Information Media for Water Supply and                                                    From the Editor                 ...
D A R I R E DA K S I                                                                                                      ...
Y O U R VO I C E                                                                                                          ...
M A I N F E AT U R E                    Gender Issue                in Water Supply and Sanitation                        ...
M A I N F E AT U R E                                                                           FOTO:DOK/CWSH    other time...
M A I N F E AT U R E      activities, responding to the needs                                                             ...
M A I N F E AT U R Eprogram in all aspects. In short, gender    development; (iv) improvement the             ple is in Le...
M A I N F E AT U R E   Gender Implementation          in WSS Project in Indonesia                                         ...
M A I N F E AT U R Eto be suitable for both men and women.                                                     quota for w...
I N T E RV I E W                                   Dr. Surjadi Soeparman, MPH        (Deputy for Gender Mainstreaming Stat...
I N T E RV I E W    This is unfair, then                      How far is the Women Empo-               operational level. ...
R E G U L AT I O N Special Allocation Fund for Water Supply  and Sanitation Development Pursuant    to Finance Ministerial...
R E G U L AT I O Nnotice the growing tendency of budget                                                      beneficiary i...
INSIGHT            WHAT MAKES CLTS WORK?        (A Review from the Social Science Perspectives)I     am of the conviction ...
INSIGHT make the objective be achieved faster       fish as it drops into water, and so on.    paten Semarang, the achieve...
INSIGHThis achievement, the community               The lessons learned from the          contemporary action research mod...
INSIGHTthey are asked to give their commit-       naturalist school who analyse social        value that serve as glue and...
INSIGHT7. are called the carrot and stick princi-      with other things or symptoms. In                 ened if it is fol...
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
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Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine

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Published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition in August 2003

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Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and From the Editor 1 Environmental Sanitation Your Voice 2 Published by:Working Group for Water Supply and Sanitation Main Feature Gender Issue in Water Supply and Sanitation Provision 3 Advisor: Director General for Urban and Gender Implementation in WSS Development Projects in Indonesia 7 Rural Development, Department of Public Works Interview Board of Trustee: Deputy of Gender Mainstreaming State Ministry of Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Women Empowerment 9National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Regulation Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Special Fund Allocation for Water Supply and Sanitation System 11 Director of Water Supply Development, Insight Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate What Makes CLTS Work? 13 Technology, Director General on Village and Regardless of Funding Source, What Counts is the Plan 18 Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Waste is a Friend Instead of an Enemy 20 Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Balanced Scorecard Method 22 Department of Home Affairs Inspiration Chief Editor: Tatung-Azizahs Willingness to Manage the Communitys Water Supply System 25 Oswar Mungkasa Our Guest Board of Editor: Ananda: Deeply Concerns with Water Scarcity 26 Indar Parawansa, Bambang Purwanto Innovation Editor: Bioporous Infiltration Pit 28 Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Raymond Marpaung, Bowo Leksono Opinion Post Project Facilitation, Anyone Interested? 30 Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Around Plan Indonesia Togo-togo Needs New Pioneer 31 Production: Machrudin Around ISSDP Sanitation Workshop in Blitar Produces a Declaration 32 Distribution: Agus Syuhada Around WASPOLA 34 Address: Around WSS 39 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Program 42 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id Water for Environmental Health and Human Being 45 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com Abstracts 47 redaksi@ampl.or.id oswar@bappenas.go.id IATPI Clinic 48 Unsolicited article or opinion items Book Info 49 are welcome. Please send to our address Website Info 50 or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. CD Info 51 WSS Bibliography 52 This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website at www.apml.or.id Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website: http://www.ampl.or.id Percik Magazine in April 2007 is published on partnership activity between WSS Working Group and Plan Indonesia
  2. 2. D A R I R E DA K S I SOURCE:KRUHA/DOCW ithout our being aware we are now paving our way in the fifth month of 2007.We havent seen each since the begin-ning of the year. Now we are backaddressing you, Perciks readers, asalways with a spirit of "water andenvironment care and affection". Many things we have to straightenout. Column adjustment, data collec-tion, up to internal coordination. Inthis 17th edition, we again convey toyou water supply and environmentalsanitation related information.Within the last four months, manyevents and activities have taken place,all related to water supply and sanita-tion. The events and activities arewrapped up to be presented to you,our dear readers. Last March the 22nd was the com-memoration of the World Water Day.Its already 10 years since the UN Banner posted by KRUHA (Peoples Coalitian for Rights to Water)General Assembly recommended for the World Water Day commemorationWorld Water Day commemoration (the banner reads: Clean water is still a luxury for 100 million Indonesians)every March the 22nd beginning from1993. It is not without reason that all villages as well in the cities, access to the projects such as ProAir, Sanimas,nations of the world remember that water is still the main issue, especially WSLIC-2, and Prokes have proportio-day. Isnt it that water remains a com- for the poor. And the ones suffering nately provided the opportunity toplicated problem encumbering many the most are the women. women to play a role. To make the pictu-nations of the world, especially the It is already time for women to re complete we made an exclusive inter-poor? And it is undeniable that water take an active role in determining the view with Dr. Surjadi Soeparman, MPH,is human beings basic need. policy related to water supply and Deputy for Gender Mainstreaming, State Therefore, in this edition, we dis- sanitiation provision. Not only that, Ministry for Women Empowerment.cuss topics related to World Water everyone must realize the importance One column that is planned beDay. On the history and several acti- of women involvement. continue is "Our Guest". This willvities undertaken by the Indonesian Speaking of women, just as a bring forth celebrity or public figurecommunities for its commemoration. reminder, on April the 21st once there who is well connected and competentIncluding the government, private was born a woman pioneer and edu- in water supply and sanitation. Wesector, university students, and the cator, Raden Ajeng Kartini. It seems must learn from his/her experience.common people. The enthusiasm re- that in this time, women pioneers and There are still many more dis-flects everyones wish to be liberated educators are in great demand to sal- cussions and information in thisfrom water scarcity. vage the families from water scarcity. WSS-WG published magazine. Yet The theme of this years World Our main feature this time is con- different from the earlier edition,Water Day is "Coping with Water centrated on gender. Historial back- Percik Junior is now published sepa-Scarcity". Quite suitable, because ground, definition and gender main- rately for distribution direcly tofrom year after year water scarcity is streaming, will hopefully shed a light schools. Your comments are mostbecoming more and more significant. to all of us. To place gender issue on welcome. Finally, we wish you enjoy In many areas of Indonesia, in the the table, we try to unearth how far reading. Percik April 2007 1
