proceduresprovinces have been facilitated. To times. (SOP), so that the SOP should immedi-encounter the same, social marketing Kodi area should be given a more ately be made and signed by the bothtool in the form of communicating attention due to two things, namely: parties.strategies used for implementing poli- a. Existence of one spring used by 15cies upon facing with the community, villages, attention should be emphasized SANIMASexecutives and particularly legisla- on multi-rural cooperation in the ma- In 2007, 87 districts will implementtives is required. nagement of the spring pursuant to SANIMAS. Several significant issues are In 2007, WASPOLA will prepare Government Regulation 16 of 2005 on control and preparation of facilitator.exit strategy and expectedly after SPAM development,completion of WASPOLA activities, b. Availability of GTZ and KfW to Secretariat of Working GroupAMPL Working Group has sufficient provide Rp. 17 billion for SPAM develop- Several obstacles to encounter bystrategies and tools to implement the ment in Kodi area, to manage profes- Central AMPL Working Group are coor-policies. sionally by one association. Therefore, it dination, fund clearing and reporting of Percik August 2006 45
  • 47. AROUND AMPL SOURCE:MUJIYANTOactivity results. In addition to evaluation, the meet-ing agrees several activities to do inbudgetary year 2007, namely:WASPOLA 1. Expanding national policies of AMPL-BM throughout Indonesia. 2. Strengthening national policies of AMPL-BM by strengthening policy in sanitation sector. 3. Continuing discussion on policy in institution-based AMPL sector.ProAir National Policy of Water Supply invitiation community-Based dissemination 1. Producing ProAir pocket book. 2. Monitoring, Evaluating and Advo- Working Areas in line with the 4. Producing VCD audio visual. cating regions. National Policy. 5. Technical training to post construc- 3. Making ProAir operational guide- 3. Appropriate Technology of Water tion. lines. Supply Module 4. Strengthening multi-rural institu- 4. Developing Health Promotion CWSHP tion post construction. Module for School Children 1. Training on peaty water treatment 5. Holding technical training to 5. Training SANIMAS Program construction. ProAir management in Kupang. Facilitators 2. Laboratory technical training and 6. Holding training post construction 6. Resource Centre water quality survey. to ProAir management in Kupang. 7. Producing a Book: "Indonesia 3. Promotion methodological trai- 7. Holding seminar on community- Water and Sanitation Deve- ning. based drinking water supply in lopment: Lesson Learned from 4. O&M training. ProAir areas. Failure and Success". 5. Training relating to management, 8. Percik Junior Magazine among others:CLTS 9. Socializing MDG in Local a. Developing rural institution. 1. Orientating to east and west region- Government b. Studying independent communi- al CLTS approaches. 10. Baseline Knowledge Attitude & ty development in cooperation 2. Preparing baseline data of a facilita- Practice. with WASPOLA. tor already trained. 11. Monitoring Rural Water Quality c. Strengthening regional develop- 3. Preparing VCD and module as sup- 12. Coordinating Cooperation Activity ment strategic preparation. plements for training participants. of Government of Indonesia-Plan 6. TKK-TKP meeting. 4. Making whole evaluation study on Indonesia. CLTS, also preparing CLTS lesson Secretariat of AMPL Working learned to submit to CLTS national SANIMAS Group meeting. 1. Training to facilitators as already Activities relating to communication did in 2006. are production of magazines, leaflets withPlan Indonesia 2. SANIMAS training (for teachers various themes, CD, AMPL guidelines 1. Developing Policy Procedure and and community), possible expenses books, AMPL pocket books, exhibition, Guidelines to Plan Indonesia in line will be borne by Non Government Media Gathering, and Press Tour. While, with the National Policy of Organization. any other supporting activities are Government of Indonesia 3. Evaluating O&M, individual con- Presentation of Information on Geo- 2. 2. Piloting Program on Water and sultant will be appointed to evalu- graphy-based Water and Environmental Environmental Sanitation in Plan ate the same. Sanitation Policy by MapInfo. (MJ)46 Percik August 2006
