Community-Based Solid Waste Management. Indonesia Water and Sanitation magazine. May 2009


Published on

Special Edition. Published by Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition on August 2003

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Community-Based Solid Waste Management. Indonesia Water and Sanitation magazine. May 2009

  1. 1. Table of Content Information Media for Water and Environmental Sanitation Editorial 1 Your Voice 2 Main Report Community Involvement in Solid Waste Management: A Certainty 3 Published by: Interviews Water and Environmental Sanitation CBSWM: Opportunities and Challenges 6 Working Group (Pokja AMPL) In cooperation with:IDRC, BORDA, BALIFOKUS, LPTP, BEST Regulation Responsible: Implementation of Community Involvement Pursuant to Act No. 18 Year Oswar Mungkasa 2008 15 Frank Fladerer Knowledge Editorial Chief: Oswar Mungkasa Community Development Principle and Philosophy 26 Community Empowerment in Solid Waste Management 29 Board of Editorial: Community Based Solid Waste Management: Require Incentive 33 Surur Wahyudi Waste and Global Warming 35 Yuyun Ismawati Green Business for Planet Earth 37 Hamzah Harun Al-Rasyid Solid Waste Management Experiences in Different Countries 39 Solid Waste Management and International Agreements 42 Editorial Staff: Bowo Leksono Create Sustainable Composting 44 Gressiadi Muslim Guests Design and Production: Yuyun Ismawati: Wastewater and Solid Waste Management Implementer Rudi Kosasih Helmi Satoto Receiver of Goldman Environmental Prize 46 Distribution: Best Practices Agus Syuhada Tarakan Creating a Clean City by Managing the Waste 55 Halimatussadiah Innovation Editorial Address: Takakura Composter: House Method and Layer Method 70 Jl. RP Suroso 50, Jakarta Pusat. Telp./Faks.: (021) 31904113 Actors 75 e-mail: Agenda 82Editorial receives articles from outside related with Reference on Solid Waste drinking water and environmental sanitation and never been published before. The length of the Community Based Solid Waste Management System 84articles is not limited and editorial has the rights to edit the articles. Please send to the above address with identity. Glossary „ Percik Magazine can be accessed in AMPL homepage: „
  2. 2. Percik May 2009 1 „ E D I TO R I A L „ uddenly we have come to 2009,S and this time Percik comes in a different form unlike the previ-ous ones. This is a special edition withmain focus on Community Based SolidWaste Management (CBSWM). Wedesign this in order to give more focuson waste management, moreover onthose which are community based. Ithas been fully realized that nowadays,the government has put an eye on solidwaste management programs. This canbe shown in the Act No 18 Year 2008about solid waste management.Furthermore, it has been declared thatevery year, on 21st of February, is awaste day. Using the momentum,Percik comes in a special edition. Deriving from the willingness togather attentions from different par-ties, various information concerningsolid waste management issues arediscussed in this edition. Starting fromthe philosophy of community empow- Housewives and female teenagers in a village are learning to manage solid waste using Takakura basket method. Photo: Sururerment, solid waste management con-cept, best practices from local, nation- ernment but also Community Social Based Sanitation) which was an initialal and international implementations, Responsibilities (CSRs) from private project of the cooperation betweeninterviews with city majors, artists, companies such as Unilever Peduli and Public Work Department, BORDA,NGOs, private sectors and community Danamon Peduli up until community LPTP, BALIFOKUS and BEST.itself are available as literatures. Our funds. This partnership is a good thingwish to give as complete as possible However, in reality, solid waste because at least the development ofinformation on community based solid management programs seemed to be Drinking Water and Environmentwaste management has inspired us to peculiar. It appears that there are no Sanitation (AMPL) has drawn someprovide technology innovations, regu- good communications among the concerns in different of sectors.lations and acts from national to local, stakeholders. A success in one place Besides, it also means that there isreferences on books, CDs and websites. cannot merely acknowledge and an acknowledgement in showing that From the various interviews with applied in different areas. Our efforts the development of Drinking Waterthe outstanding and best practices, here hopefully will make the commu- and Environment Sanitation (AMPL)solid waste management should not be nications better for the stakeholders in is not merely physical construction buta problem in Indonesia. There are the future. also other aspects, such as communi-plenty of good examples in the city Besides the new theme, in financial cation.level such as Surabaya and Tarakan, as aspect, we have stepped ahead by not Hopefully, the innovation wewell as community based ones such as using the governments fund. This con- brought will enhance the quality of ourMrs. Bambang in Cilandak, and even dition could be initiated by the non- magazine. We will be happy to get yourin the educational institutions such as governmental cooperation between criticism and suggestions andPusdakota in Surabaya and SMUN 34 IDRC/CRDI, BORDA, LPTP, BALI- finally, enjoy. „in Jakarta. Funding contribution is FOKUS and BEST. Of course we have (OM).getting varied, not only from the gov- all heard of SANIMAS (Community
  3. 3. 2 Percik May 2009 „ „ Y O U R NV O IR A WAWA C A C E „ „ Photo: Meddy CH Raising the Awareness How to subscribe Percik? Dear Percik, Dear Percik editorial, My name is Roland, head of NGO We are from Public Health Study Swara Masyarakat Flobamora which is Program, Math and Science Faculty of based in Kupang, NTT. I am very Haluoleo University in Kendari, South- pleased with the presence of Percik East Sulawesi. We are very interested among us. I hope that this magazine in the content of Percik. Therefore, we will wake up the awareness of our com- would like to know how we can rou- munity towards environmental issues. tinely subscribe the magazine. Please I would like to subscribe for a routine kindly send the mechanism according- Percik edition for the community in ly. Thank you very much for your help our Pondok Pintar. The address : and attention. LSM Swara Masyarakat Flobamora Ramadhan Tosepu Percik Articles helped my Thesis (SMF), Jl M. Praja No. 25, Kelurahan Public Health Study Program Dear Percik, Namosain, Kecamatan Alak, Kota FMIPA Unhalu Sultra Kendari I am one of the staff of Environ- Kupang, Provinsi NTT. Kampus Baru Anduonohumental Agency from Pati Regency,Central Java, I am now studying for my Roland, Kupangmaster in UNDIP, Semarang and am Dear Mr. Roland, Dear Mr. Ramadhan,working my thesis on drinking water. I Thank you, we will send Percik Thank you for your interest in ouram very interested and excited with the routinely to your address. magazine, we will process yourcontents of this magazine since it helps request as soon as a lot on my thesis and my work at Please send Percikthe office. As you have known, my Percik Subscriptionwork is in environmental related Dear Percik,issues. When I read your article on Currently, our foundation is deve- Dear Percik,Percik August 2007 edition in your loping a community based recyclable Thank you for sending Percik tovoice column, I realized that I can sub- solid waste collection program in the Women Alliance for Sustainablescribe for the magazine. Therefore, I Bojonggede, Bogor for 70 Households- Development (AAPB). It has good con-would like to subscribe for Percik on member of the foundation. To enlarge tents which can enlarge our horizon ofevery edition. our knowledge in solid waste, we information. Furthermore, please send So please send the magazine to: would like to get a regular Percik mag- the magazine to AAPB secretariat: Mr. Rival Gautama azine (including Percik Junior). Please Perunda Sukoharjo, Jl Nusa Indah send the magazines to the following Gedung Dharma Wanita No. 16 Rt 02, Rw 06 address: Persatuan Lt. II, Desa Sukoharjo, Kecamatan Mar- Sri Wahyono Jl Pedurenan Masjid Kav. F 01gorejo, Kabupaten Pati, Jawa Tengah Kp. Bojonggede Dalam, Rt 02/12 Karet Kuningan Jakarta 12940 Thank you very much for the sub- No. 26, Kelurahan Bojonggede Thank you.scription. Kabupaten Bogor 16922 Sri Murniati Djamaludin Thank you for your attention Warm Regards, Dear Mrs. Sri Murniati Rival Gautama Sri Wahyono Thank you before. We will send the Dear Mr. Rival Gautama, Dear Mr. Sri Wahyono, magazine to the requested address. We thank you for your apprecia- We will process your subscriptiontion. We will follow up your subscrip- accordingly. Thank you.tion accordingly.
