Information Media for Water Supply and             Environmental Sanitation                                               ...
F ROM EDITOR      Dear Reader,                                                                                            ...
Y OUR VOICE    MDGs lack eagerness                         making their best effort towards the          solid waste safet...
MA I N F E A T U R E                         SOLID WASTE                      Is Still A Waste                            ...
M AIN FEATURE that the amount of waste transport-                                                                         ...
M AIN FEATURE solution to solid waste problem, a sys-                                                                     ...
M AIN FEATURE           Facts About Solid Waste                                                                           ...
M AIN FEATURE                                                                               FOTO: MUJIYANTO               ...
M AIN FEATURE                  Reducing Methane Gas                        Emission                                       ...
M AIN REPORT     Learn About Solid Waste           from the Chinese                                                       ...
M AIN REPORT                                                                                     SOURCE: ENDANG SETYANINGR...
M AIN REPORT                           Governance Development Program To Increase the Local Government      Concern to Env...
M AIN REPORT     During 2002-2003 the activity was             lected are fed into the baseline data bank    Charter) is g...
I   NTERVIEW     Budiman Arief, Secretary General, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure             "Bad Sol...
I       NTERVIEW    fund. APBD for solid waste must not be                How many regional govern-                       ...
I        NTERVIEW        How do you look at the linkage                   handling would not be big as it for road       h...
A RTICLE                      Solid Waste as a Source of Energy:              A Challenge to the World of               So...
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5 August 2004

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From the Editor 1 Your Voice 2 Advisor: Main Feature Director General for Urban and Solid waste is still a "waste" 3 Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement Facts about solid waste 3 and Regional Infrastructure Reducing methane gas emission from a final disposal site 6 Learn about solid waste from the Chinese 9 Board of Head: Good environmental governance to increase the regional governmentsDirector of Human Settlement and Housing, concern to environment 11 National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Interview Bad solid waste management, poor health condition 13 Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health ArticleDirector of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Solid waste as a source of energy. A challenge to the world of Ministry of Settlement and Regional solid waste management in Indonesia 16 Infrastructure Pre-study on waste material. Case study: The city of Surabaya 18 Director of Natural Resources and Solid waste management in Makassar 20Appropriate Technology, Director General on Water supply and environmental sanitation program Village and Community Empowerment, management and future challenges 22 Ministry of Home Affairs The problem with water supply and environmental sanitation Director for Facilitation of Special Planning in Kab. Kebumen 23 Domestic waste water processing system in the city of Tangerang 25 Environment Management, Solid waste brings a blessing to the village of Temesi, Ministry of Home Affairs Kab. Gianyar, Bali 27 Chief Editor: Reportase Oswar Mungkasa Mrs. Bambang Wahonos role play: Manager solid waste, makes Banjarsari green Board of Editor: Solid waste capsule, a model for long termHartoyo, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, solid waste storage 29 Poedjastanto Telescope Bandung Municipal Cleaners, Inc. 35 Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Book Info 37 Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy CD Info 38 Asiah, Mujiyanto Website Info 39 Visit Design: WASPOLA program dissemination in the province of Gorontalo 40 Rudi Kosasih Windfall over Pringga Jurang 41 Production: About WASPOLA Machrudin The implementation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development at the regional level 42 WASPOLA working group workshop 44 Distribution: WASPOLA Central Project Committee meeting 45 Anggie Rifki About WSS Address: MPA/PHAST Orientation Training 46 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat WWS Working Group Took Part in Nusantara Water 2004 47 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 ProAir Project Planning and Evaluation Meeting 47 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com Appropriate Technology Seminar: Waste water processing 48 Preparation of ProAir Project in Kabupaten Alor 49 WSS Bibliography 50Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Agenda 51 Please send to our address or e-mail. Glossary 52 Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity.
  2. 2. F ROM EDITOR Dear Reader, SOURCE: OM Percik is now pacing into a new stage in its effort to reach a wide rage of drinking water and environmental sanitation stakeholders all over the country. Percik is now spreading itself all over the areas between Sabang and Merauke, though, yet in a limited number. Praise to God, Percik has gained a wider acceptance. This is evidenced from the many responses addressed to us. Some even wish to subscribe with payment -whereas Percik is distri- buted free of charge. This of course is quite pleasing. Last week, together with WASPOLA Program and the WSS Working Group as our parent organization we attended Nusantara Water 2004 at the Jakarta Convention Center. This we did as an effort to bring Percik closer into the inner circle of WSS related stakehol- ders. We will keep on trying to make this magazine better and better acknowledged as a reference and is WSS Working Group always sit down on floor if they met in workshops. used as a means for communication by those involved in this field. Dear reader, in this edition, Percik presents to you the main feature about solid waste. Why? Solid waste is still a a systemic manner. More than that, material since a long time ago. Thanks nagging problem in this country. M. Gempur Adnan, Deputy State to her perseverance her neighbour- Environmental sanitation issue cannot Minister of Environmental Affairs for hood, located in the heart of Jakarta, is be separated from solid waste. Regional Environmental Management now green and nice looking. This place Everyone knows that, but not many Improvement indicates that it all has turned into a tourist attraction. have real concern about this problem. depends on the mutual commitment of Many visitors both domestic and for- This is like a saying, "Let the dogs bark, the stakeholders. Without such com- eigners come to learn what the woman the caravan will keep moving," solid mitment do not expect any complete has done. And, because of her efforts waste problem never finds its solution solution could be reached. Funding is she has won several distinction and despite many words have been said only a priority number so-and-so. acknowledgements. about cleanliness and health. This time Percik also presents you As always, Percik comes with the Solid waste is not simply a techni- articles from solid waste material usual columns. We hope there will be cal problem. One that relates to what related activists and practitioners. We comments and inputs from the readers technology is to apply and how much hope that the various articles in refer- so that the magazine could steadily money is to avail. The Secretary ence to the main feature will con- improving itself. Lastly, we hope this General of Ministry of Settlement and tribute to our common knowledge magazine is useful to you, our dear Regional Infrastructures, Budiman about waste material. readers. Arief, explains that. The key, he says Not less interesting, there is a Best regards. that waste material must be treated in report of a woman managing waste 1 Percik August 2004