  • 48. AROUND WASPOLA Seminar on AMPL Communication Orientation in RegionsT SOURCE:ASTRI HANDAYANI o follow up meeting on tos. In addition, the partici- Preparation of AMPL pants were asked to identify tar- Communication Strategi- get audiences and what contri-es in regions, a seminar with the bution to give to encounter thetopic AMPL Communication Ori- problem.entation was held in Serang, Ban- In communication mediaten, on June 26-27, 2006. This appreciation, the participantsevent was followed by AMPL-re- were introduced to any medialated agencies at Provincial Ad- able to use in communicatingministration Banten. AMPL development to audi- This seminar is intended to ences. The media have their ownreceive inputs from stakeholder cation media appreciation. superiorities and weaknesses.in preparing information and commu- The making of communication Therefore, analysis of situation andnication strategic guidelines of which strategies cover five phases, namely: identification of correct audiencesthe results will become subject mat- Planning/Preparation-Media Produc- highly influences in determiningters in National Seminar on tion-Implementation-Monitoring & proper media to communicate anyCommunity-Based AMPL Commu- Evaluation messages.nication Strategies in the future. In photo language session guided In the last part of this seminar, the This seminar was filled by subject by a facilitator from WASPOLA, the participants were asked to map AMPLmatters among others the significance participants were asked to see AMPL condition in their respective areas andof communication in AMPL develop- photos and requested to analyze situ- then make work plan in short and longment, photo language, and communi- ation and identification of the pho- terms. They were quite enthusiastic. rie Seminar on AMPL Communication StrategiesO n July 12, 2006, Central to the target community to make them any messages giving instructions or AMPL Working Group held a receive the programs. explanations in nature, while audio- seminar on AMPL Commu- This seminar was filled by discus- visual media is a combination of thenication Strategies in Jakarta. This sion and speech from Bestian Naing- both media that can be able to moveseminar is a follow-up of preparation golan (Deputy Head of Research and the thought or feeling.of Community-Based AMPL Commu- Development of Kompas Daily). The In addition, Bestian gave secrets tonication Strategies already made sin- participants were asked to simulate develop public opinions by mass media.ce March 2006. This event was follo- the extension of messages by commu- These secrets are highly important towed by members of Central AMPL nication media. Three communicati- know as AMPL-WASPOLA WorkingWorking Group. on media were introduced, namely Group highly requires a strong support This seminar was opened by Director audio media, visual media and audio from media in its efforts to socializeof Facilitation of Spatial and Environ- visual media. The three media have Community-Based AMPL Nationalmental Lay Out, Directorate General of their own superiorities and weaknes- Policy to the public. According to him,Bina Bangda, Ministry of Home Affairs, ses. Audio media is usually very ef- almost all media in Indonesia have noProf. Tjahya Supriatna. He said it is nec- fective in extending any messages agenda. Therefore, the Working groupessary to prepare proper communication exerting to move or motivate, visual can play a role as a party providingstrategies in extending AMPL programs media is very effective in extending mass media with agenda. rie Percik August 2006 47
  • 49. BOOK INFO Manual on Waste Management for Business DistrictL iving Planet Index measures Group and Commonweal, finds 107 on the whole the tendency of Title: chemical agents in blood and urine of Ecological Solid Waste population of wild species in Management for Central nine volunteers studied. Most of thethe world. The index provides indica- Business District. pollutants and contaminants entertor of natural condition of a country in A Trainers Manual through any products used by the vol- Writer: Ayala Foundationthe world. In general, LPI reduces 40 unteers not because they work or live Publisher: Ayala Foundationpercent. The cause is reduction of en- & Solid Waste around the industrial zone.vironmental condition. One of them is Management Program Therefore, the world should cha-resulting from waste. Year Published: - nge its condition. Ecologically, the Page: viii + 112 In Europe, 1.3 billion tons of waste awareness about waste managementis produced each year, 40 million tons posal are among others surface water is absolute. Therefore, this book isout of which are classified as ha- contamination, increasing risks of highly important to prospective train-zardous waste. It is predicted that in disease due to spreading by insect or ers moving to change the community2020, total waste will increase 45 per- mice. Increase in glass house emis- particularly in business centers. Thiscent. In the United States of America, sion, aquatic and river body pollution, manual is quite complete and alsowaste attains 499 million tons per pollution on land, and economic contains lessons from several busi-annum. No wonder if the earth is bur- losses. ness centers in the Philippines. Indened with the waste and its balance A research by Mount Sinai School Indonesia, we just modify it as theis disturbed. of Medicine in New York in coopera- problem is not so different. MJ Impacts of uncontrolled waste