  4. 4. Percik May 2009 3 „„ M A I N RN C A R A „ WAWA E P O RT „ Community Involvement in Solid Waste Management: A Certainty ealized or not, solid waste hasR become part of our daily life. Every human activity is pro-ducing residue or waste with amountand volumes are equal with the goodsthat we are using daily. It is not aston-ishing if the waste generation multi-plies significantly in accordance withthe increase of the population, espe-cially in the city. To give an overview, based on thecalculation presented in the IndonesiaInfrastructure Book (Bappenas, 2003),in 1995, the estimation of waste gener-ation in Indonesia reached 22,5 mil-lion tons and will be doubled in 2020to a shocking 53,7 million tons. Community as the backbone of environment program. Foto: Uli Peduli.Meanwhile, in big cities in Indonesia,solid waste generation per capita isestimated around 600-830 grams per elephants. good, but only in a small scale like theirday. In general, most of the wastes are house. Houses are free from waste As an illustration on how huge the generated from the households. As an because they dispose it not in the prop-waste generation is, the data from se- example, data from Cleaning Agency of er place. They mostly dispose the wasteveral big cities in Indonesia can be Semarang City shows that in 2005 into sewer, river or even their neigh-used as reference. Jakarta produces a there were 75,71 percent or 2,650 m3 bors empty land. This NIMBY (Not Indaily 6,200 tons of waste; Bandung of solid waste came from settlement or My Back Yard) phenomenon is verygenerates waste 2,100 tons every day; household. Meanwhile solid waste strong.Surabaya produces 1,700 tons and from market reached 13,57 percent or The result is then predictable,Makassar 800 tons (Damanhuri, 500 m3 and the rest came from the wastes are lying everywhere which is2002). So it is normal that in such big commercial activities (shops, restau- very potential in causing diseases. Notcities they require new space for the rants, and hotels), public facilities, to mention the waste disposed in thefinal dumpsite quite soon enough. It is roads, industrial areas and sewerage. water channel and river which causeestimated that space for final dump- Therefore, household is the biggest flood during the rainy season. Thesesites in Indonesia in 1995 already contributor in solid waste generation. conditions create socialreached 675 Ha and will multiply into We just spoke about the volume of1,610 Ha in 2020. Another illustration waste generation and have not seen theon the waste generation, Jakarta gen- daily practice when people loiter.erates a daily waste as much as 6,000 Peoples awareness on cleanliness is
  5. 5. 4 Percik May 2009 „„ M A I N R EC A R A „ WAWA N P O RT „cost which has to be carried out by the hand, facilitators role is to facilitate Government of Surabaya. This part-community. the community to reach the objective nership has been equipped with the This phenomenon will lead to a of the program in a good and sustain- consistent implementation of Localsimple conclusion: involving commu- able way. If the community has diffi- Regulations and incentive giving. Thenity in solid waste management activi- culties in separation technique and famous Takakura Box was initiallyties is a certainty. Main waste produc- composting, then facilitator will have developed in Surabaya. Meanwhile,er is the community therefore they will to build the communitys capacity in Tarakan is outstanding from the per-have to take the responsibility towards certain ways such as giving trainings. If sistence of its city major.their own residue. community has problem in funding Corporate Social Responsibility then facilitator should help them by (CSR) from Yayasan Unilever PeduliDefinition and Concept providing solution. However, the facil- (Uli Peduli) echoed its success by Community Based Solid Waste itation should be done in such way so assisting community to become envi-Management (CBSWM) is an approach that the community will not depend on ronmental cadre. The other CSR fromto the solid waste management which is the facilitator all the time. Danamon Peduli is focusing on reduc-based on the community need and One thing to remember, communi- ing the waste generation in the tradi-demand, planned and implemented (if ty based does not always mean that all tional market. They already have thepossible), controlled and evaluated by of the activities within are done by the program in 31 cities/regencies incommunity. In an easy way, it is a com- community. It is what they deserved Indonesia.munity based activity if (i) community is and realistic to be done to solve the Educational institutions such asresponsible in decision making, and not problems faced by the community. For schools are also having their own greenmerely the elite and (ii) operational and example, if community realistically school program which shows the effortmaintenance is communitys responsi- does not have time and management to care about their environment in able based on the agreement. capacity to operate then the responsi- curriculum and extracurricular activi- In this definition, the main actor in bility should not be given to them. It is ties. SMA 34 Jakarta is one of the pio-solid waste management is communi- better to encourage them to find a pro- neers of the program, while thety, not government nor NGO. fessional institution or individuals who University of Surabaya is famous forGovernment and the other parties are can be trusted to run the program. developing Takakura Basket throughjust motivator and facilitator. its program, Pusdakota. There are The main function of motivator is Government and Communitys other universities such as ITBsto encourage the community to think Efforts Environmental Student Associationand solve any problems they faced. If Plenty of efforts are done in solving and UGMs Chemical Engineeringthe community is not ready, govern- the solid waste generation problems by which are having outstanding environ-ment and other parties will have to practicing CBSWM, but not all of them mental care in preparing them. On the other are successful. Beside CSRs and educational insti- From several best practices in city tutions, there are individuals who are level, Surabaya and Tarakan can be having good efforts in 3R solid waste taken as examples. Surabaya especially management program. Amongst are can be called successful in this sector Mrs. Bambang from Cilandak, Jakarta because the local government can set and Iswanto from Sukunan, Sleman, up the community to do 3R (reduce, Yogyakarta. reuse, and recycle). The implementa- Mass media also plays an impor- tion of 3R in Surabaya has been con- tant role in CBSWM. It can be seen ducted up to village level. In Surabaya, from several efforts such as Jawa Pos a partnership has been established and Kedaulatan Rakyat (both are between four parties, community, pri- national newspapers) that are having vate sector through Corporate Social Green and Clean Program Responsibility from Telkomsel and Unilever Peduli, University through Inter-kampong visits to motivate each others. the involvement of Pusdakota by Photo: BORDA Universitas Surabaya, and Local