  3. 3. Y O U R VO I C E CREATED BY: RUDI KOZDisaster Emergency Opinion C A R I C AT U R E In considering the disaster that hitJakarta last February 2007 we wish topropose the following preventive mea-sures: ItsBackground NATURES a. The expansion of settlement areas fault…. is difficult to prevent especially for an attractive city such as Jakarta and its urban/suburban areas like Depok and Bogor. b. Relocation of citizens living on riverbanks is equally difficult for various different reasons and con- siderations. c. Regulation on infiltration pit has been declared effective, but in rea- lity the citizens do build ones but at an insufficient quality, lack of pro- per maintainance, and is oriented to conservation of shallow ground- water. Therefore the threat of floo- ding is continuing because the infi- just like a deep well for groundwa- Thank you for your attention. ltration pits do not function pro- ter extraction. Should it become perly. clogged it could be flushed and Bambang Widiyoko d. The economic burden of the com- reactivated. Staf Dinas Kimpraswilhub munity, especially of the flood vul- d. In reference to groundwater extrac- Kabupaten Sleman nerable depression areas, is too tion for drinkling purpose, of which heavy. an extraction deep well can supply Request for Percik 20-40 l/sec of water, the same infil- My name is Joko Sutrisno, teacher,2. Proposal tration pit can absorb an equal SMA 1 of Karangmojo, Yogyakarta 55891. a. Considering that the availability of amount of water, 20-40 l/sec. One day I came across a Pecik maga- sufficient budget both national and e. To maintain and prevent untimely zine and I get so interested with the va- Jakarta provincial region, it should clogging, the draining water is let to rious environmental issues discussed in be recommendable that the infiltra- pass a control structure to catch it. I would be thanful if you could regu- tion pit issue is taken over by the sand and gravel and prevent it from larly send me one copy of the magazine. government/regional government. entering the pit. First it will open new horizon regarding b. The infiltration pits should be built f. This technology may be tried at big the environment, secondly and so on to at a community level, at a suffi- hotels or large commercial bu- get involved in developing ways and ciently large capacity, maintainable, ildings. means of environmental protection of g. To make more applicative it should my immediate neighbourhood and sustaining, and are oriented to con- be previously academically tested. more extensively with the regional gov- servation of the lower level of ernment of Kabupaten Gunungkidul. groundwater. h. If the technology is well proven in Thank you in advance. c. As a pilot project Jakarta should Jakarta it could be disseminated to Joko Sutrisno, S.Pd., M.T. develop a deep infiltration pit, other provinces/kabupatens all SMA 1 Karangmojo, Gunungkidul, somewhere around 80-100 m deep over the country. Yogyakarta 55891 2 Percik April 2007
  4. 4. M A I N F E AT U R E Gender Issue in Water Supply and Sanitation ProvisionE veryone, regardless of sex, eve- What is Gender? of Sussex. The experts in the workshop ryday needs water for various If we trace back, the term gender pointed out that women, just like men, different activities. To met the came into use in the academic circle are biological difference, while womendemand for domestic water, especially only towards the end of the 20th centu- subordination was created socially andof the villages, women play a dominant ry. For the first time the word gender not biologically determined. They fur-role, from taking water, cooking, chil- was traceable in 1976 in a workshop on ther ascertained that for the purpose ofdren cleansing, washing, and watering Women Subordination at the University conceptual distinction of these facts it isgarden. But men hold the rein in decisi-on making related to water supply andsanitation provision. This condition later created ineffi- The Evolution of Gender Issue Uciency and ineffectiveness in water sup- p to the beginning of 1970s the equally, many of the activities are notply and sanitation. Most of the con- development policy was focused sustained. The main weakness of WID on the demand of poor women in projects is its failures to consider thestructed facilities turned out to be the context of their role as housewife diversity of womens roles or miscalcula-unsuitable to the demand especially of and mother. Now it is known as welfare tion of the elasticity of womens timewomen who nota bene are the dominant approach, the main concern being placed availability.users, both in terms of number of popu- in mother and child welfare and health, Since the end of 1980s the Genderlation and also in the role in water use. and nutrition. It was assumed that the and Development (GAD) approach was In the latest few decades there arised benefit from the macro economic ori- introduced for the intention of abolishingan awareness of the need to consider the ented strategy will sprinkle to the poor social, economic disparity and political population and thus the poor women will balance between men and women aswomens demand in relation to water receive some benefit from their hus- requirement for community orientedsupply and sanitation provision. This bands welfare improvement. Women are development. Most of water and sanita-issue is later known as gender issue. passive welfare beneficiary. Water sup- tion sector development at this time uses ply and sanitation service is defined in this approach. However, there are manyGender Misunderstood the context of health and hygiene, which ways from which this approach is viewed Understanding gender as female sex is is viewed as womens responsibility. and there is no single blue print to makequite common around us. It is not too sur- In the decade of 1970-80 Women in equality in water supply provision possi- Development (WID) approach was direct- ble.prising if in a meeting someone would ask: ed to integrate women in development Both WID and GAD approaches are"Why all of them are men. Where is the process through placing them in the tar- still being applied presently.gender?" It is even infrequent we would get position, even in a women specific During the last few years the genderfind in a gender related study that all the formatted activity. In this approach and empowerment approach is beingexperts are women. The reason is simple: women remain the passive beneficiary. tried to change the present gender link-"In order to prevent the study from gender Although many WID projects did improve age through emphasis on women empo-biassed." Thus here gender is understood health, short term income and human werment.as simply the female sex. resources, but women are not treated Percik April 2007 3
