International Year of Sanitation 2008. Indonesia water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2007

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International Year of Sanitation 2008. Indonesia water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2007

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From Editor 1 Your Voice 2 Published by: Main Report Water Supply and Sanitation National Sanitation Conference 2007 3 Working Group Welcoming International Year of Sanitation 2008 7 International Year Sanitation 2008 Momentum for Sanitation Advisor: Director General for Human Settlement, Development in Indonesia 10 Department of Public Works Insight: Board of Trustee: Solid Waste and Flood: Correlation of Environmentally SupportedDirector of Settlement and Housing, National Urban Management Development 12 Development Planning Agency Sanitation, Health and Handling 15 Director of Water and Sanitation, “Plan When Young, Harvest When Mature” 17 Ministry of Health WSES From Islamic Perspective 20 Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works RegulationsDirector of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Ministerial Decree of Public Works no. 18/PRT/M2007 on Community Empowerment, The Implementation of Water Supply System Development 24 Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Interview Environment Management, Nugie: Speaking about Sanitation 26 Department of Home Affairs Our Guest Chief Editor: Creating Clean and Green Surabaya 28 Oswar Mungkasa Reportage Board of Editor: Zaenal Nampira, Blitar City Zero Waste Management 30 Indar Parawansa, Bambang Purwanto Inspiration Creating a Comfortable Public Toilets 32 Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rheidda Pramudhy, Reflection Raymond Marpaung, Fanny Wedahuditama Nursalams Recycle Workshop: Keep on Going in the Middle of Jakarta 33 Design/Illustrator: Around PLAN 34 Rudi Kosasih Around ISSDP 36 Production: Around WASPOLA 39 Machrudin Around WSES 42 Distribution: Programs Agus Syuhada Metropolitan Sanitation Management and Health Project (MSMHP) 46 Address: Abstract Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Solid waste Process in Piyungan Final Disposal Site (FDS) Through Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 Recycling and Composting 47 http://www.ampl.or.id e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id IATPI Clinic 48 oswar@bappenas.go.id CD Info 49 Book Info 50 Unsolicited article or opinion items Website Info 51 are welcome. Please send to our address WSES Library 52 or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website http://www.ampl.or.id
  2. 2. F R O M T H E E D I TO RI n this December edition, Percik brings to you a number of topics centred around sanitation issuesdue to the International Year ofSanitation 2008, which is aiming at accel-erating sanitation development by givingit high priority. Sanitation is an unpopu-lar topic to be discussed since it is relatedto faeces and waste water, which, general-ly in Indonesia, continuously makes sani-tation an important issue as human basicneeds. As mentioned before by state ministerof PPN/Head of Bappenas, PaskahSuzetta, on the opening of NationalSanitation Conference 2007 in Jakarta, Minister of National Development Planning/ Head of National Development Planning Agency, Paskahlast November 19-21 November 2007, a Suzetta, Minister of Public Works, Djoko Kirmanto, Minister of Trade Fahmi Idris, Director General forlarge number of families do not have Human Settlement Agus Widjanarko and Deputy for Infrastructure National Development Planning Agency Dedy Supriadi Priatna observing the 2007 National Sanitation Expo. Source: Bowo Leksonoaccess to sanitation facilities due to inter-nal constraints such as knowledge, dialogue at all levels in order to obtain condition in Indonesia and his experi-behaviour, and economy, and external bigger resources allocation commitment ences so far, being a singer, in perceivingconstraints, such as policy framework, from the government and political lead- sanitation among the community.perceptions, gender, and technology. ers regarding sanitation for the poor. As always, for Our Guest column, we All these constraints need to be given This edition also discusses the role of introduce the readers to our profile, thehigh priority and follow-up actions not the government in sanitation develop- head of DKP of Surabaya, Ms. Trionly by the community, but also from the ment in Indonesia, particularly sanitation Rismaharini, who succeed in making thepolicy makers both from the central and in the big cities. In turn, the successes in capital of East Java not only clean butregional level. This is also to mention the these cities will act as pilot project, which also greener. The leadership and strategyneed of private sector, Non-governmental will be replicated in other regions. of Ms. Risma has set an example for manyorganizations, state institutions and The discussion on sanitation develop- regional leaders in Indonesia.donors. ment can be read in the Program column Issues around sanitation, whether According to Paskah Suzetta, National in project investment in environmental nationally and internationally, haveSanitation Conference 2007 was not sanitation sector article (Metropolitan become important for Percik to put as itsmerely held to welcome the international Sanitation Management and Health main feature in this edition. It is impor-year of sanitation, which had been decid- Project - MSMHP) funded by ADB and tant because many stakeholders considered by the general assembly of United other resources. sanitation development is not strategic,Nations Organization on the 4th of The Interview column presents envi- nor popular, that more strategic plansDecember 2006. Rather, it was because ronment ambassador of the Indonesian needed in order to have concrete follow-sanitation has become mutual need of all state ministry of environment, Nugie, up actions in the future.stakeholders in improving the quantity who is also known as a consistent singer On this occasion, all Perciks editorialand quality of sanitations services for the with environmental themes. However, in staff would like to wish the readerscommunity. Nonetheless, National this interview, Nugie, whose full name is "Happy New Year 2008". May this yearSanitation Conference 2007 can be the Agustinus Gusti Nugroho, will not speak becomes the year of awareness, and ofinitial momentum for the implementa- about environment in the broader sense. healthier and better living. Let us to-tion of International Year of Sanitation Rather, he will speak about sanitation. gether develop sanitation with full con-(IYS) action plan. This younger brother of Katon Bagaskara, sciousness and improved behaviour start- This action plan is aimed to initiate also a singer, will speak about sanitation ing with ourselves. Percik December 2007 1