  6. 6. Percik May 2009 5 „ „ M A I N R EC A R A „„ WAWA N P O RTin cooperation with Uli Peduli.Meanwhile, in Jakarta, Uli Peduli iscooperating with Republika Daily andDelta Radio to have Jakarta Green andClean, Green Office and Green Schoolprograms. The involvement of local as well asinternational NGOs are very signifi-cant. International NGOs such asMercy Corps and BORDA are two ofthe most consistent ones in CBSWMprogram. Local NGOs like YayasanBina Karta Lestari Semarang,Yayasan Lestari Yogyakarta, YayasanBintari Yogyakarta, Balifokus Denpa- Women are making handicrafts from plastic waste. Photo: Bowo Leksono..sar and Best Tangerang are some of theexamples in this field. low. Therefore, NIMBY phenomenon solid waste management program On the other side, even though it is can still be found in a lot of place, such through 3R approach is effective innot sufficient enough, central govern- as throwing the waste in the empty reducing the waste generationment has made efforts. Starting by land. although the result in the communityintroducing 3R program and followed Community Based Solid Waste level is higher than the city level. Inby mainstreaming the effort on reduc- Management will not be sustainable Surabaya, according to the major (seeing the waste generation from its without a strong cooperation between interview), waste generation can besource into the national planning doc- community and local government. reduced up to 10% or around 170 tons-ument, Middle Term Development Local government should create coop- a big amount of reduction. An experi-Planning (RPJM) 2005-2009. eration framework which can give ence in RW 11 Cibangkong BandungFurthermore, Act No. 18 year 2008 on opportunity to the responsible party in even can show that all the waste gener-Solid Waste Management was the solid waste sector as well as com- ation can be processed in the compost-launched including the local regula- munity leader. ing house.tions which are mostly accommodating Building community awareness tocommunity involvement. However, Act manage their waste from its source Future AgendaNo. 18 Year 2008 is not effective requires sustainable hard work. The Community based solid waste man-enough since inherited Governments efforts are done in different ways agement is a certainty. Several actorsRules are not finished yet. depend on its local condition, starting have practiced in the fields. However, from providing examples, giving it is still not showing a significantLessons Learnt Connection incentives, or creating competitions. result. It requires cooperation among The implementation of CBSWM by The success of the program in stakeholders to create a synergy for thedifferent performer in different loca- Indonesia is very depending on the implementation of CBSWM. Most oftions has made several lessons learnt existence of a champion. If a champion the requirements for the synergy arewhich can be summarized into follow- can be found, the program can be already available, starting from experi-ing. implemented successfully. A champion ences, regulations, and involvements Community understands the mean- can be community leader, teacher or from different stakeholders. So what ising of cleanliness and the importance even housewife. In waste management, lacking now is the willingness of all toof solid waste management but only at champions are mostly housewife. share and support one another for thean individual household level. If it is The good examples in both commu- sake of the community. „concerning surroundings cleanliness, nity and city level are showing that the (OM /several sources)communitys awareness is still very implementation of community based
  7. 7. 6 Percik May 2009 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ CBSWM Opportunities and Challenges ommunity Based Solid Waste Management (CBSWM) How does the RPJMN is translated to each relat-C is clearly stated in Act No. 18 Year 2008 about Solid Waste Management. It means that this is a compul-sory program to be done by the central government and ed institutions both central and local government? Pursuant to the Act No. 25 year 2004 on National Development Planning System, RPJMN is a 5 yearly devel-implemented by the local government. What are the opment agenda which is compiled by the elected presidentopportunities and challenges in mainstreaming CBSWM? as a phase to reach the long term government target calledAnd how far does the community involvement is integrat- National Long Term Development Planning (RPJPN). Thised within the governments policies/programs? The follow- development agenda is a guideline for the ministry/institu-ings are interviews with related departments. tion and local government, including commercial sector in reaching national goal.DIRECTOR OF SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING, NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT It means that compiling the programs and activities forPLANNING AGENCY (BAPPENAS) 5 years development planning (Strategic Plan) and annualIR. BUDI HIDAYAT development planning (Work Plan), the ministry/institu- tion and local government should refer to RPJMN. In accor- Does community involvement in solid waste dance with the solid waste development, one of the exam-management have been accommodated in RPJMN ples that can be taken is the 3R system by the Public Work2010-2014? Department and Environmental Ministry. It is a manifesta- At this moment, National Development Planning Agency tion of the solid waste development program in order to(Bappenas) is compiling achieve the target as reflected in RPJMN. Meanwhile, in thethe National Mid Term local government level, 3R program has been adopted in dif-Development Planning ferent forms and names such as solid waste bank program.(RPJMN) for the 2010- Furthermore, plenty of cooperation has been established2014 period. In the draft, between government both central and local, NGOs, educa-community involvement tional institutions and private sectors through Corporatein solid waste manage- Social Responsibility.ment has been accommo-dated and become one of How far does the community involvement givethe important components contribution towards the increase of the perform-in RPJMN. Community is ance on solid waste management?involved in every step of Up until now, there is no special study/analysis whethersolid waste management, Photo: Bowo Leksono the contribution of community (involvement) give increasestarting from handling in the source of waste, transporta- on the performance of solid waste management program.tion and treatment in the final dumpsite. Basically, this con- However, based on the experience of drinking water andcept is already in the RPJMN 2005-2009. environmental sanitation development, community in- This condition cannot be excluded from the change of volvement in planning and development processes gave sig-paradigm of solid waste management from end of pipe nificant influence on the sustainability of the infrastructuretreatment approach to integrated solid waste management built.which focuses on the management from its source. One of the best practices is the solid waste managementTherefore, one of the main targets of solid waste develop- in Surabaya. The implementation of 3R program hasment in RPJMN 2010-2014 is to reduce the waste genera- reduced solid waste generation by 200 tons/day or 10% in 3tion from its source. To reach the goal, community is years. Besides, household solid waste management isinvolved in 3R program (reduce, reuse, and recycle). able to recycle organic waste by 120-140 tons/dayFurthermore, public awareness campaign on household (Cleanliness Dept. Surabaya).solid waste management will be enhanced.