  3. 3. Y OUR VOICE MDGs lack eagerness making their best effort towards the solid waste safety section of Kabupaten socialization. We are also having our Musia Rawas, South Sumatra, towards Congratulations for the publication of share in this effort by publishing it in Healthy Indonesia 2010. Percik. Permit me to suggest that Percik of the last edition. What we did is H. Syamsul Anwar Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) nothing without a systematized social- Head of Dinas Kesehatan should be more strongly socialized to the ization movement by the stakeholders Kabupaten Musi Rawas regional community in order to generate themselves. (The Editor) eagerness and its echo more audible in We are very pleased if the readers the ears of all in the community. In this could obtain benefit from Percik. The way the community would be inspired magazine is published to disseminate and eventually develop a moral obligation Helping Regional various policies and programs related to to make the MDGs goals and targets into drinking water and environmental sani- reality. Stakeholders tation and at the same time also as a means for stakeholders to mutually Natalia Silitonga With the publication of a media spe- share information and experience. Office of the Bupati Toba samosir cialized in water supply and environmen- (Editor) Economic Section-Head of Kimpraswil tal sanitation (Percik) it has helped us in Sub Section, Jl. Pagar Batu No. 1 Balige our job to build interaction with the We have received many letters North Sumatra stakeholders in order to create a common expressing congratulations and acknow- understanding and cooperation between ledgements from the readers who have Your suggestion does indeed conform the stakeholders and the Dinas Kese- received Percik that it is impossible for us to our expectation. The stakeholders are hatan particularly hygienic water and to mention them one by one. (Editor) PAPER WRITING COMPETITION The Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working REQUIREMENTS Group in collaboration with the Ministry of Settlement and 1. Competition is open to the public Regional Infrastructure invite authors to a competition in 2. Length of paper is 10-15 pages folio, at writing essay: 1.5 spacing and is written in Indonesian language 3. The paper has never been published TITLE: anywhere else MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNITY BASED WATER 4. The participant must enclosed a photocopy of his SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION personal identity 5. The paper must be submitted to the Committee the SUB TITLE: latest on October 28, 2004 1) Community Empowerment in the management of 6. The winner of the competition will be made known water supply and environmental sanitation to the public on November 28, 2004 7. Winner Prizes: 2) Community based funding in the management of First Prize : Rp5.000.000 water supply and environmental sanitation Second Prize : Rp3.000.000 3) The institution for the community based water Third Prize : Rp1.500.000 supply and environmental sanitation management For further details please contact: 4) The role of women in the community based The Committee of Writing Competition water supply and environmental sanitation Jl. Cianjur No.4 MentengJakarta Pusat management Telp. 62-21-31904113 2 Percik August 2004
  4. 4. MA I N F E A T U R E SOLID WASTE Is Still A Waste SOURCE: MUJIYANTO thousand tons, Surabaya 1,7 thousand We cannot escape from solid waste. Every day there must tons, and Makassar 0,8 thousand tons of be something we have to throw away. In the office, at solid waste every day (Damanhuri, home, and elsewhere. It is not surprising, therefore, that 2002). Such an amount calls for a con- if we fail to properly manage solid waste it will become siderable amount of effort to handle it. Based on the above data the total area scattered all around us. for final disposal site is estimated at 675 ha in 1995 and will increase up to 1.610 ha F or some people a piece of paper or generation in Indonesia. But based on in 2020. This condition will cause a big a bagful of waste doesnt mean Bappenas estimate as quoted from Buku problem considering that the scarcity of anything. But as the paper and Infrastruktur Indonesia (Indonesian empty space especially in big cities. One domestic waste accumulate with similar Infrastructure Book) in 1995 the waste of the examples is the difficulty faced by material from many people, problem will material production in Indonesia is esti- the government of Jakarta after Bantar arise, especially in urban areas where mated at 22,5 million tons, and in 2020 it Gebang facility is no more available. land space is a scarce resource. The fact will increase to more than twofold into indicates that the potential area for the 53,7 million tons. In big cities of Solid Waste Handling formation of waste material generation Indonesia each person is estimated to Based on BPS data in 2001 only 18,03 keeps on increasing from time to time. cast away 600-830 grams of solid waste percent of the waste was transported, every day. 10,46 percent buried, 3,51 percent turned Waste material generation As an illustration, we could quote the into compost, 43,76 percent burned, and There is no accurate data that tell us data from several big cities. Jakarta pro- the remaining 24,24 percent was dumped accurately the amount of waste material duces 6,2 thousand tons, Bandung 2,1 into rivers, empty lots, etc. It can be seen Percik 3 August 2004
  5. 5. M AIN FEATURE that the amount of waste transport- The community awareness ed was very little, the same is the Waste Handling Penanganan Sampah (%) of cleanliness is relatively suffi- portion for compost production, cient though it is limited within while the portion which was burned ones own property. Their 60 and dumped into an unlikely place homes are free from litters but reached 68 percent. This condition 50 unfortunately the waste materi- 40 persen Percentage indicates the potential source for al is dumped into places like water and air pollution including a 30 drainage, river, and even an medium for disease contamination. 20 empty lot belonging to a neigh- Even in the city proper, the portion 10 bour. NIMBY (not in my back- of waste material burned and un- 0 yard) phenomenon is quite Carried scrupulously dumped in unlikely Diangkut Piled composting Burned Lainnya Ditimbun Made Dibuat Dibakar Other dominant here. This condition place amounts to 50,76 percent. Kompos has developed from the absence The portion of the total waste being of a satisfactory waste material buried is still relatively high at management service. 