  3. 3. YOUR VOICE How to subscribe through Book Info in the Percik maga- 2. Compilation of WSES related regu- zine are available at our library. lations Greetings, However, we can help you to copy the if 3. WSES regulation pocket book I am a student at FKM UNEJ, I am you are willing. As for the Perciks editor, doesntinterested with the content of WSES ma- Percik publish the English version dangazine which I found at the FKMs read- Request for books Percik Junior? It was unfortunate that weing room. I want to know further how to and magazines did not receive those two editions. If theresubscribe, and whether it is possible for a are still some left, is it possible for us tostudent like me to subscribe? Dear Pokja AMPL & Percik magazine have them? Dhany Brian editor, Please kindly consider our request Regarding the letter from Bappenas and we thank you for your kind attention. Dhany, ref. no. 6855/Dt. 6. 3/11/2007 and Sincerely, Greetings from Percik. It is possible 5770/Dt. 6. 3/10/2007 with subject on Siti Wahyunifor you to obtain Percik Magazine, even WSES related books and information Administratif Associate - Serviceother information media which might be media for water supply and environmen- Delivery Teamneeded regarding your study. Just send tal sanitation (Percik magazine), here- USAID-ESP, Jakarta Indonesiayour full address. Thank you. with, we would like to thank you for the 62 21 7209594 ext 706 books and magazines. Customers note However, since these books are seen Ms. Siti Wahyuni, important, which then made us distribute Dear editor, We will try our best to meet all of them to ESPs branches in other regions, I would like to subscribe Percik ma- your queries, and you are very much as well as the related ESPs divisionsgazine by this address: B. Widyarti, welcome. (such as communication division), weRumah Organik, Pesona Kayangan blok would like to request five copies of the fol-DL No. 5 Jl. Margonda Raya Depok, West Request for Magazine lowing books:Java. Thank you for your attention. 1. Turn it into friend when difficult to Dear Percik, Regards, handle I am an international NGO staff, and I Rumah Organik Created by RudiKosasih am interested to subscribe Percik maga- zine after reading one of your customers How to obtain books letter on how to subscribe in October edi- reviewed in tion. Supposedly my request is granted; Book Info Column please send it to the following address: Thank you for sending Percik maga- DEDY M. HURUDJIzine to Environmental Study Centre of d/a Jl. Palma No. 07, Wumialo,Surabaya University. I am interested with Kota Tengah Sub-district,the books reviewed in the Book Info col- Gorontalo City 96128umn in Percik August 2007 (Go Green I am looking forward to hear fromSchool and Greens Journey). Where can you. Thank youI get them? Thank you. Warm regards, Tuani Lidiawati Dedy M. Hurudji You are welcome Ms. Tuani. We will try to fulfil your request.Unfortunately, not all books informed Thank you. 2 Percik December 2007
  4. 4. M A I N F E AT U R E National Sanitation Conference 2007 Brings Forth National Policy and StrategyT he bell of new round in developing better sanitation condition has just been rung. It marked the official opening of National Sanitation Conference (NSC) 2007by state minister of National Development Planning/Head ofNational Development Planning Agency, H. Paskah Suzetta, atBalai Kartini Jakarta, Monday, 19th of November 2007. NSC was held for three days with "Resources Mobilization toAccelerate the Sanitation Development" as the theme. The con-ference involved ministerial level officers, policy makers, donorsand universities. Other than the head of Bappenas, the opening was attended Minister of National Development Planning/ Head of National Developmentby Minister of Public Works, Djoko Kirmanto, Minister of Planning Agency, Paskah Suzetta, Minister of Public Works, Djoko Kirmanto, Minister of Trade Fahmi Idris, Director General for Human Settlement AgusIndustry, Fahmi Idris, Director General of infrastructure, Widjanarko and Deputy for Infrastructure National Development PlanningBappenas, Dedy Supriadi Priatna. Agency Dedy Supriadi Priatna during the opening of the 2007 National Sanitation Conference. ource: Bowo Leksono In his opening remarks, Paskah Suzetta explained that NSC2007 was not held merely to welcome year 2008 which had been "Government institutions at district level who are responsi-decided as International Year of Sanitation by the general ble for sanitation are still overlapping with each other. Evenassembly of United Nations Organization (UNO), on the 4th of worse, sometimes there is no institution responsible for sanita-December 2006. Rather, as the mutual need to improve the tion sector" said he.quality and quantity of safe access to sanitation for all level of Budget limitation, add Djoko Kirmanto, whether it comescommunity. from APBN or APBD will result in limited budget allocation for According to Paskah, on one hand, internal constraint, such the development of sanitation infrastructure at almost every dis-as knowledge, behaviour, and economic have become the reason trict/city since sanitation has a very low priority.of large number of households who do not have safe access to Djoko continues, the existing regulations and laws in sanita-sanitation facilities. "Meanwhile, external constraints consist of tion sector are very often not properly explained or manifestedpolicy framework, perceptions, gender and technology" said he. into Perda and not publicly socialized to all community. "On the Paskah emphasized that we have to be able to overcome the other hand, regulations and laws still need to be developed inissue of inappropriate sanitation. "Reviews need to be conduct- order to catch up with other sectors, such as water supply, trans-ed against the sanitation policy and strategy, which has been portation and others" said he.implemented so far, and action plan and improvement efforts of The NSC 2007 acted as a forum to develop commitmentsanitation services for the community need to be formulated" among stakeholders in order to jointly agree on an integratedsaid he. policy, strategy and efforts in sanitation development program. Meanwhile, minister of public works, Djoko Kirmanto, in his On the occasion, a sanitation decree was signed by the mi-keynote speech, explained that the implementation of sanitation nisters, governors, bupati and mayors. The opening of NSC wasinfrastructure in Indonesia is closely related to the concern, re- then followed by visit a to the sanitation exhibition which wasgulation, institution, budgeting priority and community aware- held at Balai Kartinis lobby. Bowo Leksononess. Percik December 2007 3
  5. 5. M A I N F E AT U R E NATIONAL SANITATION CONFERENCE JOINT AGREEMENT Jakarta, November, 19th, 2008W e acknowledge sanitation as human basic need, mous and in needs of support and cooperation, and lastly, com- which has important value for dignity and quality mintment from all stakeholders. of life. Failure to fulfil it, will results in the increas- Herewith, we who signed jointly agree to:ing of child mortality rate, decreasing welfare, particularly for 1. Effectively improve the sustainability of sanitation serviceswomen and children, additional financial burden for medical and facilities such as domestic waste management, solidservices, decreasing productivity and increasing poverty, which waste and drainage and to develop clean and healthyultimately will lead to national economic loss, and last but not behaviour, particularly hygienic behaviour.least, degrading the quality of environment as well as polluting 2. Together with all stakeholders through partnership, whichintake resources. Nevertheless, the rate of basic sanitation ser- involve central and district level institutions, community,vices for more than ten years, 1990-2004, has not been increas- private sector, NGOs, media, universities, financial institu-ing significantly, 45% in 1990 to 67,1% in 2004. tions, and donors, implement the following actions: Various efforts have been conducted to fulfil the need of sa- a. Determine sanitation as priority sector within thenitation services according to these principals: national and regional development; 1. Comprehensive and inclusive approach, which consider the b. Develop and support clean and healty behaviour, par- communitys practical needs through the formulation of ticularly hygienic behaviour; Mid term investment plan and program sanitation facilities c. Develop sanitation service provision by private sector with proportional joint funding, and to involve the role of and NGOs; community and private sector effectively. d. Increase regional government capacity in imple- 2. Step-by-step development approach with initial priority on menting minimum service standard; the intervention of regions with high risk on communitys e. Support and strengthen existing partnership network health. to improve coordination and synergy among stake- 3. Optimalization of resources allocation, which is sufficient holders. in supporting healthy and hygienic behaviour at all level of We encourage governmental institutions at all levels, com- society. munity, private sector, NGOs, media, universities, and donors to 4. Increase the provision of integrated sanitation facilities for work together in increasing the performance of sanitation sec- the city and environmental scale community-based cen- tor development for the sake of Indonesian society. tralized services (communal and individual). 5. Sustainable financial and institutional arrangement for the Those who signed were: operational and maintenance of sanitation facilities accor- State Minister of National Development Planning/ Head of ding to cost recovery principles. National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas), Minister of By using these principles, many programs have been imple- Internal Affair, Minister of Public Works, Minister of Health, Ministermented to increase the basic sanitation services to 69,34% in of Industry, State Minister of Environment.2006. However, the challenges to achieve MDGs are still enor-4 Percik December 2007