  8. 8. Percik May 2009 7 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ drainage and 3R for solid waste management using the con- cept of community education and empowerment. Are there clear concept from the Public Work Department on community based solid waste man- agement? Policy on solid waste program by the Public Work Department is casted in Public Work Minister Regulation No. 21/PRT/M/2006. The implementations of the policy is in form of 3R program promotion, campaign and education, encourage the institutional development, optimization and development of solid waste, revitalization and regionaliza- tion of final dumpsite and private investment promotion. Program implementation refers to National Mid Term Development Planning (RPJMN) 2005-2009; the increase of transported waste up to 75% and the increase of final dumpsite performance with environmental sound. In reach- ing the RPJMN goal, Public Work Department applies the policy in reducing the waste generation from its source, increasing community and private sector active roles, increasing the service area and quality of management sys- tem, institutional development, rules and laws, and devel- opment of alternative source of fund. Community awareness to have a clean life is not enough by putting signs. Photo: BORDA. DEPUTY ASSISTANT ON DOMESTIC WASTE POLLUTION ENVIRONMENTAL MINISTRY TRI BANGUN LAKSONODIRECTOR OF SETTLEMENT SANITATION DEVELOPMENTDIRJEN CIPTA KARYA, PUBLIC WORK DEPARTMENT As we already know,IR. SUSMONO Act No 18 year 2008 on solid waste manage- What is the role of Public Work Department in ment has been imple-community involvement? mented effectively. Public Work Department is having annual activities How far does the com-especially in the Settlement Sanitation Development munity involvementDirectorate. The activities accommodated in thatare wastewater treat- act?ment, drainage improve- The background ofment and solid waste community involvementmanagement which are lies in article 11 about Photo: Bowo Leksonoinvolving central and Rights. This chapter is a basic consideration and is impor-local government, pri- tant for the government as a responsible in solid waste man-vate, and community. agement to always paying attention and considering com-Public Work Department munitys rights.applies community While article 12 is concerning every persons obligationinvolvement in Sanimas to reduce and manage waste has also become a strong fun-Project for wastewater, damental law on the compulsive communitysMandiri Drainage for active involvement in managing Photo: Bowo Leksono
  9. 9. 8 Percik May 2009 „ I N T E RV I E W S „waste, especially at the source. This article has become thebasic to maximize the publics active role in reducing andmanaging the waste at home, office, market and otherplaces. To encourage community involvement in reducing thewaste at the source level, government must develop incen-tive and disincentive system. Incentive is given to commu-nity, individual or group who reduce waste generation. Onthe other hand, disincentive is given to those who are notputting effort in reducing the waste at the source level. Theregulation is accommodated in article 21. Meanwhile, article 28 explicitly mentioning communityinvolvements, especially in giving consideration, suggestionand advice in composing the policy, solid waste manage-ment implementation, dispute resolution etc. However, thisarticle was criticized by those who work on solid waste man-agement sector such as NGOs, community self-help groupand others. They questioned why in this article, communi-tys involvement only at giving suggestion and advice level,as if they have no opportunity to get involved directly insolid waste management activities either on their own or inthe cooperation framework with the government. However, this regulation is based on Act No. 18 year2008. It is written that solid waste management is a publicservice; therefore government should organize this since itis their responsibility. Yet, with all governments limitation,they can provide a wide access for the community and pri-vate sector to be actively involved in solid waste manage-ment activities. Experiences showed that government can-not perform optimally without the involvement from thecommunity and private sector. Community involvementaccess and mechanism will be arranged in government re- Government should not only encourage community to separate the waste,gulations. but also providing example by putting separated waste bin in offices. Photo: Bowo Leksono What kind of regulation (government or minis-ter) will be published with regard to the communi- At this moment, government has no clear and formalty involvement? blue print regarding community involvement in solid waste The application of regulations of the Act No. 8 Year management.2008, both government and minister regulations need to bepublished regarding community involvement. It will cover What needs to be done by the government tothe mechanism of community involvement, their form of ensure that community involvement can be estab-involvement, definition of community (individual, group), lished?as well as cooperation with the government. Government will provide policies, rules, technical guide- lines, SOPs etc. However, government products will be clear Does the government already have a clear blue and transparent for public and be conducted consis-print on the concept of community involvement in tently and consequently. „ Bowo Leksonosolid waste management?