10,46 percent. Plastic and similar Perkotaan Perdesaan Total Urban Rural Total If we try to compare between material is a resistant compound Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2002 the communitys willingness to and is relatively difficult to decom- contribute for water supply and pose, therefore, burying such kind of The Main Issue garbage handling service, the latter is re- waste is not a good idea. Compost ma- The low coverage of waste material latively lower. This is because the com- king is not widely known among the pop- management service, especially in the munity does not have any idea what waste ulation. cities can adversely affect health condi- material handling looks like. Most of the final disposal sites are tion, may cause various abdominal as well The requirement for land space for designed to apply sanitary landfill tech- as rat infested diseases. Part of the waste final disposal site is increasing. It is nec- nique. But as time progresses most of is disposed of into a river which is potent essary to find an alternative waste materi- them turn back into open dumping (70 cause to flooding during wet season. The al handling method that requires the least percent) and only 30 percent still practic- method and practice for reducing the land area. ing controlled landfill and sanitary land- amount of waste is generally known to us On the other hand, there is presently no fill. Several cities are practicing con- and though in a small scale it is practiced national policy for waste material manage- trolled landfill technique. They are: Ja- particularly by the scavengers. Com- ment that may serve as a legal umbrella for karta, Bandung, Semarang, Surabaya, posting is also done but in a very limited an initiative taken by an interested group or Padang, Malang, Yogyakarta, Pontianak, scale. stakeholders. The existing regulations are Balikpapan, Banjarmasin and Denpasar. In the meantime, the existing final partial and scattered in various regional ad- The reason for less sanitary landfill in disposal facilities are not properly ma- ministrations or government sector agen- Indonesia is because of lack of manage- naged. In order to bring down the size of cies. It is natural therefore, that up to now ment discipline in following the technical pile and the failure to benefit from the there is neither institutionalized system, co- procedure, insufficient O&M budget, dif- methane gas produced from the decom- ordination nor integration in waste material ficulty in obtaining dirt soil for cover, position process part of the waste materi- management. shortage of heavy machinery, low techni- al is burnt down. While in the Kyoto With the beginning of regional auto- cal capacity, and an absence of scavengers Protocol duly ratified by the government, nomy the responsibility for waste materi- organization in the final disposal as an a reducing methane gas emission is pre- al management is relinquished to the integrated part of the operation. requisite. Other issues related to final regional government. But unfortunately, disposal management include unplea- there are many regions do not consider Characteristic of Waste Material sant smell, degradation of water quality waste material issue a priority. This is Solid waste in cities is different from from waste material disposed of directly evidenced from the lean budget set aside the villages. In general, 80 percent of into the river, penetration of leachate into for dealing with waste material problem. city wastes consist of organic material, surface and ground water sources, air the remainder is inorganic. Half of the pollution and spreading of carcinogenic Policy for the future inorganic waste is plastic material. dioxin compound. It is compulsory that in order to find a 4 Percik August 2004
  6. 6. M AIN FEATURE solution to solid waste problem, a sys- 3. Increasing inter-regional coordi- temic and integrated approach must be Waste material issue is not nation in waste material management applied involving all the stakeholders. limited within a single city, Solid waste issue is not limited within The more so with the proclamation that rather it also involves the a single city, rather it also involves the world zero waste must be reached in neighbouring regions. Air, neighbouring regions. Air, water and soil 2025. Several steps that can be taken pollution involves an extensive area water and soil pollution towards that direction are among others: beyond an administrative boundary. involves an extensive area Therefore, selection of a final disposal site 1. Minimizing the production of waste beyond an administrative which up to now is based on administra- through the application of 3R (reduce, boundary. tive region is irrelevant. In the future it reuse and recycle) principle. will become compulsory to develop a It is necessary to introduce this princi- regional solid waste management system ple extensively into the community at this matter is improvement of awareness as a common effort to solve difficulty in large in order to make them willing to and responsibility in solid waste manage- obtaining a land space for solid waste dis- reuse and to recycle their waste. This step ment. The community can assume the posal site. is of course preceded with a community role in, (i) management (reducing its pro- education program about the importance duction); (b) supervision (keeping an eye 4. Development of new technologies of separating domestic waste to make the throughout the management process); (c) The capacity in solid waste related ser- following process easier. The 3R concept user (as individual, group or together vices depend on the available technology. will be more effective if it is supported by with the business sector take benefit from An optimum management can be achieved a legislation, provision of reward and the waste material); (d) operator (operate if it involves a suitable technology. That is punishment as appropriate, to all related and maintain a waste material treatment why, an application of new technology can stakeholders, whether the scavengers, the facility); (e) funding agency (see the dia- be one alternative for improvement of solid ordinary community members, and oth- gram). waste management capacity especially in ers. Further, the conversion of waste to cities. energy is worth a serious attention because there is no 5. Extensive campaign in hy- one is presently taking a seri- SYSTEM AND MECHANISM OF ROLE OF COMMUNITY giene behaviour ous attention in this. If the Solid waste management will MONITORING SYSTEM waste has found its utilization not be effective unless there is a since the very beginning of its Funding agency common awareness that a hygien- Supervision production than the sanitary ic environment is also their basic landfill facility will not need a demand. The improvement of large area any more. Sanitary awareness must be done con- landfill is only used for the Management Community tinuously to all segments of the treatment of residue from an community. Hygiene education Reduce incinerator. Operator Compost program must be inserted in Reuse school curriculum since early on. 2. Increasing the role of Human Resource Finally, increasing the interest the community and the busi- Recycle as operator and Economic Activity off all solid waste related stakehol- maintenance Industry ness sector ders can no longer wait. How so- Sorting Recycle The step in minimizing - Transportation phisticated in the technology, plenty feet Source of solid waste production will Organic Waste of money to send, good human - Biogas plant production not be effective unless there is Inorganic Waste - Incenerator resources capacity, but without - Final Disposal an active participation of the Dangerous Waste Site interest from the stakeholders, community. They are the pro- Together with solid waste will remain waste. ducers and they will suffer the business sector OM/MJ most if waste material is not properly managed. The key to Source: Ministry of Environment Percik 5 August 2004