dis- tion with Environmental Working Waste Collection and TransportationW aste collection and trans- Title: transportation movement should first be portation is the significant Manual on Improving Solid made to know effectiveness and efficien- Waste Collection thing in waste manage- cy level of transportation system from and Transportation Systemment. The disorder in the phase will Writer : SWAPP the side of equipment and humangenerate a bad impact on the environ- Publisher: SWAPP resources involved therein.ment and human being as mostly Year Published: 2003 Beyond that, this system needs Pages : 101 pagesfound in big cities. public care and education on waste Significant matters in waste collec- management. This attitude can betion are sorting, storage, and collec- In case of transportation, selection developed with a good communica-tion at final disposal site. Sorting of proper transportation is a key. tion strategy. Management systembegins at source of waste both in Transportation should be adjusted to also needs an obvious and measuredhouseholds, offices, or industries. capacity of final disposal site, waste policy.Thereafter, the waste should be pro- characteristics, maintenance, and These phases of waste managementperly stored in accordance with cha- economic capability. It means it can be learned and trained. This bookracters of waste and waiting time until adjusts to waste management process presents all the processes with modulesthe waste is transported to final dis- design on the whole. thereof. The result is, this book pre-posal site. While, final disposal site Another significant thing in this pared with the assistance of USAID cancan use individual or communal sys- management is designing transportation become one of the references for wastetem. route. But, a study of reach time and management training. MJ48 Percik August 2006
  • 50. CD INFO Collection of Solid Waste Management Laws and Policies in Philippines.C ondition of waste in In- regional regulation, and legal donesia enters a critical sanctions to any violator. phase. Waste becomes a In case of supervision of ha-complicated problem. On the other zardous and toxic waste, thehand, no legislation relates to this country forms an advisory boardmatter. Consequently, cases per- consisting of 10 departments plustaining to waste are never com- non government organizations.pletely solved. Legal sanctions to any violators The condition in Indonesia is are also quite severe both insimilar to that in its neighbor coun- the form of imprisonment andtry, the Philippines. Since several penalty.years ago, this country has issued The Philippines has also hadlaw on waste and any other related special regulation on waste finalregulations so that waste problem disposal site including criteria ofthere can be overcome better. facility fulfilling the requirements It is nothing wrong if Indonesia for groups of community. In addi-learns from the Philippines. This CD and sanitation, including environ- tion, the legislation also stipulates ancan become a reference. This CD ment. This book contains among obvious division between stakehold-being a collection of legislation com- others general policy on environment, ers of waste. Has our draft of law onpletely presents regulations on waste sanitation, hazardous and toxic waste, waste been like it? MJ Composting TrainingP roducing compost is simple. Through this CD, we can learn the respective choices of technology. How simple it is, sufficient lessons from several communities in Another significant thing is this CD reference to learn it intensive- the Philippines already practicing provides the children with specially is rare moreover in the form of composting in accordance with the presentation modules on how to teachmodules easily presented. This them to produce compost.CD elaborates compost starting Models of submittingfrom philosophy of process by materials in this productionphases, types of composting, of compost seem to be easyknowledge of material (waste), and simple. For us infacility design, to policy to make Indonesia, we just modifythe composting work. the language from English to This CD issued by Solid Waste Indonesian. With this CD,Management Association of the composting training will bePhilippines (SWAPP) was ever very easy to hold moreoverpresented in SWAPP Conference it also has run-down there-in the end of 2005 with the theme of. Do you want to try?"Organic Waste Recycling Tech- MJnology for Businessmen". Percik August 2006 49