  6. 6. M A I N F E AT U R E National Sanitation Conference 2007 HAND WASHING WITH SOAPS ince launched in 2006, the government has been inten- MPH described that the improvement societal healthy beha- sively and continuously campaigning on the national viour such as hand washing with soap needs continuous assis- movement of hand washing with soap (HWS). The cam- tance particularly on the community empowerment strategypaign is aimed to have more effective implementation with towards healthy living. "National movement of hand washingbroader coverage by obtaining support from all stakeholders with soap is the responsibility of all stakeholders particularlyincluding the private sector. among the component of community" said he. The campaign is conducted in improving societal health de- Health department considers the need to initiate KPS-CTPSgree through clean and he- as an effective model of inte-althy living behaviour to- grated efforts in encouragingwards Healthy Indonesia HAND WASHING BEHAVIOUR IN INDONESIA 2006 and widen the capability of2010, as one of the Indonesi- the program. Moreover, thisan Human Development initiative also helps to main-program. tain sustainable concerns The World Health Orga- towards health issue at thenization (WHO) notes that community and nationaldiarrhoea and upper respi- level, and to activate privateratory infection are the cau- sector participation, as well asses of most infant and un- to combine expertise andder-five mortality in the resources from differentworld. Meanwhile, hand stakeholders.washing with soap is impor- Based on Curtis andtant to prevent the spread- After After helping Before Before Before Cairnerosss findings in 2003,ing of epidemic, such as di- defecation a child to meal feeding preparing hand washing with soap defecate a child a mealarrhoea, avian flu, and behaviour may prevent dia-typhus. rrhoea up to 42-47%. The Furthermore, hand wa- research concludes that handshing with soap can also help to wash off bacteria, which cause washing with soap is more effective in preventing diarrhoeainfection, cheaply and easily, that makes it considered to be the compared to only providing infrastructure, such as toilet.most effective way to prevent different kind of diseases. In I Nyoman Kandun further explained, in order to improveIndonesia, hand washing with soap helps to reduce infant and hand washing with soap behaviour as an effective way tounder-five mortality rate, which is currently registered at decrease the diarrhoea occurrence among children under-five35/1000 successful birth of 0-12 months and 46/1000 success- year in Indonesia, a well coordinated communication within theful birth of under-fives. public-private partnership needs to be done. "It is one thing that On the occasion of National Sanitation Conference 2007, the we want to achieve" he confirmed.government, via Health Department, once again appealed and Kandun also explained on the ongoing gap and weaknessesencouraged the campaigning on national movement of hand within the implementation, such as the adoption of projectwashing with soap. The encouragement was brought forth in the approach instead of sustainable program, the focus of infra-form of the improvement of societal healthy behaviour through structure investment over changing behaviour, and insufficiencypublic-private partnership for hand washing with soap. of resources allocation of the program. "In addition, the partici- The chief spokesman of KPS-CTPS who is also the director pation of private sector has not meet both sides expectation"general of PP & PL, Health Department, dr. I Nyoman Kandun, said he. BW Percik December 2007 5
  7. 7. M A I N F E AT U R E National Sanitation Conference 2007 SANITATION DEVELOPMENT IS YET TO BE POPULARO n the second and third day, National Sanitation Conference (NSC) 2007 held various discussion. Three themes were brought forth simultaneously incelebrating the first sanitation feast in Indonesia. The audienceswere free to participate in one of those discussions. The audiences were expected to have the opportunity to dis-cuss openly, so that the conference will not stop only at the dis-cussion of issues but to be interpreted into regional strategicplans in order to have concrete actions. One of the themes was "Social Campaign for SanitationDevelopment", which presented four key persons whom one ofthem was Mayor of Blitar city, Djarot Syaiful Hidayat. According to Djarot, the development of sanitation inIndonesia is only perceived as the “backyard” of our nationaldevelopment policy. “Sanitation is considered to be less impor-tant because it has no value-added for the local government” hesaid. Minister of national Development Planning/Head of Development Planning Djarot continues that many stakeholders consider sanitation Agency, Paskah Suzetta hit the gong as a sign of the opening of 2007 National Sanitation Conference. Source: Bowo Leksonodevelopment is not strategic and popular. “It is different com-pare to establishing soccer clubs and building skyscrapers and importance of sanitation. According to him, sanitation in devel-smooth roads” he said. oped countries have become public service standard.”Local go- The event, then, continued with visit to two locations. Firstly, vernment is responsible to provide sanitation services to its po-a visit to Kelurahan Petojo, Central Jakarta, for the community’s pulation by allocating significant sanitation budget” said he.success efforts in building MCK ++, managing solid waste, andhand washing with soap. Secondly, visit to Lippo Karawaci real NSC 2007 Excpetationsestate for wastewater and drainage system management. After a serial of activities for three days, NSC 2007 had come The discussion on “Financing Strategy in Sanitation to an end. Various possibilities regarding sanitation develop-Development” brought vice major of Banjarmasin city, Alwi ment could be done by the participants in their own place.Sahlan, as the speaker. According to him, the strategy to achieve “We Hope that after the NSC 2007, mobilization of resourcespolitical commitment on sanitation development is by increas- towards sanitation development can really take place” saiding the political lobbies towards the legislative and encouraging Deputy of Infrastructure, Bappenas, Dedi Supriadi Priatna, dur-public campaign on clean and healthy living behaviour, as well ing the official closing of NSC 2007 in Mawar Ballroom, Balaias community participation in sanitation development. Kartini, Jakarta. The political commitment of Banjarmasin city in sanitation Actually, in the end of the event, a panel discussion withdevelopment is shown through the local regulation on solid Prof. Emil Salim and Erna Witoelar as the speakers was meantwaste, rivers and disturbance. “In 2007, our city has allocated to be held. However, both speakers were not available due toRp. 52 billion for sanitation sector, while in 2008 up to Rp. 60 their tight schedule. Seemingly, the success of sanitation deve-billion” Alwi said. lopment is not only the hope of society, but also the decision Meanwhile, other speaker from faculty of economic, makers. May all these become a realization that the developmentIndonesia University, Bambang S. Brodjonegoro, explained the target, in general, can be achieved. Bowo Leksono6 Percik December 2007