  10. 10. Percik May 2009 9 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ Through Green and Clean program Drs. Bambang Dwi Hartono, MPd which was held since 2002 since I become major. The program was initiated The key is in together- by City Government, Uli Peduli Foundation, and Jawa Pos. The echo of ness and believe Photo: Bowo Leksono this event was enormous. The role of Surabaya, second biggest city in Indonesia after Jakarta, is having a different face than with five years ago. Green parks are decorating the city and provide open spaces. Trees are planted all along the mass media isstreets. If we enter the settlement, harmonic nuance is covering the alley and small streets. Community great in en-manages their environment and waste already at the household level. As a result, it significantly reduces couragingthe waste generation in Surabaya. This condition cannot be separated from communitys willingness, pri- vate support, NGOs and city government itself. Even the political commitment of the city in handling community. the environment, cleanliness and green is poured into Local Regulation No. 1 year 2006 on Local Mid Imagine if aTerm Development Planning (RPJMD) of Surabaya 2006-2010. Inside of this regulation they put communi- ty based solid waste management program. What are the recipes and how does the Surabaya City village is pub- Government persuades the community to manage their waste? lished in a Following is the interview of Percik with the Major of Surabaya, Drs. Bambang Dwi Hartono, M.Pd. newspaper, they will be ow can the city government afraid of getting the penalty. thrilled.H integrate community basedsolid waste management program What is the distinctive penalty How big is the fund allocated for(CBSWM) as part of policy/concept for loitering? CBSWM and its proportion towardof solid waste management? We will keep their ID card. The regu- the entire fund for Solid Waste pro- The strategy and concept is by reduc- lation is being prepared. Citizens are gram?ing the waste from its source, which are afraid if their ID card is being restrained The amount of fund is relative. Wehousehold and industry. For that, we give because they will have difficulties in get- cannot handle waste problems with fundeducation to the community through ting driving license, marriage arrange- centralized on one department. Forenvironmental cadre. In 2007, there are ment, bank transaction or land transac- example, every year, we send students10,000 cadres and by end of 2008, they tion. Therefore, they will think twice from elementary to high school to joinreached 23,000. We will continue to before loitering or put them in their pock- environmental training in Tawas with theincrease the number of the cadre so that et first. budget from Educational Department. Sosomeday, Surabaya will be their own do not think partially if you want to solveenvironmental cadre. Have the city government waste problem. For 2009, the budget in received any awards concerning Cleanliness and Gardening Department How is the real image of commu- solid waste management? of Surabaya is 99 billion rupiah.nity based solid waste management Actually we have no potential toprogram in Surabaya? receive any awards. However, Surabaya Are there any special tips for You can see for yourself. Let us be fair, always gets Adipura since 2006. This other city government to developSurabaya is clean now compared to other award is the form of appreciation from CBSWM?cities. Not to mention the reduction of the central government towards the per- Togetherness and believe. Govern-dengue fever and diarrhea cases. Those formance of local, especially public ser- ment should always encourage communi-are the diseases cause by improper envi- vice. We have received several interna- ty to solve the problems with believe as aronmental management. tional awards from Green Apple in 2006, base. If only counting on government Institute for Global Environmental while the community does not care, it will Are there any significant obsta- Strategies (IGES) and United Nations be useless. But with the deve-loped com-cles? Economic and Social Commission for munity, it will be easier. „ Bowo Leksono Behavior. However, Surabaya is rela- Asia and Pacific (UNESCAP) in 2007.tively progressing. The indicator is, everymonth I get complaints from people who One of the lessons learnt fromget penalty for loitering. From 20 people, Surabaya is that the CBSWM can beonly 2 or 3 are original citizens of integrated with the city scale solidSurabaya. Surabaya citizens are already waste management. How can thisaware of this, maybe because they are condition be achieved?
  11. 11. 10 Percik May 2009 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ dr. H. Jusuf Serang Kasim "Action is more Important than Ceremonial" 160 tons daily. Are we going to create pointless to have the ceremonials while it mountains of wastes or manage them? is not sustainable. There are 500 environmental warriors who conduct solid waste management by One of the interesting activities composting with Takakura Method since is Incentive Pattern for community. we are having cooperation with Kitakyusu Is it effective in reducing the waste City Government, Japan. So we have generation? turned the mountains of wastes into Yes, of course. Incentive can make its mountains of fertilizers. beneficiary motivated. For yellow army we give them 13th salary. Every city ou dont mind if we have the inter- "Y view in the car? If not then lets go to my car," dr. H. Jusuf Serang Kasim, Major of Tarakan says to Percik after Are there any umbrella regula- tions for community based solid waste management programs? anniversary, we invite them for dinner to raise their motivation that they are the heroes of the city. a meeting in Bappekot Tarakan. It is almost Regulations become unimportant end of his period being a major, but seems when they are not implemented. How is the cooperation scheme like he still have endless work, even dealing Everybody can make regulations, but only between government and non-gov- with solid waste. One night, after coming back from few who can implement it. Yes, Tarakan ernment in CBSWM? Jakarta, Jusuf saw scrapheap in front of a has local regulation No. 13 Year 2003 on It is varied. This kind of cooperation is rich persons house. He took the waste and orderliness and cleanliness of the city. citys favorite. There is one street for 3,8 put it in his car. What this major did was a However, it is not easy to uphold the reg- km length, and we cooperate with private smooth satire for his citizens. So, how dr. H. ulations if it is not come from the heart. sector to maintain its cleanliness for 8 Jusuf Serang Kasim did community based solid waste management in Tarakan, below million a month. Above that, we have to is the result of the interview. How big does the budget alloca- get support from the community at all tion for CBSWM? times, otherwise it will not work. ow far does the City I do not remember precisely, but theH Government of Tarakan has budget for Cleanliness and Gardening What is the role of the communi-made community based solid waste Service is around 7 billion rupiahs. ty in this cooperation?management (CBSWM) as part of It is the awareness to throw the wastesolid waste management concept? How is the concept of solid waste into its place and time. It is simple. If they In the beginning of period of my work management developed by City want more, they can manage it together,in 1999, the city has plenty of waste scat- Government of Tarakan? that is for the beginning.tered in the streets, and there were only 3 When we do not have mountains ofdump trucks. Therefore, I took the liber- wastes, no more waste in the street, 3R Are there any special tips inties to borrow community fund of 1,3 bil- principle is working, then we are done. CBSWM that can be used by otherlion rupiahs. I deposit the fund and use However, maintaining community local government?the interest to rent dump truck. For 1,5 awareness on solid waste will always be The point is there should be aware-months, I only took care of waste in the our duty. ness from government and local assemblypublic areas and only spent 2 hours in (DPRD) that without community involve-office. Nowadays, waste generation in Has the CBSWM become official ment CBSWM will not work. Second,Tarakan reaches 400 m3 or around 150- program of the city government? train the community as early as possible Here is the thing, if it is possible, there like teaching elementary students for sep- are no more officials, nor ceremonials, arating waste so that one day, they will actions are more important. We do not have awareness for their environment. „ use any ceremonials for our solid waste Bowo Leksono management program in this city. It is * Starting 1st of March 2009, dr. H Jusuf S.K had finished his term as Mayor of Tarakan