  7. 7. M AIN FEATURE Facts About Solid Waste FOTO: OSWAR MUNGKASA What is solid waste? Waste is a material rid of or thrown away from mans or natures activity and has no immediate economic value What is the classification of solid waste? Based on its origin solid waste can be classified as, (i) domestic waste con- sisting of household refuse, rubble from a building demolition, sanitation and road litters. In general this kind of waste comes from settlement and commercial areas, (ii) dangerous materials such as refuse from industrial plant and from a hospital, which may contain poisonous substance, such as used battery, shoe po- lish, drug containers, (iii) medical waste. Based on its shape it can be classi- fied as, (i) dry inorganic waste such as metal, can, bottle which will not decay naturally, (ii) wet inorganic waste such as Type of waste material Time to decompose durable material instead of one time only. from kitchen, restaurant wastes, food Organic waste (plant, fruit 1-2 weeks The advantage of 4R principle is crumbs which will decay naturally. (iii) etc.) reducing greenhouse effect, less air and Paper 10-30 days dangerous waste material, such as used Cotton dress 2-5 months water pollution, energy saving, conserva- battery, used syringe. Wood 10-15 years tion of resources, less land space for final Based on degradability solid waste Woolen dress 1 year disposal, generating employment, and Aluminium, can, and similar 100-500 years can be classified as, (i) biodegradable, material promoting green technology. solid waste that will decompose naturally Plastic bag 1 million years? Solid waste type depends on com- such as organic wastes including kitchen Glassware Not known munitys cultural habit. In modern so- waste, fruit, flower, leaf and paper, (ii) must be made as near as possible to its ciety especially in big cities plastic non-biodegradable consisting of recy- origin. In connection with solid waste material is widely used. As an illustra- cleable wastes such as plastic, paper, reduction we are acquainted with 3R prin- tion, the majority of domestic waste is glassware; poisonous waste like medicine, ciple (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) which later plastic bag brought home from the paint, battery, shoe polish, medical waste became 4R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, store, or styrofoam ex food container. such as syringe. Refuse). The basic difference between 3R Plastic waste is a great threat to our and 4R principle is the additional of environment because it takes about one What is the time needed for solid Refuse principle (sometimes also called million years before it fully decompos- waste to decompose? Replace) which focuses on using a more es (at that time world may have ended The time needed for solid waste to in a doomsday). This condition makes decompose depends on the type of the us aware of the importance of applica- 4R (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle, Reduce) material. In general, organic waste tion of 4R principle in order to mini- decomposes immediately, while other 1. Refuse. Use a more durable material mize solid waste production. Therefore material such as plastic is estimated to instead of one time only the movement for reducing solid waste decompose in one million years. 2. Reduce. Produce less waste production must start from its place of 3. Reuse. Use material that can be used origin, i.e. the household. Therefore What step can be taken to minimize more than once. the application of this principle domestic solid waste production? 4. Recycle. Use a material than can be depends to a large extent on the com- Solid waste production can be mini- recycled later on. munity awareness. mized. The principle is the reduction 6 Percik August 2004
  8. 8. M AIN FEATURE FOTO: MUJIYANTO The time needed for waste material to decompose depends on the type of the material. In general, organic waste decomposes immediate- ly, while other material such as plastic is esti- mated to decompose in one million years thick dirt layer. Later the site will be made into a parking lot. How can solid waste be treated? taken. (iii) Sanitary Landfills. Unlike an ordi- There are at least 5 widely known (ii) Landfills. This is a relative better nary Landfill a sanitary landfill uses water- methods in solid waste treatment: disposal site as compared to open dump. proff material to prevent leachate pollute (i) Open dumps. Solid waste is dis- After dumping the solid waste is covered the surrounding. The operational cost for a posed of in an open space and let it to rot with dirt soil and compacted. After all the sanitary landfill is considerably higher. naturally without any further action space is used the site is covered with a (iv) Incinerator. Solid waste is put into a separator to pick out all the recycla- ble material. What is not recyclable is incinerated. Incineration is usually the FACTS ABOUT SOLID WASTE IN THE U.S. last alternative to pick. Solid waste han- In 2001 waste production amounted to 209 million tones or approx. 4,4 dling is more inclined to medically pounds per capita per day. Increased twofold from the amount of 1960. favourable handling technique. About 30% is recycled, 15% burned, and 56% transported to disposal site. (v) Composting. A biological process In 1990 recycling and composting reduced 64 million tons of solid waste that enables microorganisms decompose that should have been transported to disposal site. At present 30% of waste organic wastes into farm manure. material is recycled. This percentage increases twice compared to the condition 15 years ago. Recycling of used batteries reached 94%, paper 42%, plastic bottles 40%, What is the responsibility of the beverage and beer can 55%. producers? The number of final waste disposal sites reduces from 8.000 in 1998 to If the household is given a role to 1.858 in 2001 with relatively the same capacity. reduce solid waste production through 4R principle, then the producers must FACTS in OTHER COUNTRIES also be imposed with a clear responsibili- ty. The producers could help the house- United States is an industrialized nation with the biggest waste material hold in applying 4R principle. One of producer 4,4 pounds of waste per capita per day, followed by Canada 3,75 them is through EPR (Extended Producer pounds, and the Netherlands 3 pounds. Germany and Sweden are two industri- Responsibility) program which repre- alized nations with the least waste material production. sents an effort to promote the producer to United State is an industrialized nation with the highest recycling propor- reuse the product and packaging it pro- tion at 24%, followed by Switzerland 23% and Japan 20%. duces. An incentive program to produc- ers is a must. OM Percik 7 August 2004
  9. 9. M AIN FEATURE Reducing Methane Gas Emission SOURCE: FANI WEDAHUDITAMA F inal disposal site is the largest contributor in methane gas emis- sion in the US, and probably also in Indonesia. Whereas a disposal site is actually one of energy source potentials. LFG (landfill gas) is produced when solid waste is undergoing decomposition. This gas comprises 50% methane (CH4), the main component of natural gas, and the rest is carbon dioxide (CO2). As an illus- tration, in December 2003, there are 360 LFG based power generating projects in the US and another 600 potential final disposal sites for similar establishment. Some of the advantageous from using LFG based energy are, (i) reduce unplea- sant smell, (ii) minimize methane gas tricity is equivalent to planting 60.000 and cost saving. emission and negative effect to global cli- acres of forest a year or reducing CO2 The LFG utilization program in US mate. It is estimated an LFG project can emission of 45.000 cars a year. This has significantly reduce methane emis- reduce up to 60-90% of methane gas pro- amount of energy can replace the use of sion at an amount of 14 metric million duced in the disposal site, depending on coal for 1.000 locomotives or the use of tons carbon equivalent (MMTCE), a be- the technology applied. Methane gas is 500 barrels of fuel oil, (iii) reduce air pol- nefit in reducing green house gases from processed to produce water and CO2 lution through burning less non-renew- planting 18 million acres of forest or when the gas is converted into electricity. able fuel, such as coal, natural gas and oil, reducing annual emission of 13 millions To produce approximately 4 MW of elec- (iv) creating new employment, income of cars. While the other 600 waste dis- posal sites with potentials for generating Solid Waste and Climatic Change electricity from methane gas, based on calculation, can generate power for the W e may not quite aware that solid What is the waste material man- consumption of 1 million homes. waste can influence the climate agement strategy for reducing There are several processing alterna- through emission of green house gases in emission of green house gases? tives for converting methane gas into several ways. energy, (i) electric power generator, (ii) Minimizing the production of organic direct use in lieu of the ordinary fuel like What is the linkage between solid waste for processing in the final disposal natural gas, coal and petroleum, (iii) waste to climatic changes? site. As the waste decomposes methane cogeneration, a combination of heat and First. Solid waste decomposition at gas is released. power (Combined Heat and Power/CHP) the final disposal site produces methane Reducing incinerating of solid was- to generate electricity and heat. gas which is 21 times stronger than CO2 te . This will reduce the production of Aside from the benefit of converting in producing green house effect. CO2. LFG into power it should also be borne in Second. An incinerator releases CO2, Recyclable waste usually need less mind that the process is also producing the same type of gas produced by the energy for the processing, thus emission an emission of NOx gas which is detri- trucks transporting the waste. could be kept to a minimum. mental to ozone layer and causing foggy smoke to the surrounding. OM 8 Percik August 2004