  8. 8. M A I N F E AT U R E WELCOMING INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF SANITATION 2008 T he first time hearing about international year of sanitation 2008, many of the reaction is “what about sanitation?” Is it that important that 2008 need to be labelled as international year of sanitation? The story behind it will be explained in this article.Global condition of sanitation More commitments are needed from all stakeholders, namely More than 1.2 billion people in the world have enjoyed safe the donors, governments, and NGOs. The United Nationsaccess to sanitation in the last 14 years,which means that the Organization (UNO) then took the initiative to facilitate theglobal sanitation service coverage had increased from 49% to commitment and to increase large scale awareness.59% during 1990-2004. However, the world is still far fromMDGs sanitation target, to reduce by halve the population with- The History of International Year of Sanitationout safe access to basic sanitation by 2015. If the trend is not The General Assembly of UNO launched the Internationalchanging, by 2015 the population without access to basic sanita- Year of Sanitation (IYS) on the 20th of December 2006 based ontion will reach 2.6 billion peo- the recommendation of UNple, or equals to 10 times of Secretary General Advisorycurrent Indonesian populati- Board of Water and Sa-on, where 980 of them are nitation (UNSGAB) tounder-five. accelerate the improve- According to World Health ment of sanitation by gi-Organization (WHO), around ving special attention.1,8 million people die each Sanitation has become ayear, or around 42.000 people less interesting subject todie of diarrhoea, which caused be discussed because itmainly by poor sanitation and relates to faeces and wastelow quality of health. From water. UNSGAB recom-that numbers, the majority of mendation was based onmortality occurs in Asia, and the Hashimoto Action Plan90% of the victim are children (HAP), which launched byunder-five, or around 1.5 mil- UNSGAB in the Worldlion of under-five. In average, Water Forum IV in Marchan under-five dies every 20 seconds. 2006. UNSGAB it self is an independent body, which provide Meanwhile, the number of school absent also rises. It is esti- advices to the Secretary General of UNO on policy, program andmated that proper sanitation facilities will reduce the mortality global management action related to water and sanitation. Therate of under-five more than one-third. If hygiene promotion is action plan was meant to motivate dialogues at all levels, so thatconducted, such as hand washing with soap, the mortality rate it could produce commitment towards more resources allocationcould be reduced further up to two-third. Proper sanitation also for sanitation for the poor from the government and politicalcan accelerate the economic growth and the social development leaders.of the country with high rate of absent working days and school As the follow up of the recommendation of HAP, IYS plan-days caused by diarrhoea. Many schoolgirls prefer to stay home ning meeting was held for the first time on the 7th of May 2007when having their periods because of the unavailability of clean at the UNICEF office, New York. NGOs, donors & academicians,and comfortable toilets. development banks & 29 government representatives attended Motivated by this poor sanitation condition, all stakeholders the meeting to discuss the agenda. One of the output of thefelt the need to put together efforts to address the problems. meeting was the targets of IYS. Percik December 2007 7
  9. 9. M A I N F E AT U R EIYS Targets The central objective of the Inter-national Year of Sanitation is to put theglobal community on track to achieve thesanitation MDG. Sanitation is the foun-dation of health, dignity, and develop-ment. Increased sanitation access espe-cially for poor people, is fundamental forreaching all the Millennium DevelopmentGoals. The International Year of Sanitati-on aims to: 1. Increase awareness and com- mitment from actors at all levels, both inside and outside the sector, on the importance of reaching the sanitation MDG, including health, gender equity, education, sustain- able development, economic and environmental issues, via compel- HASHIMOTO ACTION PLAN (HAP) ling and frank communication, ro- bust monitoring data, and sound evidence. HAP, which launched by UNSGAB, originally named Compendium of 2. Mobilize Governments (from na- Actions, but then replaced after the UNSGAB chairman Hashimoto passed tional to local) existing alliances, fi- away in 2006. His name is used instead for a tribute to his commitment. nancial institutions, sanitation and HAP becomes an important result World Water Forum IV and mentioned in service providers, major groups, the Ministry Decree and Reports. private sector and UN Agencies via HAP mentions "your action, your plan" to quickens water and sanitation rapid collaborative agreements on means. "Your action" is done by the main actors, while "our action" shows how and who will undertake needed UNSGABs commitment to help main actors to overcome challenges and steps now. obstacles in achieving agreed results. UNSGAB has chosen six main themes 3. Secure real commitments to review, develop and implement which is funding, water operator partnership, sanitation, monitoring, har- effective action to scale up sanitation monized water source management, and water and disaster programmes and strengthen sanita- tion policies via the assignment of Sanitation clear responsibilities for getting this In HAP, as a part of the six main themes, sanitation is given special done at the national and internatio- explanation. Without radical changes, we will not achieve MDG target in nal levels. sanitation. Bigger attention and political will is needed. In global level, 4. Encourage demand driven, the key is advocacy. Regional and sub regional level organizations must sustainable & traditional solu- handle fund raising support campaign, marketing, and technology. Water tions, and informed choices by for Life Decade (2005-2015) is better used to build political commitment recognizing the importance of work- in achieving sanitation targets. To achieve these targets, the following acts ing from the bottom up with practi- needed to be done: tioners and communities. 5. Secure increased financing to a. Determining 2008 as the International Year of Sanitation jump start and sustain progress via b. The UN should give yearly sanitations rewards for they who are commitments from national budgets involved and significantly contributes in local sanitation services. and development partner alloca- c. UN Global Sanitation Conference should be held in the end of Water tions. for Life Decade to know global achievements. 6. Develop and strengthen insti- UNSGAB will encourage donors, related institutions, and governments tutional and human capacity via to make sanitation a main priority. recognition at all levels that progress in sanitation toward the MDGs8 Percik December 2007