  • 51. SITES INFO Zero Waste Danger of Incinerator various researches and articles on waste from various competent institutions.http://www.ecocenter.org/zerowaste. http://www.zerowasteamerica.org/Inc shtml inerators.htm Composting W aste handling by using inci- nerator is indeed a quick http://www.compostguide.com/ method. The waste is burned and gone. But, the problem remains existing. Impact generated from this burning process is very dangerous. Actually, burning of waste only changes form of waste to hazardous air emission and toxic material. Research by EPA indicates that 30 percent of burned waste change to toxic material. WhatZ ero waste is a solving vision in makes it more serious is, the hazardous waste handling promising an gas emission is not only local in nature ecological sustainability in the but spreads throughout the world.future. Currently, waste treatmentprocess still fails to yield an optimum C ompost is the best natural mulches able to fertilize the soil at a less expensive price. You shouldresult. Producers still less care aboutwaste being their side-products as not necessarily spend money to pro-indicated in a very small incentive duce it even a cent. Many people mayspent by companies. know it but only a few of people try to With zero waste, at least the pro- produce it. Whereas we can alleviateducers will be motivated to be respon- the environmental burden throughsible for their products and products this process. Do you want to knowpacks. In addition, this program will how to produce it?make the producers more sensitive to This site tries to guide on how tothe environment. produce compost. In addition, it Final end of zero waste programs It is believed that incinerator con- explains types of waste and contentsis an alternative for direct waste dis- tains carsinogenic substance (the cause therein as well as characteristics ofposal through the efforts to promote of cancer disease) and toxic chemical the waste. It also explains whether orclean production, prevent pollution, agents from the result of burning, not the waste can be used for produc-and form communities of which the including heavy metal (arsenic, cadmi- ing compost. For example, orange, itproducts are designed to be recycled um, mercury, chromium, and berylli- can not be used for producing com-thereby producing economic value um), acid gas, PVC, herbicide residues, post as its characteristic can stopand being safe to the environment. and dioxin as well as furan. Particular composting activity. Concept of this zero waste pro- for dioxin, this material has been We can also learn problems of pro-gram is limited not only to consumpti- declared as carcinogenic for human ducing compost as well as solutionon objects but also electronic objects. being by WHO (1997). thereof. It provides practical instruc-Several big companies in the world In addition to explaining danger of tions to treat problem compost, forhave adopted this program. They are incinerator, this site also presents vari- example it is too dry or too wet. Thisamong others Xerox, Toyota, Honda, ous alternatives of waste handling out- site provides number of articles onHewlett Packard and Sony Electro- side burning. You can also further trace compost. Do you want to try? MJnics.50 Percik August 2006
  • 52. AGENDAD ATE M ONTH A CTIVITIES3-7 July Workshop and training on Facilitation Basic Skills4-11 July Sanitation Conference, Manila6-14 July Training for Field Facilitator SANIMAS 2006, AB PLP Training Center, Surabaya12 July Workshop on Communication Strategy Field Trip CLTS, Bogor13 July Workshop on Legal Review, Hotel Binakarna, Jakarta17 July Meeting for PAMSIMAS preparatory socialization18-19 July Pokja AMPL Evaluation Meeting and Budget Planning in 2007, Hotel Ria Diani, Puncak20 July Discussion of Draft Susenas Data 2007, Pokja Secretariat, Jakarta21 July Discussion of Logical Framework and Monev of WASPOLA Project, Pokja Secretariat, Jakarta24-28 July Workshop and Training on Facilitation Basic Skills, Hotel Mercure, Sanur, Bali26-27 July Workshop on Community-Based Waste Management Program Release, Hotel Novotel, Surabaya31 July Declaration of Lembak Community on Free Open Defecation and CLTS Approaches, Desa Tanjung Tiga, South Sumatera1-3 August RI-UNICEF Management Coordinative Meeting, Hotel Safari Garden, Puncak1 August Pokja AMPL Meeting-Talkshow Planning,Pokja Secretariat, Jakarta1-3 August Workshop on Strategic Plan Preparation Pohuwato Regency, Office Hall of Bupati Pohuwato, Pohuwato Regency1-4 August Workshop on AMPL-BM Problem Mapping and Strategic Plan, Gunung Geulis Cottages, Ciawi, Bogor4 August Pokja NTT-ProAir Meeting7-10 August WASPOLA Mission for Policy Coordination, Central Java Province7-11 August WASPOLA Mission for Policy Coordination, NTB8 August Meeting of Bandung Waste Ad Hoc Team with Minister of National Planning and Development11 August Coordinative Meeting of ProAir Project in NTT Province,Dit.PL Office, Jakarta Discussion of Batam Wastewater Management Plan14-16 August Workshop on Communication Strategy, Hotel Acacia, Jakarta15 August Coordinative Meeting of CLTS Program Supporting Activities16 August Training on Advocacy Strategy, Hotel Sofyan Cikini, Jakarta22-24 August Workshop on Optimization of Local stakeholders Involvement in Interregional Standard