  10. 10. M AIN REPORT Learn About Solid Waste from the Chinese SOURCE: ENDANG SETYANINGRUM T he Olympic contest in Athens was However, Beijing which produces 9.000 over, the Bamboo Curtain country tons of waste material per day (in com- will in turn host the meeting in parison to 6.000 tons in Jakarta) has an Beijing in 2008. In anticipation to the excellent service, in terms of its coverage forthcoming event the Chinese people are (90%) as well as its quality of service. busying themselves from straightening Although no separation is made at its up the problems of infrastructures till source origin, but the transfer stations making the city presentable and clean. are equipped with such a facility. In this The scene is quite obvious in Beijing, the way the waste transported to final dispos- capital city. Although this is seemingly al is only the residual. Then the organic still a long way off, the city is tidying itself waste is processed into compost, in a city up and infrastructure development works scale facility with the present capacity at are rolling steadily. It is of course under- 200-400 tons/day. standable, because they dont want to The collecting and transportation are find out that the city with 16 million peo- almost the same with our condition here, ple disappoint the athletes, officials and including the tricycle cart and compactor supporters from all over the world while truck. But the transportation quality and they stay there as their guests. efficiency is excellent because one trans- For the Olympic event the Chinese fer station is built at 8 km spacing. The government has issued a special policy final disposal site applying sanitary land- for the improvement of city environment fill method is also in a sufficiently good including its solid waste management quality. The table below presents the system. The city government has formu- reader the total, area and capacity of lated a local policy for waste material landfills in Beijing. management containing, (i) increase the level of coverage to 98% in 2007; (ii) Table 1 Landfills in Beijing recycle and composting 30% of total solid No Location Area (Ha) Capacity waste; (iii) solid waste separation at the (tons/day) source up to 50% in 2007; (iv) in 2007 landfill management meets standard 1. Bishinshu landfill 33,7 1000 environmental requirement; and (v) con- 2. Liutilun landfill 46,5 1500 tinuing development of leachate process- produce the standard effluent set for ing technology in order to meet the 3. Asuwei landfill 60 2000 Beijing. The following table indicates the required effluent standard. 4. Anding landfill 21,6 700 process and effluent quality from several landfills in Beijing vs. the effluent stan- Solid Waste Management The components of a landfill com- dards for China and Beijing. Condition prise a waterproof base, leachate collec- Technical Aspect tor network, leachate pond, oxidation Table 2: Leachate processing result Solid waste management in Beijing is ditch, a drainage ditch around the land- not too far different than it is in In- fill, gas collector (presently is to be Tipe Parameter Effluent quality parameter donesia. The composition and characte- burnt), control road, and buffer zone, Landfills Landfills Type of Leachate Proses Pengolahan kualitas efluent leachate Processing Leachate COD COD BOD BOD Amonia Amonia ristic of solid waste in both places is al- weighing scale, heavy machinery, water Beishinshu Diangkut ke sewerage Transported to sewerage - - - most similar. The handling process from tank, dirt cover, office, sport facility, a treatment plant treatment plant the initial source up to the final disposal stock of dirt for cover. Liulitun Oxidition Ditch Oxidation ditch 324 22,9 17 Asuwei Oxidation Ditch Oxidation ditch 787 126 24 is also the same, including the fact that no Though the facility is relatively suffi- Pilot Test RO Filtrasi dengan reverse osmosis 3 - 17 - 1,2 – 15 Reverse osmosis filter separation is done in the source. cient, the leachate processing does not Membrane 9 Percik August 2004
  11. 11. M AIN REPORT SOURCE: ENDANG SETYANINGRUM Table 3: Effluent standards Management China and Beijing aspect The city government of Beijing is highly com- COD < 300 < 60 mitted to improving BOD < 150 < 20 the landfill quality Amonia < 25 < 25 (except for the efflu- ent, at present it is in a Final dirt cover is done using clay soil, satisfactory condi- geo textile, bentonite, and clay/top soil. tion). The land is then planted with vegetation The existence of seri- and is kept as an open space. ousness and profes- sional attitude of the Management aspect field workers is a valu- Waste management in Beijing is oper- able asset to the suc- ated by "Solid Waste Agency" (BSW-AD). cess of Beijing clean This institution gets its funding (invest- program. In Indonesia ment as well as O&M) from the city gov- 50% level. For Indonesian case a seri- generally, the workers with a cleaning ernment budget and from the community ous application of 3R principle must job feel themselves as "men from odd contribution. The amount of tariff start immediately. place". depends on the size of family. A family of The transportation process is very effi- The contribution collected from com- more than 3 members is charged at an cient, because transfer station is loca- munity is based on incentive to smaller amount of RMB3 per person a month ted within the radius of 8 km. In Indo- families; in Indonesia incentives can be (equivalent to Rp3.000). For a family of nesia it is built at a more than 25 km applied based on a lesser amount of three or less RMB2 per person per month. spacing. waste. Community participation in Beijing is A high capacity (200-400 tons/day) Enforcement of regulation against lit- highly commendable, but the role of pri- composting installation is con- tering has been quite effective; in vate sector in management is lacking. sidered advantageous (good com- Indonesia such a deed is conducted post quality and is used by the far- indifferently and bears no marked con- Lessons learned mers). In Indonesian application sequence, one is more afraid of run- Technical aspect big scale composting can be done ning against traffic light, or "three in A coverage increase to almost 100% in without the necessity for application one regulation, or failure to put on 2007 indicates the seriousness of go- of the principle of economic benefit safety belt than throwing litters out of vernment commitment. This condition system. the window. is needed for a metropolitan city like Sanitary landfill applied in the final The community is quite conscious in Jakarta. disposal is appropriate considering the clean environment. In Indonesia this Although Beijing hasnt been applied availability of support components and kind of consciousness must be built; it the 3R principle, but the separation operational reliability. For Indonesian might be necessary to include it in process conducted at the transfer sta- application it is deemed necessary to school curriculum since early age. tion has contributed a satisfactory build a strong will and hard work in The above lessons can be adopted by result. Big/metropolitan cities in improving landfill quality. the Indonesian policy makers. Why not Indonesia can adopt the practice by The application of a stricter effluent take a lesson from China, the Bamboo putting up transfer stations equipped standard for Beijing has pushed the Curtain nation whose city cleanliness is with separation facility. development of leachate processing comparable to that of European and Another interesting thing is that for the technology such as reverse osmosis Japanese cities? purpose of 2008 Olympic Games in (RO), all for the sake of safeguarding Endang Setyaningrum, Directorate of 2007 solid waste separation right at the environment particularly water Metropolitan, Ministry of Settlement and Regional the initial source is targeted to reach resources. Infrastucture, Member of WSS Working Group 10 Percik August 2004