  10. 10. M A I N F E AT U R E involves interlinked programs in hygiene, household and school facilities (such as toilets and washing facilities), and INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF the collection, treatment and safe reuse or disposal of wastewater and human excreta. Community mobilization, SANITATIONS 2008 TARGETS: the recognition of womens key role and stake, along with an appropriate mix of "software" and "hardware" interven- 1. Increase awareness and commitment tions are essential.7. Enhance the sustainability and therefore the effective- 2. Mobilization of local government ness of available sanitation solutions, to enhance health 3. Ensure Commitment impacts, social and cultural acceptance, technological and institutional appropriateness, and the protection of the 4. Encourage demand driven, sustainability, environment and natural resources.8. Promote and capture learning to enhance the evidence and traditional solutions base and knowledge on sanitation which will greatly con- 5. Ensure increased budget allocation tribute to the advocacy and increase investments in the sec- tor. 6. Develop and strengthen the institution and human capacity 7. Strengthen sustainability 8. Promote and document lesson learned Focal Point of IYS Implementation UNO declaration on IYS clearly states that the focal point of IYS implementation is the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of UNO secretariat General office (UNDESA). Its task, beside acting as focal point, also covers proposal development at all levels, including possible financial resources. In delivering its tasks, UNDESA works closely with other stakeholders including UNICEF, WHO, UN-Habitat, The Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), the UN Development Program, UNSGAB, NGOs, private sector, and universities. IYS launching was held by UNDESA in collaboration with UN Water Task Force on Sanitation. Complete information re- garding IYS can be obtained from www.sanitationyear2008.org or http: //esa.un.org/iys. The Need of Sanitation Investment Globally, around 10 billion USD or around 9.5 trillion Rupiah per year is needed to achieve MDGs sanitation target by 2015. The same amount of investment is needed to provide sa- nitation for all of the world population in 1 or 2 decades after 2105. The need of sanitation investment is equal to only 1% of glo- bal military expenses in 2005, or equal to one-third of the total expenses for bottled water of the world population, or equal to the total expense of European population for ice cream each year. Actually, the amount of investment needed for sanitation is not a big number, but it has big impact for the welfare of the world population. OM Source: Bowo Leksono Percik December 2007 9
  11. 11. M A I N F E AT U R E INTERNATIONAL YEAR SANITATION 2008 MOMENTUM FOR SANITATION DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIAChallenges for Sanitation Develop-mentI n Indonesia, as well as other coun- tries, sanitation is included within the infrastructure domain. Unfortu-nately, it makes sanitation the “step son”.As the step son, sanitation suffers frominsufficient attention. Meanwhile, poorsanitation management could cause eco-nomic loss up to 40% and financial lossup to 2% from the Gross Domestic Pro-duct (Head of Bappenas, National Sanita-tion Conference speech), where the totalamount could reach 45 trillion per year.Ironically, the pendulum of of develop-ment has not shifted to sanitation.Looking at the last 30 years, govern-ment’s investment for sanitation per yearonly reaches up to Rp. 200,- per personper year. It’s just not working. Meanwhilearound 30% of Indonesian populationstill do not have access to basic sanitati-on, which means worse condition com-pare to other neighbouring countries. Sanitation Development Impact Source: Bowo Leksono As has been noted by WHO, 1 dollarinvestment for the improvement of sani-tation will create economic profit up to 7 on’s (UNO) program, on 19-21 Novemberdollar (Guy Hutton, WSP-EAP 2007). As has been noted by 2007, a National Sanitation ConferenceOther WSP study noted that investment WHO, 1 dollar investment was held by Bappenas in collaborationas musch as Rp. 47.000,- per person per with other stakeholders (government,year could increase productivity up to for the improvement of NGOs, universities, donors, and pro-79% and saving on sanitation cost up to sanitation will create jects). On the occasion, a joint agreement19% (Statictic of Sanitation in Indonesia, economic profit up regarding commintment to cooperate toWSP 2006). to 7 dollar improve the quality of sanitation was So, if the awareness of sanitation is signed by Head of Bappenas, Minister ofbuild up, it is possible to have the Indone- (Guy Hutton, Public Works, Minister of Health, Minis-sia Human Development Index (HDI) WSP-EAP 2007). ter of Industry, State Minister of Popula-improved. No longer in the 41st of 102 de- tion and Environment, and Minister ofveloping countries in 2004, or the 110th Home Affairs.of 117 developing countries (2005), or IYS Momentum for Indonesia The main focus of the joint agreement108th (2006 & 2007). As the most important initial step in is to manage waste water, water supply welcoming United Nations Organizati- and to encourage hygiene & health beha-10 Percik December 2007
  12. 12. M A I N F E AT U R Eviour to all the society. Furthermore, asi- considered. Through Corporate Social MDGs target could be achieved. Now it allde from the 6 ministers, 9 governors, 11 Responsibility (CSR), private sector has depends on how all stakeholders jointmayors, and 5 bupati also signed the joint become one of the key players. hands to make it happen, so that maxi-agreement. The next step is how to imple- Equally important is the budget opti- mum benefit from the sanitationment the joint agreement in a clear meas- mization. The increase of grants to sup- improvement can be obtained and theured action plan. port the sanitation development should loss caused by poor sanitation can be The IYS momentum needs to be opti- be utilized towards the improvement of reduced. If needed, the celebration ofmized. Water supply and Environmental community-based services, particularly World Water Day (WWD) in this comingSanitation (WSES) stakeholders have to for the poor, not the other way around, to March 2008 could be enriched with sani-take roles to influence as well as incre- seek profit. tation themes and even to be the launch-asing the support for the decision makers The sound of global partnership must ing momentum of sanitation day by theat all levels for sanitation development. be heard until the sub district, where the President of Republic Indonesia.The role of private sector also needs to be sanitation services improvement of Hopefully. SANITATION AND MDGS W orld MDG 2006 reports show that sanitation building is making a progress (on track), especially in devel- MDGs Asia Pacific 2006 report, released by ADB, UNDP, and UNESCAP (www.mdgasiapacific.org) places improved its position above the achievement rate for Asia Pacific. But we are still in the same condition for oping countries. But with the current Indonesia in the red position (means the 7th goal. condition, that still half of developing falling behind, see page 7), as well as Slightly different, the MDGs 2007 countries citizens still havent have Bangladesh, Laos, Mongolia, PNG, reports, published in November 2007 access to proper sanitation, it is feared Myanmar, and Pakistan. Especially for by UNDP and Bappenass, sees the that the target will not be achieved in 7th goal, Indonesia is marked with yel- Indonesian MDG achievement positive- time. (The MDGs Report 2006. Page 18- low boxes for sanitation (urban and vil- ly (MDGs Indonesia 2007 Report, page 19, www.un.org/milleniumgoals). lage) and village water supply, while 89-93). Shown there that sanitation for Fortunately the MDGs Report 2007 urban water supply is marked with an household in urban and villages are recorded more promising facts, that upside down red triangle which mean already achieved, but with improper the global results are very positive. In off track slow. We were estimated to quality. The target is 65%, with the his speech, Secretary General Ban Ki- achieve our target in 2015, while a base data 1990, but now, we are Moon stated that "MDGs target are still normal triangle means off track- exceeding the target with 68% achieve- achievable as long as we can still coop- regressing. In 2007, Indonesia has ment. (see graphic). erates, through good governance, increase in public investment, strengthened production capacity, and job demand creation." Slightly auto- cratic Ki-Moon, which originally from South Korea, sees the important corre- lation between achieving MDGs and job demand creation, an aspect that until now lays on rhetorical lines. "The world wants no new promises" says Ki- Moon. A report released by UN (www.un.org/milleniumgoals) stated that 7th goal achievement will need Graphic Legends: extraordinary efforts. ------- Proportions of household to proper sanitation facility access (village and urban) (%) ------- Proportions of household to proper sanitation facility access (village) (%) ------- Proportions of household to proper sanitation facility access (urban) (%) Percik December 2007 11