Water Management Plan, Pangeran Beach Hotel Padang23 August Workshop on Urban Sanitation Plan ProAir Plan and Evaluation Meeting23-25 August Dialog Forum on Wastewater Management Investment24 August Workshop on ProAir Implementation, Sasando International Hotel, Kupang NTT25 August Meeting for Susenas data tryout28-31 August Orientation and Workshop on MPA PHAST, Hotel Novotel, Pujut, Central Lombok28 August Meeting for Susenas data tryout Advanced discussion on Partnership Activity between Government of Indonesia and Plan Indonesia Secretariat Pokja AMPL, Jakarta29 August Presentation of Innovative Decision Making for Sustainable Management of Water in Developing Countries, Secretariat Pokja AMPL, Jakarta29-31 August Dialog Forum on the investment of Human Settlement Section of Waste Management Subsection, Hotel Garden Kemang30-31 August Coordination for the implementation of National AMPL-BM Development Policy, Hotel Jayakarta, Bandung Percik August 2006 51
  • 53. A M P L L I T E R AT U R EBOOKS Sanitasi Perkotaan: POTRET, HARAPAN DAN PELUANG "INI BUKAN LAGI URUSAN PRIBADI" [in Bahasa] Publisher: Bappenas dan WSP-EAP, 2006 GUIDELINES TELAAH KUALITAS AIR Bagi Pengelolaan MANUAL ON IMPROVING SOLID Sumber Daya Dan WASTE COLLECTION Lingkungan Perairan [in Bahasa] AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM Publisher: Kanisius, Yogyakarta 2004 Publisher: SWAPP (Solid Waste Management Association of The Philippines) 2003 PENGOMPOSAN SAMPAH A TRAINERS MANUAL: RUMAH TANGGA (SERI ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTPENDIDIKAN PENGELOLAAN FOR CENTRAL DISTRICSLINGKUNGAN TERPADU) [in Bahasa] Publisher: Ayala Foundations, Macaty CityPublisher: Surabaya, Pusdakota Ubaya, 2005 GOVERNANCE FOR CLEAN WATER: A GUIDE FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ON THE CLEANS TAT I S T I C S WATER ACT. Publisher: Philippines, LINAW Project, 2005PROYEKSI PENDUDUK INDONESIAMENURUT UMUR, JENIS KELAMIN, ORIENTATION MANUAL ON ECOLOGICALKOTA/PERDESAAN TAHUN 2000-2025 [in Bahasa] SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Publisher: Philippines, Solid Waste Management Association. 2002Publisher: Badan Perencanaan Nasional & UNPF, 2005PROYEKSI PENDUDUK INDONESIA PANDUAN P ENILAIAN K INERJA P EMERINTAH(INDONESIA POPULATION PROJECTION) D AERAH D I B IDANG P EKERJAAN U MUM [in Bahasa] Publisher: Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, 20052000-2025 [in Bahasa]Publisher: Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional,BPS, UNPF. 2005 PELATIHAN KETRAMPILAN DASAR FASILITASI: DALAM RANGKA IMPLEMENTASI KEBIJAKAN PROYEKSI PENDUDUK INDONESIA NASIONAL PEMBANGUNAN AIR MINUM DAN 2000-2025 [in Bahasa] PENYEHATAN LINGKUNGAN BERBASIS Publisher: Badan Perencanaan Pem- MASYARAKAT: MODUL PELATIHAN [in Bahasa] bangunan Nasional (Bappenas) Publisher: Direktorat Pemberdayaan Masyarakat, 2006 MAGAZINES: INFOSTREAMS SERASI, May 2006 edition COMMUNITY WATER, June 2006 edition52 Percik August 2006
  • 54. G L O S S A RYParshal flume Water construction as water debit gauge used at the open flow. Measuring is conducted by calculating flow height and widthat the gauge and substituted the result into debit formula. It is usually built in the plant inlet.Partial flow Gravitational flow within the pipe/closed circuit, which fills only part of the pipe/closed circuit section.Partially separate system (of drainage) One of drainage systems as modification between separate system and mixed one where wastewater drainage is providedwith smaller hollow in the bottom of main channel.Paving Layering of an area by using materials, which is different from the material of the underlying area.Paved sludge drying beds Sludge drying unit with pond bed paved with construction materials (for example, concrete floor).Peak loading Quantity of load (facility/infrastructure) during the peak service in which most or all consumers use the service at the sametime.Peaking factor Value/factor expressing comparison between service volume/ capacity during peak service and average one.PE Pipes Polyethylene pipe, flexible with less joint as it is continuous and uses plastic weld joint. Resistant against hydraulic pressureand corrosion, smoother and has small friction. Commonly applied in water supply system.Percolation Water penetration through soil pores.Perforated Condition of a structural component/plate with numbers of holes.Permeability Physical indicator of soil ability to percolate water.Phreatic surface Also called ground water table. Elevation of ground level classified as water saturation zone.Physical characteristic Physical magnitudes which affect overall water/wastewater quality, consisting of sediment, floatation, colloid, dissolved mat-ters, including odor, temperature, density, color, and turbidity. Quoted from Dictionary of Foreign Terminologies and Abbreviations applied in Sanitary Engineering Published by: University of Trisakti