  12. 12. M AIN REPORT Governance Development Program To Increase the Local Government Concern to Environment I n the absence of Adipura award, the GOAL AND AIM OF GOVERNANCE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM attention to cleanliness is fading out. The local governments that used to be so eager to compete among Governance each other for a clean and beautiful city Regional Effective Development government government have almost gone, especially after 1998. Program Good Towns and cities that used to keep a rela- Environmental tively high mark in cleanliness, have sud- House of Governance denly gone down in evaluation conducted Civil Society Representative Empowered Program Public in 2003. This happens in almost all big Society cities -metropolitan, big, medium and Stakeholders small- of Indonesia, as can be seen in Table 1. has become and how urgent is the Capacity Development, M. Gempur demand to redeem it, so that they could Adnan, describes the essence of Good make an action plan for environmental Environmental Governance Program is sustainability. However, the precondi- strengthening coordination system to tion for an effective and sustainable envi- enable the government to get the most ronmental management is the establish- accurate response so that solution to the ment of good governance. It is from there most urgent issues could be taken. The that a new paradigm was born, i.e. good system development includes the mecha- environmental governance. nism to guarantee that all parties This paradigm becomes the under- involved could voice out their ideas in a lying principle for a Governance Develop- democratic manner, guarantee of a fair Metropolitan City Big City Medium City Small City ment Program of the Ministry of Envi- and transparent procedure in planning ronment designed for the purpose of to and implementation, and the application This fact tells us that in many places strengthening the capacity of the local of standard and criteria to judge a fair of this country the environmental issues government to practice good governance and transparent implementation. Some tend to increase. Some happens natural- principle in environmental sector and at of the elements in the Governance ly, but many are caused by human hands the same time also improve the perfor- Development Program that are influen- in line with the increasing number of mance of government administration. tial in the achievement of Good Environ- population and a greater demand for na- This program is supported with Program mental Governance are as the following: tural resources and living space. Thats Warga Madani (Civil Society Program) 1. Motivation of the Head of the Regional why, there is a need for capacity improve- which is directed towards community Administration; ment in environmental management. empowerment. The Governance Deve- 2. Competence and commitment of chief The old centralized model is no more lopment Program started implementa- of institution; applicable, it should be replaced with a tion in 2002. It was launched in Bali on 5 3. Human resources capacity; decentralized model. Each region may June to coincide with commemoration of 4. Existence of a support policy; utilize all its potential and mobilize all the Environment Day. 5. Establishment of accountability sys- segments of its community and be aware The Deputy Minister of Environment tem; of how serious the environmental hazard for Regional Environmental Management 6. Availability of fund. 11 Percik August 2004
  13. 13. M AIN REPORT During 2002-2003 the activity was lected are fed into the baseline data bank Charter) is given to towns/cities whose focused on the monitoring and evaluation and are updated on yearly basis. Capacity performance is nearing the predeter- of environmental issues of the cities and development policy and program is for- mined criteria. Last June there were 15 urban areas, covering the aspects of solid mulated based on the existing data. towns received Anugerah Adipura and 15 waste management, management of ve- In the second implementation year others won the Piagam Adipura. The getative covered open space, manage- (Jun 2003 - May 2004) the number of award was made by the President in a ce- ment of public facility, and water pollu- participating towns/cities increases to remony held at the presidential palace. tion control. This year 59 cities join the 123. Out of this number 31 are qualified The program does not end here. This program. Beside a direct field observa- for nomination as the cleanest will continue. Of course with some tion each region is given a set of question- towns/cities for winning Adipura award. adjustments in terms of monitoring and naires to fill in. Evaluation is made on This award consists of Anugerah Adipura evaluation and in its institutionalization managerial, learning capability, institu- (Adipura Award) for towns/cities whose aspects. The ultimate goal remains, tion, physical output, and innovation performance exceeds predetermined cri- establishment of good environmental aspects. The information and data col- teria, and Piagam Adipura (Adipura governance. (MJ) M. Gempur Adnan, Deputy Minister of Environment for Regional Environmental Management Capacity Development "The key, Local Government Commitment" E veryone knows what to do with the area messy. We will encourage eve- limit up to these three things first solid waste. Everyone also ryone to make litter free and clean city because the condition in the regions is knows the shortcomings con- an issue. If this issue is not brought to that messy. If we tackle all at once, nected to it, such as technical, financial, the surface the local government will nothing will happen. This program is equipment, and human resources. But remain indifferent. Currently we are in essence quite similar to the Adipura. why does the problem persist? Neither doing our best to raise this solid waste The mechanism is what makes it diffe- in those regions to where once an assis- issue up to the decision making level, rent. In the good governance program tance has been given. Then what is the regional and central. In this way we there is the capacity building compo- keyword to this problem? We have hope regional and central commitment nent, which is absent in Adipura. In come to a conclusion that all this will develop and thicken. Imagine if the Adipura once a year, good governance depends on the commitment of the president voices out, the governor three times a year. Everything is trans- regional government. Do they, the speaks louder, then we can expect that parent. Each city knows what progress regional government and its communi- something will get done. This pro- it has made each time it is monitored ty, have any commitment to solve the gram will be voluntary in nature. It and evaluated. Other cities also have problem of waste material? If they do, consists of two components, one is to the opportunity to know. The commu- money is no problem. The area will be encourage clean and green city. The free from litters if the regional govern- second is capacity building. We encour- nity knows from the mass media ment is committed. Otherwise, whate- age the regions to improve their capaci- because we always try to expose it. We ver assistance given wont do any ty in environmental management espe- cannot expect, though, that the cities good.There is always problem with cially one related to city. We organize winning the competition is indeed money. It should be allocated to the workshops, training, comparative stud- clean. All is still dirty. But if we wait, right direction. Through this program, ies, etc. in relation to city management. when will they reach a preferred level of we intend to improvement the regional The focus is laid on solid waste, cleanliness? This means an endless governments commitment. To instill improvement in public facility, and veg- wait. We hope in 5 years there will be the feeling of disgraced once one finds etative covered open space. We will 50 clean cities in Indonesia. (MJ) 12 Percik August 2004