  13. 13. INSIGHT SOLID WASTE & FLOOD: Correlation of Environmentally Supported Urban Management Development By: Sandhi Eko Bramono, S.T., MEnvEngScT he recent flood in Jakarta has given the picture of the environ- mental quality change. Thesharp increase rate of rain fall (up to 215-340 mm), accompanied with unpre-paredness of proper infrastructure anddecreasing environmental support capa-city have made the nature phenomenonseem to be uncontrollable. Even on thattime, 75% of the capital of Indonesia,Jakarta, was flooded, in several locationseven flooded by 30 cm to 300 cm height. One of the consistent topic in Jakartaflood issue is the mounting of solid waste,which clogs the rivers in Jakarta. As if therivers are meant to be the "long garbage".Accordingly, the planning of solid waste Northern Jakarta (from above view) is potentially deluged. Source: Bowo leksono.management system, which is supposedlya part of city planning, needs to be re- capacity of nature or environment to han- both at the same time. This concept has tovised. dle and to normalize the impact of given be the foundation of urban development, The fact that the volume of solid waste environmental burden, whether because which can minimize the loss caused bycan be controlled, and it is not an abso- of nature activities or human activities. nature activities or human. By using thislute value that Jakarta population pro- The environmental support capacity sho- approach, it is expected that the urbanduce 2-3 litre of solid waste per person uld be the benchmark of the city capacity development can be more structured, dy-per day has become an interesting lesson in absorbing the positive and negative im- namic, and even controllable when certa-for urban planner, that the aspect of en- pacts due to ongoing activities. in changes, both positive and negative,vironmental support capacity is being When the environmental support ca- regarding environmental support capaci-used as the foundation in preparing the pacity can no longer withhold the burden, ty occurs.urban infrastructure. the potential damage caused by natural Environmental support capacity with- disaster will increase. This must be over- in the urban development must be trans-Improving Environmental Support come by improving the environmental lated to how far the city should be deve-Capacity support capacity itself, producing fewer loped based on the environmental sup- Environmental support capacity is the burdens for the environment, or doing port capacity it owns. If it is limited, no12 Percik 2007 December
  14. 14. INSIGHTmore burdens allowed to be added to the environment. Regar- nagement and organization also need to be adjusted to theding solid waste management, the maximum limit of solid was- recent development. By applying all these efforts, the citys envi-te to be handled in each city based on the current condition ronmental support capacity can be improved, which will have(technology, human resources, and existing organization) is A impact on the improvement of citys tolerance rate against them3 per day. population growth. The impact, then, is that the local govern- If the volume of solid waste exceeds the maximum limit, it ment can tolerate the population growth mainly caused bywould be difficult to handle it properly. All of this is because the urbanization.environmental support capacity and the current condition canno longer withhold the burden of solid waste. This, in turn, has Environmental Burden Reductionresulted in the form of the piling up of solid waste at the settle- Beside, improving the environmental support capacity, otherment, purposively left-over garbage, and the environmental po- means can be done by decreasing the environmental burden. Itllution caused by overload capacity of solid waste processing can be decreased by slowing down the population of the cityinstallation. The piling up of solid waste in river is also caused by (which makes the producer of environmental burden becomeexceeded capacity of environmental support and unavailability less) or by decreasing environmental burden of each personof supportive condition, which can solve the problem. This is the (which makes the rate of environmental degradation slowingreal picture, the main casue of flood in Jakarta is the bulk of down as the population activities is decreasing). Based on thesolid waste that clogs the river flow. approach, the government can determine the volume of solid This problem can be overcome by improving the environ- waste produce by the population.mental support capacity. In addition, supportive conditions, The society has to be governed properly to be able to mini-such as technology, human resources, management and organi- mize the volume of produced solid waste, or the government haszations are needed. Those combinations can be improved to sus- to support with all infrastructure needed to prevent the overtain the environmental burden produced by the society. produced solid waste (such as the recycle program policy). Even To achieve it, enormous hard work is needed, where not only with this approach, it is possible for the government to comparetechnology could improve environmental support capacity, such the rate of produced solid waste. Regarding this issue, the termas the utilization of safe and environmentally friendly techno- "pull and generate", which describe one activity caused by otherlogy of solid waste processing. Rather, financial resources, ma- activity is the best example to describe the above statement. Even though the number of population has been increasing, the volume of produced solid waste can be decreased. This ap- proach can cause new formulation towards the limitation of po- tential solid waste generation infrastructure development. For example, formulation to generate solid waste generation per m3 in commercial area. By having this number, the government can limit the allowed mall within the city because it can generate so- lid waste up to B litre/person/day. Another example is the limitation of industrial area development based on the coefficient that shows that each m2 of industrial area can generate solid waste up to C litre/person/day. These numbers will confirm the decision of the local government, for example, in determining the amount of green space to be developed within the city, the number of parking infrastructure to be provided, the maxi- mum number of gas station to be built within the city, etc. The approach will help the local government to identify how Source: Bowo Leksono. far the city still can be developed and when it has to be slowed Percik December 2007 13