  5. 5. M A I N F E AT U R E FOTO:DOK/CWSH other time mens role is the central issue. What is Gender Analysis? Gender analysis refers to the sys- tematic way of looking at the different development impacts between men and women. Gender analysis requires data separation based on sex. Gender analy- sis must be conducted at every level of development, in order to obtain a pic- ture how certain activity, decision, and plan influences men and women in any different way. Why Gender is Important in Water Supply and Sanitation Provision There are several important facts that may serve as the reasons for the importance of bringing up gender issues, such as (i) women are the main collector, carrier, user and manager of water for domestic need and as promo-necessary to identify "sex" as biological ship. tor in water supply and sanitation relat-difference between men and women, To make it simple, gender should ed activities, (ii) bigger benefit than justand "gender" is difference between mas- not be about women but it is rather the a project capacity for provision of waterculinity and femininity which is con- equity of roles between men and women and improved sanitation throughceived for the most part through educa- in all aspects of life. In one opportunity, o Economic benefit: better access totion and socialization. Biological factor the main is the role of women but this water will provide the women withis permanent and unchangeable, but does not deny the possibility that some more time to income generatingsocial factor is changeable. Thus gender later refers to differ-ence between mens and womens in Gender Linkagerole, right, and responsibility and the re- Gender and Education --- More gilrs go to school when water supply islationship between them. Gender does increased and when there is a separate toilet facility for boys and girls.not only refer to men and women, butalso how the quality, habit, and identity Gender dan kesehatan --- health improvement directly in favour of womenare determined through socialization (including in childbirth), and eventually improves family hygiene conditionprocess. Gender is generally linked to Gender and household chorus --- increased water supply decreases burdensinequity of power and access to choices in household activity and provides women more time for their children and forand resources. The difference in the ro- economic generating activitiesle of women and men is influenced byhistorical, religious, economic and cul- Gender and income --- increased water supply and less illness will give moretural facts. The totality of the roles and time for women to find a jobresponsibilities may change over time. Gender and culture --- increased water supply and sanitation facility improves The most recent use of gender it has womens dignity, status and opportunitybeen used extensively just like class,ethnic, race to describe analysis of socialcategory in social interfactor relation- 4 Percik April 2007
  6. 6. M A I N F E AT U R E activities, responding to the needs SOURCE:PRO AIR of the members of the family, or to provide welfare and leisure time for their own pleasure. Economy, on the whole will provide several benefits. o Benefit to children: Free from the responsibility to take and manage water which would otherwise pro- vide the children especially the girls to go to school. Therefore, the impact may extend through gener- ations. o Empowerment of womanfolks: Involvement in water and sanita- tion provision projects will empower women, especially if the said project activities are connect- ed to income generating and pro- ductive resources such as credit. One of the empirical evidences Do you know?about the importance of women partici-pation in water supply provision which African and Asian women walk 6 km on average to get water.is often used as reference is the result of While on average Indian women spend 2,2 hours every day.analysis of World Bank sponsored rural When sanitation facility is sufficently acceptable for school-water supply projects. Based on the girls, their attendance increases. In Pakistan, more than 50analysis it was revealed that women par-ticipation improved project effective- persent of schoolgirls drop out because there is not toilet facil-ness in the design, implementation, ity in schools. In Bangladesh, water supply and sanitationO&M and efficacy of the system. increases girls attendance by 15 percent. In Tajikistan, schoolgirls choose not to go to school during Gender Track in Water Supply and menstruation days, for reason of toilet facility not available.Sanitation Provision In the World Summit on SustainableDevelopment in September 2002 theworld leaders agreed to integrate genderapproach into the international water the statement made at the Ministerial objectives are promoted through gendermanagement policy and practice. This Level Conference 2001 held in Bonn, approach.agreement was translated into Political Germany that "water management Gender MainstreamingDeclaration (Principle 18) that reads should be based on participatory Gender mainstreaming is a process"We hereby agree to assure that women approach. Both men and women are of measuring women and men implica-empowerment and emancipation and involved and at equal in sustainable tion in every planned activity includinggender equality shall be integrated into water use management and in taking legislation, policy and programming atall the activities agreed in Agenda 21, benefit. The role of women shall be all levels. This is the strategy to createand Millennium Development Goals improved and participation extended. the same concern between men and(MDGs)." In the 2nd World Water Forum in The women in formulation, implementation, This agreement is the follow up of Hague 2000 both efficiency and equity monitoring and evaluation of policy and Percik April 2007 5
  7. 7. M A I N F E AT U R Eprogram in all aspects. In short, gender development; (iv) improvement the ple is in Lesotho and South Africa inmainstreaming is intended as a means capacity of professionals in gender which there is a specific mention ofto guarantee that equity of men and mainstreaming; (v) involvement of pri- women proportion in staffing structure.women is properly manifested in plan- vate sector in WSS provision must con- In Rep. Dominika, the Water Supplyning, operation and maintenance, in sider gender aspect. Authority requires that at least 40 per-project and program management. cent of water supply committee mem- In water supply and sanitation pro- How Gender Issue Translated into bers are women.vision the community based approach Policy In Indonesia, gender isssue has beenthe program frequently fails to achieve In many countries the national poli- adopted as one of principles of theefficiency and sustainability because the cy for water supply and sanitation provi- National Policy for Community Basedcommunity is viewed as a group of citi- sion has for the most part made specific Water Supply and Environmentalzens with the same demand without dis- mention about the importance of the Sanitation (CB-WSS) Development. Intinction of women and men. role of women and more detailed in the terms of language it is called the role of In reality, a community is not only a division of responsibilities between men women in decision making. The basicgroup of citizens with uniform principles are then translated into SOURCE:PRO AIRneeds and characteristics. A practical implementation by eachcommunity consists of various of the WSS Developemnt projectsdifferent groups who compete in Indonesia (WSLIC-2, CWSH,one another. When resources Sanimas, ProAir and so on). Theare in limited amount there the implementation format of thiscompetition occurs and as usual principle differs from one projectthe poor will be neglected, espe- to another (see further Gendercially women. The application Implementation in WSS Projectsof gender analysis will help deci- in Indonesia in this issue). Somesion makers allocate resources clearly state the proportion of wo-better without causing any harm men involvement in a number ofto the marginal group. activities, while others make it a When it is agreed that requirement the provision of equ-women involvement is a critical al opportunity for women. Therefactor in achieving efficiency is yet no clear definition of howand sustainability of water sup- gender concept shall be applied inply and sanitation, gender WSS provision in Indonesia.mainstreaming is the way out.Gender mainstreaming in water The remaining homeworksupply and sanitation does, of When gender concept is cor-course, need strategic steps, rectly understood and when gen-among others (i) preparation of der concept has been translateddata for gender analysis through into government policy, whenseparation of data between men gender concept has been broughtand women; (ii) promoting the to implementation in WSS deve-involvement of women in deci- lopment activity, and as manysion making, for instance in program and women, inspite of the fact that a other whens, the question that wafts outscheduling in order to make women complete gender focus is quite rare. In is whether the gender concept related toinvolved; (iii) promoting strategic Uganda, Gender Strategy in Water WSS development in Indonesia is in thecooperation between community based Supply Sector was introduced in 2003 right track? The homework reads: howorganisation and NGO with the commu- with emphasis on women involvement are we going to measure it? This will benity and the regional government in at all levels of water supply manage- our common task, for men as well as forWSS provision and small business ment. A relatively more detailed exam- women. (OM) 6 Percik April 2007