  12. 12. Percik May 2009 11 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ Silvi Tirawaty Corporate Responsibility Towards Environmental Condition How do Uli Peduli and community involved? And Unilever Peduli Foundation (Uli Peduli) was founded in November 2000 to conduct how is the cooperation with city government? corporate social responsibility (CSR) pro- It can be said that Unilever is an initiator. The programs con- grams of PT Unilever Indonesia Tbk. One of ducted in every city are always involving mass media and local the implementations of CSR is the attention towards environmental condition, beside government. There are several NGOs we worked with. We real- hygiene, public health and nutrition. ize that multi stakeholders cooperation is very important. Local In the beginning of Green and Clean government provides facilities, mass media provide space for program back in 2001, Surabaya is chosen as pilot project and is sustainable up until now. campaigns and publications, while community enthusiastically Furthermore, the program is replicated in welcomes the program. So everybody is contributing. the other big cities in Indonesia. In 2006, the program was held in Jakarta, 2007 in Yogyakarta, 2008 in Makassar and 2009 is in What community contribution needed in Uli Peduli Banjarmasin and Bandung. Photo: Bowo Leksono programs? What is the expectation of PT. Unilever We expect full involvement and participation from the com- Indonesia as a producer of household goods with the implementation if its CSR programs? Below is the interview with the Environment Program munity. Initially, it started with trainings for the representatives Manager PT Unilever Indonesia Tbk, Silvi Tirawaty. of the community neighborhood (RW) which will be the agent of change in their respective areas. They, then, will give further trainings to their community. Afterwards we will have competi- hat motivates Unilever Peduli Foundation to be tion. So, what we expect from the community is of course theW involved in CBSWM? Is it related somehow withthe business? implementation of the program. Because what they are doing is actually for themselves. Yes, Unilever as producer produce packaging, so it is ourresponsibility to handle the waste. We give education to commu- How long does it take from the CBSWM preparationnity that this packaging should not be a waste since it can be to its operational?reuse. We admit that it related with Unilevers business. It has no Every city has different potential to conduct the impact to the sales, but more to the corporate image, com- The important is city stakeholders commitment. With highpanys reputation, since what we are doing is our responsibility commitment and awareness, this program can be started in 3-5to the environment. months. But this program is designed to be sustainable, so that the community will have it by themselves. Are there certain budget allocations in UnileversCSR for CBSWM? How effective does the CBSWM program in reduc- Unilevers CSR budget goes to the Unilever Peduli ing solid waste generation?Foundation. However, it cannot be partially calculated because It is very effective. Most of the community has already recy-it is combined with Unilevers business. For example, when we cled their waste, although it is not 100%, but it is increasing. Inissue a campaign on hand washing with soap, it is part of the Surabaya, the major stated that the program reduced the totalbusiness, the same with commercial on solid waste management waste by 10%. However, is the parameter community awarenessin the community. or city waste generation. Are there any special criteria in selecting the loca- What are the obstacles faced and how is the oppor-tion for CBSWM? tunity in making CBSWM as governments program Basically, every city has its own waste problem. However, but conducted together with community and privateUnilever has its limitation and cannot go to every city. We prefer sector?big cities with complicated solid waste problem rather than We like to call it as challenge. Every city has its ownsmall cities. In that case, community development will have sig- potential challenge. „ Bowo Leksononificant influence on the city waste problems.
  13. 13. 12 Percik May 2009 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ Risa Bhinekawati Concern on Solid Waste from Traditional Market of the poor conditions in the traditional While government has to make the analy- market. Traditional markets are identical sis on the necessity including total waste In Indonesia, there are plenty of with sloppiness, dirt and smell which generation per day, provide and facilitate opportunities to implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs. made people are reluctant to shop there the space, having local coordination, Cleanliness and health of the traditional and tend to choose the modern ones. obtaining permission and socialization. market is one of the fields. Danamon Bank is working in this sector through its program Danamon Peduli. In 2007, What is the relation between How does the community con- Danamon Peduli was having Go Green CBSWM with Danamon Bank busi- tribute then? program in tra- nesses? The community contributes in chang- ditional market in Ciputat, It is much related since more than ing their behavior into more environmen- Jakarta. From 800 of our branches are located in 1.500 tal friendly. The basic thing will be sepa- that program, traditional markets all around Indonesia. rating between organic and inorganic they found the idea to turn Therefore, the improvement on the mar- waste. traditional ket community is also a social investment markets waste for Danamon. How long does the program into compost. In the same take? Foto: Bowo Leksono year, Danamon Are there any special budget Around three to eight months. It Peduli in cooperation with local govern- allocations for CBSWM in depends on the local governments prepa- ment of Bantul and Sragen as pilot proj- ect manages the wastes from the tradi- Danamons CSR? ration. tional markets. The success in these two Budget allocation for CSR Go Green is locations has been heard in other traditional markets organic waste con- How effective does the CBSWM places. Therefore, this year, there are 31 traditional markets in Indonesia who version into organic fertilizer with high in reducing the waste generation? are running the solid waste management quality. For 2008 we put 2,5 billion or Every composting unit is able to con- program. Executive Director of 21% of the total CSR budget. While for vert 3-5 tons of organic waste into 1,2-3 Danamon peduli Risa Bhinekawati is sharing the experiences with Percik this year is allocated for 2,1 billion. tons of organic fertilizer per day. about their solid waste management for Therefore, the units operate in 31 traditional markets in Indonesia. What criteria putted into consid- cities/regencies are able to convert 60- eration in selecting CBSWM loca- 120 tons of organic waste into 24-48 tons tions? of high quality organic fertilizer every day.F or what consideration does Danamon Peduli only cooperates with „ Bowo Leksono Danamon Peduli involved in local government who has full commit- community based solid ment in succession and sustaining thewaste management in traditional Nowadays, there are 18.450 tradition- What is the role of Danamon Name: R isal markets in Indonesia. From those Peduli and how is the coopera- Place an a Bhinekawati d Danumbers, there are 12.650.000 sellers, tion with local government? Februar te of Birth: Pon Husband y 2nd 1966 tianak, :which are significant numbers. However, Danamon Peduli is designing the Children Adhyasa Yuton : othe cleanliness, health and comfort of project, providing machinery and Educatio Rifqi Satya Adh n yasa (13 - Econ : )those markets are poor which made the compost house as well as opera- omic Fac (1992) ulty, Un iversitasincrease of economic pillar is falling. AC tional training, monitoring and - Aust ra Indones iaNielsen survey stated that the fall reaches evaluation and replicates it at - Geor lian National Un ge Wash iversity Career: ington Uapproximately 8,1% per year compared national level. Total contribution niversity (1999) - Vice (2006) Presidenwith modern markets which increases by by Danamon Peduli is around Organiz t of - Chief ation Er Human Researc31,4% per year. Waste is one of the causes 80-100 million for each area. O icsson h& - Head perating Offic of Corpo er UND Indones rate Aff P ia airs Unil ever