  15. 15. INSIGHTdown or even stopped temporarily. All ofthese will help to maintain the generationof waste on the street & rivers, which arethe main cause of flood up to the rejectionof local community on the existence ofsolid waste processing installation. Furthermore, the local governmentcan also identify the need of investment.How many investment has to be deliveredeach year for the infrastructure of watersupply, waste water, solid waste, road,commercial, industrial, and etc. Theinvestment of local government will bemore focus, efficient and the city manage-ment can be directed and controlled asexpected by the local government.The Combination of Environmental Source: Bowo Leksono.Support Capacity & EnvironmentalBurden After the city reaches a new equilibrium, capacity & operated according to its The increase of environmental sup- the activity can continue to carry on. One capacity.port capacity and the decrease of environ- of many efforts to slow down the rate of The flood that threatens Jakarta ismental burden are likely to generate a urbanization is by encouraging the role of expected to be handled properly in yearscontrolled and sustained urban manage- central government to provide “economic to come. Many times the nature factor isment. The implementation of this will pull factor” in other cities that they can difficult to be handled, such as rain inten-also increase the comfortability and secu- generate urbanization to other cities, sity. However, supportive infrastructurerity of the society living within the city. which, in turn, provide distribution of factors, such as feasible drainage system,Furthermore, the city can provide more population in other cities. proper solid waste facility, that makesspace for more population. Within this approach, it can be seen Jakarta’s rivers free from the solid waste Of course this is too idealistic to be that the growth of city can be controlled are important to minimize the potentialhappened. City can be more tolerant in better. The local government will know flood in the coming years.receiving new urbanization without fear for sure when the development has to be Beside that, the aspect of social, econ-of problems with feasible water supply, implemented with high acceleration, omy, security, politic, and cultural of theunprocessed wastewater or pollution, slowed down or stopped temporarily. The city can be designed accurately, so thatwhich affect the health of respiratory sys- general picture of investment cost, which the government can control their owntem. City can be grown to become a needed by the government, can be pre- city. Probably Jakarta will be the first citydecent city. dicted accurately with the efficiency and in the world to implement this approach. When this limit is exceeded, the gov- efficacy of budget allocation as the conse- God Speed!ernment has to slow down the ongoing quence. The issue of flood, limited access The writer is staff of sub directorate ofdevelopment to decrease the environ- of water supply, community’s rejection on policy & strategy, directorate of program, Department of Public Works. Currently regis-mental burden or to provide new techno- final waste disposal facility. Will no tered as doctorate candidate in thelogical input, which support the city’s longer happen, because all infrastructure Environmental Science & Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS),environmental support or to do both. have been planned according to the Singapore. sandhieb@yahoo.com14 Percik December 2007
  16. 16. INSIGHT Sanitation, Health and Handling By Imam Muhtarom Small ponds in the river and drainage are potential place for the mosquitoes to breed. Sometimes in a very large number. TheT he emergence of various diseases such as muntaber, problem is mosquito will live anywhere and its brings bacteria diarrhoea, malaria, TBC and even lepra cannot be sepa- and virus, which cause contamination. rated from the condition of environment it self. Espe- The environmental degradation caused by poor sanitation iscially in Indonesia that has two seasons, dry and wet season, the worsened by the shortage of healthy septic tank.risk is getting higher unless sanitation issue are handled serious- Based on data of year 2000, there were 31% household with-ly. In wet season, the unavailability of proper drainage has cau- out septic tank facility, 26% without access to sanitation facility,sed many small ponds where mosquitoes breed. Mosquitoes 19% using public facility. Meanwhile only 23% own private sep-existence have made malaria disease to emerge resulting in tic tank, and 1% with qualify average system. This is not to mentiondeaths. More over, the problem of water supply which never the shortage of basic sanitation needs in from water supply, wasteends. The flood, which has haunted Jakarta every year has deep water handling drainage and solid waste processing in Indonesia, asimpact to the citys population. The flood has not only brought stated by Director of settlement and housing, Basah Hernowo, (Kom-mosquitoes embryos which are ready to hatch, but also create pas, Aug, 2007 ), there is no waste water facility, septic tank are beingworse problem, starting from refuge and facility which do not pumped out to be dumped else where. In addition, most of the septicensure the health. tank are not qualified. The environmental condition of Jakarta as well The same happens in rainy season. For a city as big as Jakar- as other cities in Indonesia faces similar problem. Poor urban mana-ta, without preparation it will suffer from difficulty of water, and gement, particularly sanitation, is influenced by the unavailability ofthe increase of solid waste clogging the river. clear and sustainable concept from the government and the low awa- reness of clean and healthy living behaviour among the community. Real Impact In Indonesia, environmental basis diseases are still the main cause of deaths. This is reflected through a research in 1995 as done by Slamet Riyadi M.S. who revealed the rank and contribu- tion of the diseases on the cause of deaths. Acute respiratory infection disease is on the second place and contribute 15,7% of total deaths. Diarrhoea, on the 3rd place, contribute 9,6% of total deaths. TBC, on 4th places, contribute 7,4% of total deaths. In total, environmental basis disease contribute 33% or one third of total deaths of all ages category. In under-five category, the cause of deaths pattern is even higher. The first rank is occupied by ISPA, which contribute to 33% of deaths. The second rank occupied by diarrhoea, which contribute to 15,3% of deaths. Meanwhile, parasite infection occupies the third rank, by contribute 6,3% death. In total, envi- ronmental based diseases contribute up to 52,4% or more than half of under five mortality. The environmental based diseases still become the main pa- ttern of illness of Indonesia population. The result of research in 1995 shows that the ISPA, skin, diarrhoea and TBC contribute Dirty rivers are often found in big cities. cumulatively up to 44% on the infant and under five category, Source: Bowo Leksono. environmental based diseases contribute to more than 80% Percik December 2007 15
  17. 17. INSIGHTfrom diseases suffer by infant and underfive in Indonesia.Prevention Healthy environmental maintenancecan be initiated with conventional con-cept, starting from prevention, includingprimary preventative efforts, whichemphasizes on early prevention of dis-ease, aimed mainly to delay the multiply-ing and contamination and human con-tact with agent vector or risk factoriesrelated to disease (such as pathogens bac-teria, vector and pollutant). For example,the provision of sanitary toilets is veryeffective to break the contamination cycleand the multiplicity of diarrhoea bacteriaagainst the water or food source. Handwashing using clean water and soap alsoquite effective to break the bacterialinfection cycle. The same thing appliesfor the water chlorination; it reduces theregeneration of pathogen bacteria. Thesethree efforts can be the simple method toreduce the risk of the emergence of "peo-ple" disease. Several studies by Esrey and friends(1985-1991), reports that water supply Diarrheal victim which mastly are children under five during diarrheal epidemicintervention can reduce the incident of in Tangerang district. Source: Bowo Leksono.diarrhoea disease around 17-27%.Meanwhile, several studies by Esrey andDaniel (1990) on the impact of toilet pro- 1. Develop sense of belonging as the understand information on environ-vision towards the reduction of diarrhoea foundation of community participa- mental health for households/fa-prevalence produces consistent result 22- tion; mily/patient in every sanitation clin-24%. The same result is also shown from 2. Delegation of management and ic/Puskesmas;the study by Esrey and friends (1985- responsibility of program to the b. Outreach proactive activities1991) on the intervention of hand wash- community House visits in term of sanitationing habit. It can reduce the the diarrhoea 3. Based on community needs inspection to the victim family.prevalence up to 33%. If these three Environmental health, which is one of Sample obtainment of pollutedefforts