  8. 8. M A I N F E AT U R E Gender Implementation in WSS Project in Indonesia SOURCE:PRO AIR making. One of WSLIC-2 (Water and Sanitation for Low Income Com- munities-2) focuses itself in gender and poverty. This project is essentially an effort to awaken and unearth the role of women and poor community of their equal rights and responsibilities in expressing their opinion and in deci- sion making. Similarly with CWSH (Community Water Services and Health Project) this project is characterized by gender development approach. CWSH places women in key position as facilitator that is expected to get involved in each level of the development process. While Sanimas Project does not specifically implement gender sensitivi- ty approach. But in actual implementa- tion women are frequently involved in giving soul to Sanimas through facilita- Speaking of gender is like a road tion and decision making. without an end. In one place a progress has been Dra. Pimanih, M.Kes, a Planning and Financial Management officer of made but on the other there is still limitation CWSH describes the important role of women with the fact that they are of the role of women always connected with water right from waking up in the morning until night time they prepare everything for theB asically, implied or in reality, Secretary, Ir. Deni Mulyana, M. Kes family from cooking, bathing and wash- WSS projects in Indonesia have stresses that women play a central role ing. "In their daily household activity implemented the gender sensi- in water provision, management and women are never far from water, it istive principle. protection. "Therefore, women must be their natural character," she says. ProAir, or Water Program, the involved in decision making related to While according to CPMU WSLIC-2German grant funded water supply the use of water," he said firmly. project Imam Syahbandi, women play adevelopment program strongly empha- ProAir Project refers to the natio- major role in sustaining the activitysizes gender oriented principles for its nal Policy for CB-WSS Development thats why they are important in deter-implementation. ProAir Executive that women are involved in decision mining the technology choice in order Percik April 2007 7
  9. 9. M A I N F E AT U R Eto be suitable for both men and women. quota for women representation in each"Women are also important in deter- step and community institution person-mining the rules and sanction related to In CWSH women nel (at least 30 persent are women),use, maintenance and the size of contri- involvement could be seen staff recruitment, and through con-bution to cover O&M costs," he says. from their paricipation in ducting special gender training and gen- meetings, workshops, and der advocacy for the socialization ofEquity of Role group discussions. Women gender approach implementation. In reality, is it fair the division of are requested to express their In CWSH women involvement couldresponsibilities between men and opinion in each step of the be seen from their paricipation in meet-women in water supply and sanitation? ings, workshops, and group discussions. process, from planning,It is not only in villages that women are Women are requested to express their implementation, use,considered lady of the house. Even in opinion in each step of the process, fromthe urban the difference in social status and O&M planning, implementation, use, andis still prevailing. O&M. From ProAir study in 2004 on From the beginning there has been a these worries that make inequality pre-knowledge, attitude and practice in support and involvement of women in vail.water treatment/use especially for the ProAir project implementation so Accoring to Emah, women mustwomen, it was concluded that women that it is easier to follow the existing rule actively involve in each stage of theare more involved in taking water par- in each step of its activity. "It all goes development as far as they are capableticularly from the lower income bracket. back to the women. Whether they are and opportunity permits them.As for the women from the higher willing to get involved or not, or capable "Without choosing the role because inincome level the water taking duty is of taking benefit from this opportunity," reality women can and capable of con-given to their daughter. says Deni. ducting and playing the role in any posi- Of those who take water 27 percent At present, women empowerment tion," says the woman who is anare girls, 41 percent adult women, the and increasing their role is still limited employee of Subdirectorate of Was-remainder are men. While in terms of to the loosely defined involvement or tewater Directorate of Environmentalstatus, regardles of rich, medium or low participation in each step. It is still ne- Sanitation, DG Cipta Karya.the duty for water taking is with the cessary to have a more intensive role. For water supply provision, saidwomen. Imam described that the current Emah further, women should be given According to Pimanih or more inti- WSLIC-2 efforts in empowerment of the first priority in providing their opi-mately called Upi there is still gender women and improvement of their role nion and demand, because women areinequity such as in meeting for decision are conceived as "participation of basically the housewives who are themaking. It is men who are frequently women" following the principle of determinant factor for the future of ainvited because they are considered "equity" because there is yet no specific family. "If our future generation is to bemore knowlegible and more capable of effort directed to empowering women. a generation with quality, the first thingdoing the job. Still an involvement in each step that is to do is to each of the women to become Emah, an employee of Dept Public moving towards decision making. wise and skillful mother," she said.Works who deals with the day to day "In the future, the design of genderactivity related to Sanimas considers sensitive projects must be based on a Women Involvement Effort andthat it is not necessary to argue whose policy that definitely mention not only Conceptresponsibility it is to get water because the quota and staffing but also a specific The method of women involvementwater is everyones basic need. project for women empowerment in in Sanimas is through involving them inHowever, according to Deni, the role development role," he says. each step of community empowerment.provided for the women is not fully Whatever it seems if the community This can be seen from the number ofexploited because some women may empowerment is to be truly implement- women involved in each Sanimas deve-hesitate if it might have exceeded ed, women will become actively lopment.womens role or fear that they might involved and their voice will be heard. In WSLIC-2 women involvementmake mistake because all this time the All that needs a common awareness and process is done through determining therole is always played by men. And all adulthood. Bowo Leksono 8 Percik April 2007