  14. 14. I NTERVIEW Budiman Arief, Secretary General, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure "Bad Solid Waste Management, Poor Health Condition" SOURCE: MUJIYANTOS o l i d w aste is not an easy problem to solve. As evidence, no definite solution has yet been found forsolid waste problem in Indonesia. Thereare many factors involved each intermin-gling with the others. That is why, solidwaste management is a system so that itsimplementation calls for a synergic effortfrom all the stakeholders. That is the essence of discussionbetween Percik and Mr. Budiman Arief,Secretary General, Ministry of Settlementand Regional Infrastructure in his office.The following are the excerpts of the con-versation: Speaking of the present solidwaste management in Indonesia,how does it look like? In general, solid waste management,especially of the cities, is insufficient. All this makes solid waste management aspect is inter-related with the others. IfThough it was sufficiently good when left behind. The attention by the kabu- we want success, all the aspects must bethere was the Adipura program between paten/city government is also declining. properly considered. First is institution-1986-1996, because it was motivated with There is probably interrelated factor al. The second, financial. The third, tech-the reward for the cities which could influencing. The absence of reward re- nical. The fourth legal; and the fifth ismaintain cleanliness. After that the con- duces the attention. Solid waste handling community participation.dition is declining. Only recently there is is actually one of the basic service to the Many would think that solid waste isanother program, good environmental public. Solid waste is closely related to purely technical, which is utterly mislead-governance which started in 2002. But health. A city without a good solid waste ing. All the aspects must mutually sup-the echo is not as extensive as the management one may be sure that the portive. Take for instance, the institu-Adipura because the number of partici- level of health condition is poor because tional aspect. If in a city the responsiblepants is limited. garbage piles are the homes of disease institution is given a very low status, the vector. institution will have a real hard time. A Why was the condition declin- section or sub-section chief will have dif-ing? Was it because of the absence What about financial factor? ficulty to see a Mayor because he is tooof reward or some other factor? If we look into solid waste mana- low an employee. Therefore there must There was no reward indeed. gement in general, and this we have be an agreement, that for a big city theSecondly there was that crisis. Solid informed to all kabupaten/kota govern- institution responsible for solid wastewaste handling is no priority any more. ments throughout the country, that there management must be a Dinas level. In aThe government attention is shifted to are 5 dominant aspects governing the medium city a sub-dinas, and not lower.poverty and all other related problems. solid waste management. Each of the Financially there must be sufficient 13 Percik August 2004
  15. 15. I NTERVIEW fund. APBD for solid waste must not be How many regional govern- What is your opinion regarding too small. It will be difficult. In reality, if ments have been granted the stimu- the community awareness of solid it is managed properly, solid waste can lant? waste? generate income, though not 100 percent Since 2001 there have been many. We I think the community has not fully recovery. At least 70 percent of the have helped the newly established cities, understood the importance of solid waste expenses can be recovered from the con- for example as initial equipment we gave management. For villagers solid waste tribution. Thus the subsidy requirement them a truck. If later it turns out effective may have no significance because they is only 30 percent. If the financial aspect we add with another one. have enough empty space, but for towns- is not put into order and the contribution people it is just the opposite. The latter is not properly collected, the effort will What plan does the government cannot manage their wastes on an indi- only be wasting money. have for the future? vidual basis, rather they have to do it col- From the legal aspect, the regulation I think we have to continue with what lectively. But the problem is, most of the must be made effective. The regional go- we have started. Improvement must be townspeople come from the village. They vernment regulation must be specific and made to final disposal ground. The re- bring the villagers habit with them. None clear. If no action is taken against some gional government wants to apply sanita- of the services is given for free. littering, what will happen next. Waste is ry landfill, but the fact is merely open produced by mans activity, therefore law dumping. This is what causes many What is the linkage between the must be upheld. protests. Open dumping should have government step in solid waste From the technical aspect one cannot been left out entirely. We might not be handling with MDGs? do as one wishes. There is calculation to able to apply a sanitary landfill technique I think one of the objectives of the be made. What system to be applied, the in full, but we are heading there. We will MDGs is improvement of sanitation servi- time for transport, what will be done at provide assistance to a regional govern- ce. Presently we are preparing a National the disposal site. Then from the commu- ment who still has difficulty in handling a Action Plan. We have to translate MDGs nity participation, this is one of the most final disposal ground. into Indonesian condition. The MDGs important thing. If the community does objectives could be considered quantita- not support, the costs will become What should be done with the tive as it is also qualitative. All the wastes extremely high. Therefore community community? may be transported entirely, but if the participation must be built and increased. All the regional governments must transport is once a week or once in two All five aspects are inter-related. take action to educate the community weeks, qualitatively it is poor. Because about solid waste management. As an solid waste must be transported once in Does it mean there is no one example, there is a family who has paid a three days at the longest, otherwise it will single dominant factor? garbage collector but he is still required to begin to decompose. Thus the level of That is right. But the first thing is the pay a duty to the Dinas Kebersihan. This service may be considered in quantitative availability of fund. Otherwise what can will lead the community into confusion. as well as in qualitative manner. we do? But still, money is no guarantee. They should be given information that from the technical point of view solid Can MDGs sanitation target par- What has the government done waste management consists of waste col- ticularly with respect to solid waste in the solid waste management? lecting from individual