  14. 14. Percik May 2009 13 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ Compost House RW 11 Cibangkong: THE POOR PIONEER ar before the tragedy of waste slideF in Leuwigajah final dumpsite, Bandung on 2005 which killed147 people, the community in RW 11Cibangkong Village, Sub district ofBatununggal, Bandung, West Java since1998 already initiated solid waste man-agement in their area. It means, what this community beendoing is reducing the waste generation inLeuwigajah final dumpsite. If all the citi-zens of Bandung manage their waste in acommunity or household level, the tra-gedy would have been avoided. In the beginning, Center of SettlementResearch and Development (Puslitbang-kim) of the Public Work Departmentmade pilot project in this area because itis a densely populated slum area andflood occurs quite often because there aretwo rivers surrounding the area. They The condition of Composting House in RW 11 Kelurahan Cibangkong, Kota Bandung iswere chosen to get assistance in manag- really disheartening. Photo Bowo Leksonoing their solid waste. Until finally the CommunityRepresentative Institution is formed in is no budget to pay the workers. Cibangkong who stand up to build theRW 11, Kelurahan Cibangkong which will "Ideally, to manage waste from an RW compost house, is regretting the Localsupervise the implementation of solid requires six workers. Two of them should Government of Bandung for giving anywaste management in the respective area. distribute the compost and observe the helps. "Furthermore, there are equip-They have got visits from foreign coun- field," says Wijiman (53), compost house ments from the provincial governmenttries and provinces in Indonesia. coordinator, who has been loyal since the which are still held by the city govern-Furthermore, the operator of the com- beginning of this program with his 3 ment," he explained.posting house in RW 11 Cibangkong has workers. To understand more about the man-been invited to be trainer in several areas. To fulfill the necessity of the needs of agement of the compost house in At least, the community can be proud the compost house, Warjiman works very Cibangkong, below is the interview withbecause they were the only one who con- hard in distributing the compost to the tea H. Andarusman who is also the chief ofducts solid waste management in plantation in South Bandung and to the Cibangkong Community Forum (FWC).Bandung. However, the pride needs to be organic farmer in Sapan, East Bandung.followed by awareness on environmental In one day, Warjiman admits, the What encouraged you to workcleanliness. compost house produces 5 quintals of on solid waste management sector? compost for Rp 2.500 per 3 kilograms. As one of the community leader espe-Poor "The farmers asked for all the compost we cially in RW 1, Kalurahan Cibang- It has been more than 10 years, the can produce, but we cannot produce kong, I am with severalcondition of the composting house is more than 5 quintals per day since there isheartbreaking. The machinery to process no fund," he admitted.the waste is not used anymore. They Meanwhile, Andarusman, one ofreturned to the manual ways since there the community leaders in RW 11
  15. 15. 14 Percik May 2009 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ since they have paid the retribution community fee. This retribution fee has become members were con- another problem as well. Each month, cerned on the condition of this they pay Rp 1.000 and from 900RW. This is a slum area with high density households, only 600 pay regularly.population. Our waste was mountainous This is not enough to cover the opera-because the City Cleaning Agency was tional and maintenance of the composthardly took it. Flood occurred most of the house.time during rainy season. We are lucky toget assistance from Puslitbangkim of Does the program collide withPublic Work Department in initializing governments program?the compost house in Cibangkong. I dont think so, if it is, then we will not do it of course. Even more, we are helping How was the initial development the government especially the City Photo: Bowo Leksono Name : Andarusmanof the solid waste management? Government of Bandung because we can Place,Date of Birth: Since the beginning of this program in manage our own waste. However, we Cibangkong, 17 Agustus 19351998, we got assistance from havent got any form of support from the Wife : Hj. Rusminah (RIP) Children : 14Puslitbangkim on converting solid waste city government. Grandchildren : 20into compost. The community disagree Education : Sekolah Guru Pendidikan Teknik (SGPT)because they were afraid of the smell from Did you get any support or help Carrier : Chief of Examiner Electric Company of Bandung (until 1990)the dumpsite since they live in a densely from outside such as government,area. After several explanation and clarifi- private or another party? If yes,cation they agreed to have the project, what kind of support? and several countries came and learnedand its proven to be useful for the com- Like I said before, we havent got any compost in Cibangkong. Even Cimahimunity. Every two days, workers from the support from the city government and the Regency who learned from us has beencompost house take the garbage from the program has been running for 10 years more forward than we are now. The basictemporary dumpsite on each RT to be now. We only got initial support from requirements to have a successful pro-treated in the compost house. Puslitbangkim of Public Work gram are honesty, openness and trans- Department. We hope that the city gov- parency, especially in financial manage- Is it effective in reducing the ernment will have concern on our activity ment and its result.solid waste generation? since it helps them. We havent got any Of course, it can be seen now that support from private sectors or NGOs. Does community involvementthere is no waste accumulation in our University of Pajajaran Bandung once need to be accommodated in Localarea. All the waste are transported and gave us a hand on renovating the compost Regulation?processed in the compost house. house and Bandung Institute of I think it is necessary. Because whatHowever, it is such a pity that other RWs Technology (ITB) was doing a research on city governments doing now is only pro-are still burning their waste and create what we are doing. moting awareness, but if there is one suc-pollution. cessful area, the city government does not What do you think is the main give any support. Were there obstacles faced in factor in determining the success ofinvolving the community? this activity? What benefits are felt by the We are still trying to reduce the I will not say that our program is a community?load of the compost house by asking success. If it is, the community will feel it. The benefits are enormous. The firstthe community to separate their solid We still have problem with community thing which can be directly observed iswaste into organic and inorganic. We awareness, since some of them are still clean environment, since there are nohave even already provided the con- lacking it. We still also need fund support waste accumulations. Besides, we can cre-tainers for it and Takakura basket so and compost distribution, but we are ate work opportunities and manage wastethat the housewives can produce com- working on it. from one village if Cibangkong. However,post in their own houses. However, the benefit will be more if we cansome are quite active in supporting the If the program is going to be distribute the compost. „activity, but a lot more are still igno- implemented in other areas, what Bowo Leksonorant. They feel like it is compost requirements are needed?houses work to separate the waste A lot of parties from all over Indonesia