  10. 10. I N T E RV I E W Dr. Surjadi Soeparman, MPH (Deputy for Gender Mainstreaming State Ministry of Women Empowerment) WOMEN CARE THE MOST one out of five people suffers from lack SOURCE:BOWO LEKSONO Women are frequently considered as of access to water. While for sanitation the lady of the house destined to take one out of two is experiencing difficulty care of the household. While men are in access to hygienic sanitation. Water free to express themselves and deter- scarcity and poor sanitation is a prob- mine their steps. Frequently womens lem that requires national as well as demand which is actually the demand of regional level policies if HDI standard is the family fails to be realized. Such as in to be achieved. the case of water and sanitation. The State Ministry of Women How significant is the role of Empowerment attempts to improve women in this case? womens backwardness in various If we take a look at the role of both aspects, such as education, health, eco- men and women in terms of access to nomics, politics, and decision making water and sanitation women are the process, including the demand for water and sanitation. What does the steps ones who care the most. The men would taken by the Ministry look like? The following is an interview made by Percik with care about the details, they will accept it Deputy for Gender Mainstreaming Ministry of Women Empowerment Dr. Surjadi as ready for use. Water must be ready Soeparman, MPH. for any form of use. Drinking water, water for bath, washing and so on. Those who care the most are women because they are aware that is will improve familiy health especially to pro- tect the children and the whole familyH ow do you see water and sani- tation development from gen-der perspective? tion. Water scarcity and sanitation sig- nificantly impedes human resources development. from contamination. Whereas it is too expensive for the We see from the viewpouint that poor families to access water, it takes awater and sanitation influences the Who suffers the most if water lot of time and efforts through climbinginternationally accepted human deve- demand is not sufficiently met? up and down hill. And the source is toolopment standard and index, namely Of the families or population suffer- little. They spend a lot of their energyHuman Development Index (HDI) and ing the most because lack of access for water.if it is further classified it will come to water supply and sanitation are the poor One could imagine that women loseGender Development Index (GDI) to ones. Who are actually the poorest their productive hours only to get water.later into gender development index in among the population? They are the The poorer they are the mode difficult itvarious specific aspects such as econo- women. Poverty in Indonesia bears the is to get water. Therefore, we have tomic and decision making. Looking at face of a woman. Somewhere around 84 pay more attention to the demand forHuman Development Index (HDI) of percent of the poor population is water and sanitation as the manifesta-2006 the main topic is water and sanita- woman. In a report it is recorded that tion of respect to women. Percik April 2007 9
  11. 11. I N T E RV I E W This is unfair, then How far is the Women Empo- operational level. Yes, it is. As an example, once I werment Ministry play its role?had the opportunity to attend a village One of our programs is women What are the influencing fac-level Development Planning Meeting empowerment in decision making at tors for the inequality?(acronym Musrenbang), the lowest the grassroot level. Oftentimes women Gender inequality is influenced,development planning system avail- aspiration and expectation is far more first by socio cultural factor. Up toable. There are the so-called men rep- oriented to family wellbeing, such as now women are believed as the lady ofresentatives and women representa- the availability of water supply, latrine the house or the second person whotives but there were too few females and good hygiene system compared to are often marginalized from taking anyattending the meeting. How could that of men. This is where the impor- role. Secondly, education. This is onewomen express their of the reasons whyaspiration and expec- women are always left SOURCE:BOWO LEKSONOtion? behind. The the third At that time the factor is poverty thatchairman wished to ha- makes women moreve a decision made. and more marginalized.Men opted to have In reality, if womenimprovement to village were involved in deci-road, while the women sion making throughwanted a water supply opportunity to expressnear the village in order their opinion and nego-to cut the time for ta- tiate at the village levelking water. meeting, women would As it went, women be capable of winningwere outvoted. Finally an important develop-we considered that if ment project such aswomen aspiration, ex- water supply and sani-pectation, and demand tation. Womens opin-is to play its role in a development tant women role lie to enable them ion must be heard because they careprocess, there must be an empower- express their aspiration in village level the most. Thats why we have toment to make them capable of exper- community meeting. involve women in water supply andessing their views in a forum. sanitation development through a In what way? decision made at the village level Decision makers care? Our weakness is that we are not in development planning. We have seen decision makers at the capacity to implement activityevery level, from local, national and down to the grassroot level. Our work- What then is to be done?global levels and we can conclude that ing unit is located at the bureau level at We have to look how far is equalitythey dont care enough. Water is still the province and and women empow- between of men and women in reality.regarded as a commodity without eco- erment section at kabupaten level. The Whether program sensitivity has pro-nomic value. Whereas water scarcity is method is through working out coope- vided equal access? Has it provideda serious threat to human resources ration with women organization, NGO, equal opportunity for participation?that may lead to mortality. We arent and several donors that have activities Equitable decision making? And equi-aware that the number of infant mor- as far down as the grassroot level. table benefit?tality is by far exceeds the number of While at the policy level we are work- If the equality has been there, then wedeath from war. ing in coordination with technical can say that the program and its budget is departments or working units at the gender responsive. Bowo Leksono10 Percik April 2007
  12. 12. R E G U L AT I O N Special Allocation Fund for Water Supply and Sanitation Development Pursuant to Finance Ministerial Regulation No. 128/PMK.07/2006I n line with the implementation of long lasting economic value, including 128/PKM.07/2006 on Allocation and decentralization and regional procurement of support physical faci- General Guidelines for the autonomy, the government sets lity. The basic services include educa- Management of Spacial Allocationaside in the national budget an alloca- tion, health, infrastructure (road, irri- Funds FY 2007. Pursuant to the regu-tion for the regions to finance the gation, and water supply), marine and lation in FY 2007 water supply andneeds of the regions, one that is called fishery, agriculture, regional govern- sanitation is alloted Rp 1,206 trillionBalance Fund. This is intended to ment infrastructures, and environ- or 6,21 percent Rp 17,094 trillion beingestablish an equitable relationship in ment. the total of DAK Non RB (Re-terms of financing, public service and forestation Budget). Reforestationbenefit from natural and other Buddget is the fund collected from for-resources between the central and est concessioners for reforestation andregional governments and among the forest rehabilitation.regional governments. DAK is fund allocation to The portion for water and sanita- The balance fund consists of specific region to help in tion may look relatively small in com-Sharing Fund, General Allocation the financing of specific parison to the overall DAK Non RBFund and Specific Allocation Fund regional development allotted by the government. This is(DAK). In principle the three funds activities which are because water supply and sanitation isare intended to finance the activities not yet considered as specific item in nationally prioritizedthat take place in or in conformance the budgeting system therefore it mustwith the regional demands, the differ- share with road and irrigation as partence lies in the scope of activities sup- of infrastructure development.ported but each of the funds. However, this proportion has DAK is fund allocation to specific increased compared to it was two yearsregion to help in the financing of DAK Allocation for Water Supply earlier when in 2005 water supply andregional development activities which and Sanitation sanitation portion of the DAK Non RBare nationally prioritized. As one of the basic needs the devel- was 5,07 percent and in 2006 it slight- While specific activities include the opment of water supply and sanitation ly increased to 5,25 percent. Beforedevelopment and/or procurement facility deserves funding subsidy from 2005 water and sanitation sector didand/or rehabilitation of basic facility DAK. This is stipulated in Finace not get anything from DAK.and community infrastructure with Ministerial Regulation No. In two years since 2005 one could Percik April 2007 11