are being implemented simultane- the primary prevention efforts should be water for laboratorial test. Provisionously, it is possible to prevent the diar- prioritized on cheap environmental of chorine for the polluted water.rhoea disease cause by microbe. health activities, which give large scale 2. Community empowerment, so that The government as the policy maker impact; and become the international they can be involved in the environ-should take basic, responsive, progressive commitment for the achievement of uni- mental health activitiesand comprehensive intervention steps, versal access. Based on the above studies a. Mini workshop at puskesmas or subwhich consist of promotive, preventive, and discussions, several environmental district office on environmentalcurative, and rehabilitative efforts health activities can be incorporated health/sanitation weekend;regarding the environmental health. within the environmental health program b. Workshop at the village level on theHowever, the concept should not exclude activities, such as: formulation of the communitycommunity as its basis. For that, commu- 1. Breaking the contamination cycle of action plan.nity participation needs to be encouraged environmental-based diseases:based on these principles: a. The availability of cheap and easy to *Geology expert, lives in Jakarta16 Percik December 2007
  18. 18. INSIGHT "PLAN WHEN YOUNG, HARVEST WHEN MATURE" AND THE ROLE OF TEACHER IN MOTIVATING STUDENTS SINCE EARLY STAGE related to polluted environmental, con- gives a major contribution towards the By Dewi Utama Faizah* * flict, wars and poverty. In approaching ecological awareness, as the solution of holistically the various aspect of social, the current humanity problems.I n facing the challenges of the 21st environmental and economy the concept, century, education must be able to of education for sustainable development Kecil Menanam Dewasa memanen change its paradigm from the frag- is introduced. This concept transforms (KMDM) and the Role Educationmented approach to ecological approach, the potential of students to be able to solve According to hyland (1994), the cur-which puts education within an interre- the problems of life related to environmen- riculum needed for the 21st century is thelated ecological context. The occurrence tal, partnership, respect and global un- curriculum, which incorporates existingof recent natural disasters, which caused derstanding issues, which rests on three pil- value and adopted by its society, such asby irresponsible hands, thoughts and lars, society, environment, and economy. transparency, futurist, democratic, andminds, have made us realize that educa- In line with it, the issue of millennium provides life opportunity in every aspects.tion should be able to facilitate the bal- development goals emerges. It aims to Of course these conditions are alreadyance between human lives in the world. tackle the problems faced by the develop- incorporated into the official document of It is an obligation to motivate aware- ing countries, which are related to inade- curriculum, which was socialized inness of students on the 21st centurys way quate education, and poverty, illiteracy, 2006. Education unit level curriculum, asof life, which consist of heterogenic com- and environmental degradation. Edu- it called, have given the authority to themunity lifestyles and enormous problems cation turns out to be the "hope", which school head master to manage the pro- cess of learning according to their local context, which aims at educating the stu- dent to become a complete human. The national education goals is to cre- ate spiritually, academically, physically, emotionally, socially and creative stu- dents. "National education aims to devel- op and shape the character and dignified civilization towards intelligence nation; responsible of the development of the students potential towards a faithfull, kind, healthy, knowledgeable, smart, cre- ative, independent person and becoming responsible and democratic citizen" (Bill of Education System No. 20/2003, chap- ter II article 3). PYHM is an education program regarding virtues, which must be applied through our education system. The role of Raberas National Elementary School, Sumbawa Besar located in a coarse area. Through the school education, ideally, should be able to ‘citizens’ green fingers, this school has turned intogreen school. Source: Bowo Leksono. address the various problems, which Percik December 2007 17
  19. 19. INSIGHTexists among the society. Environmental& conservation problems have become anextraordinary problem in relation to theneed to apply the educational virtues. We must seek solution from the com-bination between system approach andindividual approach, which focuses onhow KMDM as a system focusing on envi-ronmental and conservation educationcan be integrated into all learning aspectsin school. Lets not treat KMDM as anattachment program, which is often dis-appear along the social phenomenonrush.Role of Teachers Learning from Japan, where its edu-cation system succeeds in motivating allstudents from kindergarten and elemen-tary level to behave friendly to the envi-ronment; its success is closely related tothe local genius (wisdom), which theyadopt in their everyday life tradition sincethe kindergarten level. Students have sunk Sumbawa Garden a la Raberas National Elementary School. Evergrew bt trees, dills and fish pond.their feet into the paddy field near their Source: Dewi Utama Faizah.school. Their hands race to plant seedsfrom their mothers kitchen. There are pad- text (parents social background and gov- dents are forced to do real practices withdy, various peanuts seeds, cassava, which ernment policy), and macro system their environment. The concept of envi-of they plant since early age. Their small (influence of cultural, norm, religion and ronmentally based education had beenfeets also run on the riverside to sow fishes. social environment, where the child is applied long before the independency of "Mori wa umi no koibito" (the forest grown). It means that the KMDM activi- Indonesia. The local context, which wasis the seas lover). That is the title of a ties should be done holistically. adopted by multi ethnic in Indonesia, hadnon-fiction novel, which is compulsory given significant contribution in the edu-for the elementary student. They are KMDM Must be integrated into the cation development in the past.being encouraged to think "meta cogni- Learning Process The philosophy of "nature are meanttively" to be able to capture the essence of The integration term is used to to be the teacher", which was adopted bytheir own efforts they have done since emphasize three important aspects in the community of Minangkabau, or thethey were in kindergarten. learning process, which are to think, to irrigation system, Subak, in bali, or Bduy It means that how far a curriculum feel and to act; these is known as the three tribe, who have survived their unique tra-able to contribute positive impact within pillars pf taxonomy bloom (cognitive, dition in conserving the nature, haveeach student and beyond curriculum is affective, and psychomotor). To think made us realize, that the local genius isthe goal of the education itself. means what we are learning; to feel something worthy to be our lessons Bronfenbrenner says that the growth means what we learn; and to act means learned.of children is influenced by micro system experience of acting and not only through KMDM is not a subject, rather, it is acontext (family, school, & friends), discussion about what has been learned. part of every subject. KMDM is a part thatmesosystem context (the relation of To integrate the values of PYHM with- fill the academic life and social life ofschool and family, school and friends, in learning activity is a process where the every student/child. KMDM can befriends and individual), ecosystem con- students with the nature, where the stu- brought forward in concrete action, such18 Percik December 2007

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