  16. 16. Percik May 2009 15 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ Implementation of Community Involvement Pursuant to Act No. 18 Year 2008 s the growing population and weak and failed not only to the envi- law enforcement, responsibilities, roleA the changing on peoples con- sumption pattern, solid wastegeneration has multiplied every year. ronment, but to the community around the dumpsite. It is still fresh in our mind the dis- of government (local and national) and private are vital to the proportional, effective and efficient solid waste ma-It is not only the amount of waste but aster in Leuwigajah, a final dumpsite nagement. In doing so, the govern-also types and characteristics. in Cimahi, West Java which cause hun- ment and community feel the needs ofMeanwhile, solid waste management dreds of casualties. There is another Solid Waste Act.method is still with old fashioned way- example in Integrated Solid Waste The establishment and launch ofdisposed into final dumpsite. Dumpsite (TPST) Bojong, Bogor, West solid waste act is meant to get a useful Different problems arouse and not Java and Bantar Gebang Final and powerful, healthy, clean and envi-only cleanliness and environmental Dumpsite in Bekasi which became ronmental friendly solid waste man-pollution, but also social problems headlines in newspapers. agement system.such as communitys dispute around Solid waste has become national Important matters arranged in thisthe final dumpsite. Furthermore, concern; therefore it is required to act are the shifting of paradigm in solidalmost all both big and small cities do manage it in a comprehensive and waste management; from collection,not have proper solid waste manage- integrated ways from upstream to transportation and disposal to 4 Rment. downstream to give maximum benefits principles (reduce, reuse, recycle and Most of the treatments are the on economic, health, and environment recover).same, collect-transport-dispose, a tra- safety, as well as changing communi- Before the birth of Act No. 18 Yearditional system which should be ended tys behavior. 2008 about solid waste management,by now. This system is proven to be In solid waste management sector, stakeholders in do not have strong foundation in this sector. On April 9th, 2008, the draft for the act was approved by the House of Representative of Indonesia. This act is a proof of governments effort in raising the communitys health and environment condition in Indonesia and become the guideline of national policy in solid waste manage- ment. Solid Waste Management Para- digm Section 4 stated "Solid waste man- agement is aimed to increase commu- nitys health and environment quality and to convert waste into resource". Garbage will have economical value by turning it into compost fertilizer. Photo Bowo Leksono
  17. 17. 16 Percik May 2009 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ Since the launch of the act, solid This regulation is stated in section will be followed by governments regu-waste management in Indonesia has 12 article (1) "every person in house- lation and local regulation.entered a new paradigm. All parties are hold solid waste management and sim- Solid waste stated in this act con-responsible, starting from the commu- ilar to household waste is responsible sists of households waste, similar tonity, government or other stakeholders in reducing and manage the waste in households waste, and specific waste.involved in solid waste existence. an environmental friendly ways". Every person planned to conduct solid All this time, most of the communi- Meanwhile, section 13 stated "the waste management service shouldties are still trapped in the old collec- developer of settlement, commercial, obtain permit from local authority pur-tion-transportation-disposal system. industrial and special areas, public suant to the responsibility. Major canThe new paradigm views waste as facility, social facility and another decide administrative penalty to wasteresource which has economic value to facility are responsible in providing management service that disobey thebecome energy, compost, fertilizer or waste separation facility". permit regulation.industrial material. In another words, the act has forced Central and local governments are community to recycle in their waste obligated to fund solid waste manage-Solid Waste Management Res- management. If they are not, penalty ment activities. Community might beponsibility will be given pursuant to the regula- involved in solid waste management In order to have a comprehensive tion. activities held by local and or centraland integrated solid waste manage- Another interesting part of this act governments. The involvement can bement, communitys rights and respon- is dealing with the regulation for the in the form of :sibilities as well as roles and responsi- producer is stated in section 14 and 15, z Suggestion, consideration andbilities of the authority both national i.e. responsibilities for community; advice to local and or central gov-and local in serving their civic duties, producers are responsible in managing ernment;law umbrella is required in the form of their package which is difficult to be z Formulation of solid waste man-act. naturally decomposed. Government agement policies; and Solid waste management is held will apply reward and punishment z Advice and opinion in solid wastebased on responsibility, sustainability, mechanism to companies disobeying conflict reconciliation.benefit, equality, togetherness, safety, the regulation. It applies to community Implicitly, the solid waste manage-security and economic principles. as well as individual. ment act force the local authority to In this act, government is not the manage their waste is they do not wishonly one responsible in solid waste Local and Central Government to be sued or be given penalty. Solidmanagement; community (household) Responsibilities waste management is local govern-and private (as producer of packs Before the act is launched, although ments responsibility.which turned into waste) are also there were norms, standards, proce- Section 5 mentioned "central andresponsible pursuant to the regulation. dures and manuals on solid waste local governments are responsible for management, firm regulation did not the implementation of good and envi- exist in local (city/regency) and ronmental friendly solid waste man- provincial government. All local gov- agement programs pursuant to the ernments are based on their local reg- act". ulation and created diverse solid waste Health and cleanliness of an area-in management. solid waste context-depend on the will- It was deteriorate with retribution ingness and interest of its local author- and penalty problems to increase local ity. Supervision of the implementation income and not putting effort on man- of solid waste management in this act agement responsibility in handling is arranged in a leveled way as stated in waste for civic needs. section 30, article (1) and article (2). Through this act, the basis for Lines of responsibilities for local and Environment around the house becomes improvement in solid waste manage- central government are stated in this greener and fresher. Photo BORDA ment in Indonesia is started. The act act.