  13. 13. R E G U L AT I O Nnotice the growing tendency of budget beneficiary it has to make available aincrement. FY 2006 the allocation counterpart budget at least 10 percent ofincreases by 0,18 percent from the pre- the total it is going to receive from thevious year while FY 2007 it increases by The technical central government and is also set aside0,96 percent from FY 2006. This hope- criteria differ from for physical construction. Physicalfully may in part erase the pessimism of one sector with construction consist of activities othergovernment half-heartedness in budget another. For water than project administration, preparato-provision for water and sanitation supply and sanitation ry activities, research, training, traveldevelopment. the criteria are expenses, and other project related ge- DAK allocation for water supply and neral activities. The obligation to set determined by thesanitation is intended to increase ser- aside a counterpart budget is intended Minister of Publicvice coverage and installation efficacy. to measure the regions seriousness WorksIn more detail the fund is to be used for about the DAK funded activity. Somerepair works, construction of new facili- region, however, is exempted from thety for urban as well as rural communi- obligation if its revenue equals or lessties with scarce water source and dry than the total expenses for personnel.areas. close to the border, areas with a general In the implementation of the DAK allocation in 2007 does not increase, the Ministry of National PlanningBeneficiary Region food shortage and or drought vulnerable (Bappenas) and the involved Technical To request for DAK fund allocation areas, post conflict areas, and refugee Ministry, in the name of central go-the region must meet several criteria. accomodating areas. vernment reserve the right to monitorThe criteria are classified as general, The technical criteria differ from one and conduct evaluation of the DAKspecific and technical. As for general sector with another. For water supply funded activity implementation andcriteria it is mentioned that DAK fund is and sanitation the criteria are deter- operational procedures. As for thealloted to priority regions consisting of mined by the Minister of Public Works. DAK fund management the govern-ones with low fiscal capacity or below The criteria include consideration of the ment assigns the Ministry of Financenational average. The capacity is based following aspects (a) number of desa or to undertake the necessary monitoringon the balance between regional re- kelurahan (desa/kelurahan as counting and evaluation. In addition to the saidvenue (regional income, general aloca- unit); (b) number of desa/kelurahan assignments the region is also obligedtion fund, and sharing fund) with the vulnerable to water shortage (desa/ke- to submit quarterly report containingtotal expenses for regional civil srvants lurahan); (c) total population; (d) waste the detail implementation and DAKof Regional Budget 2005. water service coverage (percentage of fund disbursement to Ministries of As for the specific criteria, the bene- population); (e) solid waste service co- Finance, Technical and Home Affairs.ficiary region of the following charac- verage (percentage of population); (f) Any delay of failure to submit reporttristics (a) Papua province as a Special total inundation areas in Kabu- by a region may adversely affect theAutonomy Region; (b) coastal and insu- paten/kota (ha); (g) total slum areas in said region and may cause delayedlar regions, regions located at a border kabupaten/kota (ha); and (h) construc- DAK fund appropriation schedule.with other countries, remote/secluded tion price index. Through the said regulations it isareas, and food resilience and tourist hoped that DAK allocation may pro-destination areas; (c) flood/landslide The Obligation of the Beneficiary vide an optimum support to thevulnerable areas, transmigration acco- Region nationally priorized regional develop-modating areas, areas with small islets Once a region is selected as DAK ment. Afif Numan12 Percik April 2007
  14. 14. INSIGHT WHAT MAKES CLTS WORK? (A Review from the Social Science Perspectives)I am of the conviction that Kamal feeling of the target community By: Alma Arief *) Karr, a Bangladeshi, is the creator of that they have been doing is a latrine development model that is wrong practice and faulty notion. Muaro Jambi (Jambi), Bogor, W.fully implemented by the community 3. Growth of individual commitment Lombok, and so on. Almost all the(Community Total Led Sanitation). He to immediately change the habit. regions applied the principles at an out-is a pragmatist. He does not like to be 4. Facilitation is conducted in direct standing result, not only in terms oftied in any one pole of social science language, tends to be harsh, with- immediate absortion and growth in cov-paradigm but he prefers mixing them out pity. erage area but also the community selfinto a tool for social engineering to the 5. The basic assumption is that the reliance and willingness to togetherutmost possibility for improvement the community is willing and capable change their habit and upholding socialcommunity wellbeing. He pays no heed of liberating themselves from the control in various different ways.that among the scientists there are problem of defecation in the open. The application of CLTS principles issharp differences, each pole waving its quite consistent. Several of the mainown banner and exclusively group In consistence to the above princi- principles are summarized as the fol-themselves and seldom exchange ideas ples it seems that the mainstay of basic lowing:in a single forum. sanitation development is the CLTS. 1. Without any form of subsidy and Whether one admits it or not the Several selected villages in Indonesia external inputs, such as stimulanteffort to manipulate the principles of are disqualified from the trial because of fund, material or toilet model.social science to engineer an influence the pity from the village administration 2. The application of triggering andand ways of changing habit, has been that tried to provide cash inputs to the shocking the awareness level andquite successful. Its applicability in community out of a pure intention tosome areas in Indonesia has indicated SOURCE: DOK/POKJA AMPLan excellent performance. How not? Ina relatively short time the habit of thecommunity who used to defecate in theopen has completely changed.Household latrine with a model devel-oped by the community itself is devel-oped within a few months, and coverageof users grows very fast up to 100 per-cent. Something that never happenedbefore. Something phenomenal is quiteinteresting, of course. How are we goingto explain it? Performance in several areas In Indonesia CLTS has been appliedin many areas, such as several villages ofKabupaten Sambas (W. Kalimantan), Percik April 2007 13