homes, than be achieved in 2015? Depkimpraswil (ministry of public transport to disposal ground and finally If the standard is sanitary landfill like work) is responsible for preparing guide- the processing. the developed countries, I doubt that we lines. We have produced many guidelines The payment to RT/RW is only for could make it. But we can translate it in how to handle solid waste in the right man- collecting which represents 30 percent of terms of qualitative result. What is im- ner. That is not all, though. We also prepare the whole technical process. Sometimes, portant is that we make improvement a stimulant program. We make it available however, what the RT/RW collects too from the previous condition. That is why to the really interested regional government. much that nothing is left for the Dinas it is necessary to have a common agree- If not interested, we wouldnt give it because Kebersihan. Therefore, the community ment among the related government it would mean waste of money. Look at their must be educated so that they fully under- departments regarding our National effort and see in what way we could help. stand what is what in solid waste mana- Action Plan and how the targets would be This also is a kind of reward. gement. achieved. 14 Percik August 2004
  16. 16. I NTERVIEW How do you look at the linkage handling would not be big as it for road handling should be done with insti- between regional autonomy and building or drinking water installation. If tutional approach? solid waste? the regional governments have the inte- What I mean is this. An institution is Actually, it has always been the rest solid waste handling could be done in something with a clear and definite responsi- responsibility of the kabupaten/kota go- the right manner. bility. There must be an institution, but the vernments. Pursuant to Law No. 22, community must be involved in a clear sys- Government Regulation No. 25, earlier What is the central government tem. For instance RT/RW or a community there was a government regulation No. 18 budget for solid waste handling? group is responsible in accumulation. The year 1953 which stipulates that solid As I said earlier, the government only institution will take care the transport from waste management is the responsibility of provides a stimulant. This Department the transfer stations to the final disposal the kabupaten/kota government. There- provides basic infrastructures such as ground. Therefore the responsible institu- fore, the responsibility rests with the drinking water, waste water, solid waste, tion must be clearly defined with a sufficient regional government. drainage, and roads. We do not only pro- level of power. vide them with a guideline but also a stim- Does it mean that the change ulant. This is intended to build attention What is your expectation with towards regional autonomy a few from within the regions our cities in the future? years ago has no effect to the SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA responsibility in solid waste mana- gement? I should say so. However we now expect the regions would improve their performance in handling their wastes. What was before not very clear, it now becomes more obvious. What about inter-regional solid waste handling that causes friction such as the cases in Bantar Gebang and Bojong? Problem surely arises in a metropolitan city. In smaller and medium sized cities they can find solution because space is still rela- tively easier to find. In a big city like Jakarta, the management becomes more complex. That is why the sanitary landfill must be built Does it mean the budget is suffi- Cleanliness and orderly condition together with the other regions. Incinerator cient? must be established. Beauty is perhaps I think is too expensive both in terms of Not enough. Still too small. And the re- something of a luxury. investment as well as operational costs. We quired infrastructure is still insufficient. Cleanliness is the base point. If you have to be careful in evaluating the technical want to put something into order, cleanli- aspect. If our per capita income has reached Is there any country with compa- ness must go first. Bupati and the Mayor USD5.000 we may then think about an rable condition that we can learn a must give a bigger attention in this case. incinerator. lesson from? If there is a reward, I think it would be I think there is a need for a compara- even better. What is your opinion about the tive study to other countries with a com- regional attention with respect to parable condition. It is not a good idea to What does the cooperation look like? solid waste? go to developed countries like Australia or Solid waste is a NIMBY (not in my back- Insufficient, I have to say. Why did we Japan. Too far. We go to places nearer to yard) phenomenon. Those who are affected design Adipura? Because we thought us, such as a study to Kuching in must have a fair compensation. And the that solid waste handling would be done Malaysia. We have done it already. approach to the community is made in the well if there is a sufficient attention. I proper manner. reckon that an investment for solid waste From what you said, solid waste (mujiyanto) 15 Percik August 2004
  17. 17. A RTICLE Solid Waste as a Source of Energy: A Challenge to the World of Solid Waste Management In Indonesia S everal technologies for elimination fossil fuel can be brought to a minimum, Sandhi Eko Bramono *) of solid waste have been tried for and reducing the exploitation rate of fos- application in Indonesia. The sil fuel from the earth. most commonly used technology is sani- waste can be processed into a new pro- tary landfill which is practiced in several duct with a higher market value and is The available technology big cities. A sanitary landfill is essential- needed by the community. Why? Becau- Composting is basically an energy ly a biological reactor in which solid waste se Indonesia is beginning to experience conversion process. But some of the undergoes anaerobic decomposition. One an energy crisis. Fuel oil is getting existing energy is released and the mate- of the products from the anaerobic scarcer, oil reserve is limited, and the rial produced contains a lower caloric degradation is methane (CH4) gas which price of crude oil in the world market is value. This is because the anaerobic com- contains a relatively high caloric value. increasing. There must be a renewable posting process produces a new solid and This could become a significant source of source of energy with less negative simpler material and releases carbon energy. impact to the environment. This is where dioxide (CO2) gas which is not readily energy from solid waste can take an alter- used as an energy source. There are seve- Compost is not sufficiently utilized native place, and at the same time as a ral other processes for converting energy Compost produced from city waste means for elimination of solid waste. In from solid waste into new substance. The cannot find a good market in Indonesia. so doing it is hoped that the burning of processes are among others: Farmers, estate crop growers, and gar- SOURCE: FANY WEDAHUDITAMA deners are not interested in using com- post. This is perhaps because compost does not provide additional nutrition to plant and soil, nor does it provide a direct increase to plant produce. Besides, com- post is not intended to take the role of chemical fertilizers. Compost is more useful for improvement of soil texture and increase water holding capacity of the soil so that water intake by plant roots increases. On the other side, the government does not suffi- ciently promote the community to use com- post. In a number of compost production installations the production is below the optimum rate, to finally stop production for lack of sustaining customers. Source of energy It is deemed necessary to embark on a new concept for handling the problem of city solid waste. As an alternative, solid 16 Percik August 2004

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