  15. 15. INSIGHT make the objective be achieved faster fish as it drops into water, and so on. paten Semarang, the achievement of i.e the community build toilet at 100 Some name pig or dog neck toilet toilet construction was 100 percent percent coverage. Such an external instead of goose neck because it is pig within only several years. There are input is something to be avoided or dog that takes the role of a latrine. several methods developed by the because it does not comply with self There is also "helicopter or hanging Puskesmas facilitator, among others: reliant CLTS model community and toilet" for a wooden box for latrine Manipulating the parents love to conversely it will create dependency. hanging above the river water. children, distributing simulant There are millions who behave assistance through schoolchild- Pioneer in Indonesia thay way. Sanitation development ren. Inserted here the hygiene Immediately, after the trial has through stimulant promoted by the behaviour message and the dis- indicated its success, various commu- government is growing too slowly if tribution of the stimulant is nities who have been concerned about not stationary. This is because low effected through the kindness of improvement of the habit of defeca- community willingnes to adapt, to schoolteacher who knows exact- tion in the open and improvement of change the age long habit. Research ly who among the children have health and environment, were data indicate that the time lapse not household toilet. shocked and astonished, just like see- between one knowing about latrine At school each class has its own ing an achievement that have never until he really builds one in his home toilet, a wash basin in every been achieved before. Is that really varies between 5 - 33 years, a very classroom, and a small garden in so? long time span. From numerical the school yard. Every year When speaking in statistical num- aspect that is a distressing develop- there is a clean and beauty com- bers, sanitation development achieve- ment performance. Unfortunately, petition of the hygiene facilities. ment in Indonesia up to this time is the development implementors seem In this Piyangang village the more of a sad story. The percentage reluctant to learn from experience, hygiene behariour message is of the population without latrine is and always insist on the model they also disseminated through reli- high and in other words the percent- design. Whereas in fact, there are gious teacher who then explains age of those defecating in the open is sanitation development with spectac- it to the jemaah, and through high. ular results, that should inspire for the PKK gatherings among Where do they defecate all this repetition in other places. Who women of the village. time? In rivers, gardens, backyard, knows, that kamal Kharr was also In the village of Syawal, Banjar- bushes, etc. In short, anywhere in the inspired from Indonesian cases, took negara, C. Java the method is much open. Because of this sad condition, its substance, and synthesized it into simpler. In a village whose communi- the term water closet (WC) for them CLTS model. ty used to defecate in a drainage turns into sad satire. Some name it Is that true that in Indonesia there canal, in the dry season when the with "flying WC" to mention a habit of has never been a model capable of water is low the stench is spreading defecating in a sack and hurl it to a making such an achievement, and is it all over the place, but within a few garbage heap, some call "rotating true that beneficiary community is years the village is free from defecat- WC" refering to defecating behind a slow in responding the idea for ing in the open. Here the method is thicket or a tree, and will move improvement of their own wellbeing? placed more on the role of religious around to avoid the sight of passer- In the village of Piyangang, Village teacher, school teacher (organized by by, other term is "moving WC" said to of Syawal (C.Java), village of Muhammadiyah) and community defecating while carrying a stick to Neglasari, Gunung Sari, Sumur facilitator. The embarassing village drive away dogs or pigs that come Gintung, Kabupaten Subang indentity due to the enormous stench nearby to grab the faeces, again there (W.Java) and Kab. E. Flores the basic was used as the identity to be elimi- is the "plung lap WC" refers to defe- sanitation development has even nated through religious gathering, cating in the river, said of the fact the made a marvellous result. classroom teaching, and explanation faeces dissapear into the mouths of In the village of Piyangang, Kabu- by community facilitator. Because of14 Percik April 2007
  16. 16. INSIGHThis achievement, the community The lessons learned from the contemporary action research mod-facilitator was frequently asked to cases are: els that are widely known in organi-join a parade in a national event and It is necessary to generate zation development theory. In theto explain his successes so that oth- awareness through formal as unfreezing phase, a pshychologicalers could take lesson from him. well as non-formal education. transformation process is taking In the village of Lewoloba, E. Transformation of knowledge place, in which a dismantling ofFlores the spectacular toilet develop- through religious teacher, com- wanted and unwanted behavioursment achievement was made munity facilitator, Puskesmas occurs. In terms of time, this processthrough compulsion method and facilitator, school teacher, etc. may sometimes produce tensionimposing of economically heavy Imposing extrinsic sanction in between the group who wishes asanction, and social embarrassment. cash and in kind. change with one who doesnt.When this village was led by a retired Imposing inrinsic sanction In CLTS model the awarenessarmy serviceman, one of the priority through embarrassment, back- development process is dramatisedis toilet construction. During his wardness, etc. in such a way that shocks the com-office the community was compelled Provision of reward (extrinsic) munity and opens their vision.to build toilet so that within a short for prestigious Through role playing on social map-time all the households built a toilet. individual/group (group or ping for identification of the distri-The compulsion was followed by class competition). bution of settlement and who is defe-imposing of economic and social Internal reward through social cating in the open, role playing forsantion for those who failed to obey. acceptance, self respect, etc. offering who is willing to drink faecalIn the 17th of August commemora- Provision of pressure through contaminated water through offeringtion the families who had no toilet influential group power (their a glass of water mixed with a drop ofwere announced to the public, and own children who are primary human faeces, and by calculating thewere fined with one hen or dog. school pupils). quantity of excrement contaminat-There was no community facilitator Provision of pressure through ing the environment every day, andinvolved, what was there was a firm powerful institution (village taking a transect walk to placesupholding of rule with sanction headman, retired member of where they usually do their defeca-behind it. armed forces). tion, have been able to really shock In the village of Neglasari, the communitys awareness and feel-Gunung Sari, Margahayu, Sumur Triggering Factor ing (affective as well as cognitiveGintung, Subang the the method is One thing peculiar in CLTS aspects). This is where the aware-highly normative following the model is the dramatising of the com- ness process that is called the trig-intensive participatory faciliattion munity awareness development gering. The community becomesmodel. Several facilitators from process, that in a short time capable aware that all this time they haveYayasan Pradipta Paramitha they of making the community under- lived a non hygienic life, after theyinvited the community to a FGD near stand the disadvantage of the habit are given explanation how pollutanta toilet. The facilitation was con- of defecating in the open and the that quantitavely is enormous isducted intensively so that the com- advantage of doing it in a hygienic scattered around and through vari-munity really understand the disad- toilet. In organization development ous processes the pollutant contami-vantages/risks of defecating in the theory in the section discussing nates food and drink and finallyopen, and what benefit they will gain planned change, the term triggering finds it way into the stomach.by building and using toilet. In rela- is more closely comparable with the At the time when the communitytively short time, due to the intensive term unfreezing from Lewins is in great shock from the shortfacilitation, all families in the com- planned change model than the two awareness development process andmunity built a toilet. other models, i.e action research and is in a highly guilty feeling, together Percik April 2007 15
  17. 17. INSIGHTthey are asked to give their commit- naturalist school who analyse social value that serve as glue and collectivement to change behaviour through phenomenon scientifically assuming agreement.building a toilet. The participants of that the community is similar with 3. Upholding of rules through athe discussion are asked to clap their nature or other object of science strong/firm sanction. This process ishands each time an individual men- whose behavioural order and princi- the continuation of social control withtion his name and give his commit- ples can be determined, and therefore a more concrete and mutually agreedment, and they are named the pioneer can be measured by way of statistical sanction.hero of behavioural change. method. To this school of thought 4. Basically the inroduction of At the final session of the trigger- belong several sub-groups such as hygiene behaviour inherently containsing the community has had a plan to functional structure, conflict struc- conflicting aspect, i.e fighting forbuild a toilet. Guided by the facilita- turalist that is further divided into hygienic space to live in. On one handtor, each of the paricipants will inform Marxist and Non-Marxist structural- stand a group who use to defecate inthe name and when he will finish the ist, and behaviorist sub-groups. the open, while on the other a renova-toilet construction. The group of com- While on the other side standing tion group who wish to live hygienical-munity members who has given its equally firmly the humanist group, ly, create a clean and healthy environ-commitment will serve as pioneer in who sees man as a unique phenome- ment.behavioural change, and will continu- non that cannot be generalised or be 5. Social integrity is establishedously become the change control deduced its rules. The humanist by coercive power: Upholding of thegroup, just like a snowball that is group strongly denies the naturalists established and agreed norms and val-growing larger and larger, finally the views who reduce human values into ues is guarded together throughparticipants will reach 100 percent of identical with natural objects, includ- imposing a sanction which is essen-the community. ing animal. tially a compulsion. Everyone must One of the determining phases of CLTS model uses various princi- obey, or suffer a consequence forCLTS model is the upholding of social ples in each social science paradigm to being considered uncivilized, beingcontrol. This varies widely. Some create behavioural change (manipu- ostracized, alluded to in any meeting,activate children as spy force who late social science principles) regard- announced during 17th of Augustwould directly inform other members less to polarization of school of commemoration, and so on.of the community of someone defecat- thoughts, which, in realty is quite Essentially this is violence, insistence,ing in the open. Some compose songs intense. Several of the principles that though not in terms of physicalto embarrass those who defecate in are manipulated to engineer CLTS: encounter.the open, and so on. This is the most Where are the theoretical compo- 6. If there is benefit (reward) foreffective form of punishment and will nents of each of the school of thoughts a certain activity, then the activity willmake the violator wary, more effective being manipulated for the engineer- be sustained. The triggering partici-than imposing a fine. ing? Here is the explanation: pants will give their commitment to 1. Social control: It comes in var- change behaviour, because the facili-Social Science Perspective ious different models, some uses chil- tator is capable of explaining in every As mentioned above, Kamal Karr dren to spy on who is defecating in the way that they will be benefited if theydoes not care about the polarization of open, some use songs to generate live hygienically. On the other hand, ifsocial science paradigms, he tends to embarrassment for the unwanted he fails, the community will neverdissolve them into social engineering practice, etc. obey him.for the good of the community. As a 2. Socialization: intensive discus- 7. Man tends to avoid a behaviourmatter fact there is in social science a sion, dramatizing and role playing to that does not give him any benefit orpolarization wherein each school car- transfer experience and knowledge on reward, in other word man tends tories its own banner. On one side hygienic life. If successful this process avoid punishment. In managementstanding firmly scientists conceived as will give birth to a new norm and the principles as mentioned in 6. and16 Percik April 2007
  18. 18. INSIGHT7. are called the carrot and stick princi- with other things or symptoms. In ened if it is followed by common agree-ples. Here man is assumed as an animal CLTS it is obvious that the triggering ment and application of santion (pointlooking for reward (carrot) and avoiding participants learn a new knowledge 4).punishment (stick). As with CLTS the about the meaning or river, garden, Those are several principles in socialcommunity will obey a common agree- bushes, etc. That those places are no science that are manipulated in de-ment governed under new norms and place for defecation. That defecation veloping CLTS engineering. If it is so,values, otherwise he will undergo a pun- must be properly managed so that the then the CLTS principles have since aishment, becomes a laughingstock, environment becomes clean and long time before been in application inobject of public taunt, public announce- healthy. That defecation must be done Indonesia, as discussed above. Thenment, etc. Although the punishment is in a toilet, et cetera. The success in what makes it different that CLTS per-never corporal such as lashing. While if introducing new meaning to a thing or formance has been so marvellous, pro-one is obedient the reward is social sysmptom highly depends on the skill of ducing sky rocketing result at 100 per-acceptance, improvement in health, etc. the triggering facilitator. cent coverage within less than one year? 8. The value of one thing or symp- 10. The reaction to a certain symp- The answer is the triggering thattom is obtained from social interaction tom or thing depends on the mind set therein contains dramatization of com-process. Up to now the community how the meaning of symptom or thing is munity awareness through implantingdefecates in the open because up to now defined. If someone defines that river is of new knowledge, and visual demon-(since childhood) the knowledge taught place for disposing of any waste inclu- stration, and directly asking for commit-by the elders and other people around ding for defecation then he wont feel ment for behavioural change and anthem that river, garden, bushes, etc. guilty using river as place for defecation. agenda when it will be put into action.means a place for defecation, garbage But if the definition has changed as No less important is social controldisposal, etc. mentioned in 9. he will certainly feel which may come in various different 9. The value of one thing or symp- guilty and will no longer use it as place forms.tom will change through interaction for defecation. This change is strength- *) WASPOLA Consultant STRUCTURE FUNC- STRUCTURALIST BEHAVIORIST HUMANIST/INTERAC- TIONALIST SCHOOL (MARXIST AND NON- SCHOOL TIONIST SCHOOL MARXIST) SCHOOL Social control as a mech- - Establishment of social Through experiment with certain Each thing or symptom has a anism to control beha- order by force/ compulsion animal it is concluded that: specific meaning: vioural deviation 1. If beneficial (rewarding) in The meaning of a thing or - Harsh sanction for violator doing a certain activity, the symptom is obtained Socialization of values activity will be maintained through social interaction and norms to stabilize so- - Conflict for control of scarce (the knwledge about name cial system resources as social reality 2. Will avoid any unbeneficial/ of a thing or symptom is rewardless activity or in other obtained from intraction - Social integrity is esta- words avoid punitive activity. with others) blished through coercive In management this is called power carrot and stick principle The meaning of a thing or symptom changes through interaction with others Response to a certain symptom or thing depends on the definition of the meaning of the thing Percik April 2007 17

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