Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2006. Anticipation of Bandung Waste


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This magazine published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition in August 2003.

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Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2006. Anticipation of Bandung Waste

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Editorial 1 Environmental Sanitation Readers Voice 2 Published by: HeadlinesWorking Group for Water Supply and Sanitation Anticipation of Bandung waste 3 Advisor: Director General for Urban and Onsite Waste Reduction 7 Rural Development, Department of Public Works Options of Bandung Waste Management Concept 8 Board of Trustee: Mayor of Bandung City: Nothing More to do with Traditional Way 9 Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Lesson Learned from Bandung Waste Emergency Situation 12National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Interview Director of Water and Sanitation, Director of Water Resources and Irrigation, Bappenas Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Java needs New Storages 15 Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Innovation Technology, Director General on Village and Multitasks Water Filter 19 Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Regulation Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Government Regulation No. 16 of 2005 On Drinking Water Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Supply System Development 21 Telescope Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa District Water Corporation, Blend of Commitment and Management 22 Board of Editor: District Head of Sragen, H. Untung Wiyono: Supriyanto, Johan Susmono, District Water Corporation Should Be Professional 24 Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto IATPI Clinic 25 Editor: Story Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana,Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Latrine Heroines 27 Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti, Reski D. Abstract 29 Design/Illustrator: Insight Rudi Kosasih The Meaning of AMPL Institution For Sustainable Facility 30 Production: Waterworks Technological Civilization By Time 33 Machrudin Development and Empowerment 37 Distribution: Around AMPL 41 Agus Syuhada Around WASPOLA 47 Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Book Info 48 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 CD Info 49 e-mail: Sites Info 50 Agenda 51 Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website This “Percik” English edition is originally translated from “Percik” Indonesian edition at
  2. 2. E D I TO R I A LS enselessly, we have national government sho- been three years uld take action. So, this is with you, precisely the lesson for other cities insince August 2003 ago. At Indonesia to prevent recur-the time, Percik was only rence. Unfortunately, when24 black & white pages, few were making this paper,column, simple layout, and again waste tragedy tooklimited distribution. Percik place in Bantar Gebang,was at the time printed 500 Bekasi.exemplars. You in the local In innovation column,level possibly do not know we present a surprisingwhat Percik 1st edition water filter technology fo-looks like. und discovered by a grand- Now, Percik has pub- father in Bandung. Thislished 14 editions. Numbers water filter can handle andof rearrangements are car- purify many types of water.ried out including column It is possible that this tech-addition, page coloring, and nology can be developed aslayout improvement. Per- solution to water problemscik has been distributed in in Indonesia. In telescopeall districts/cities nation- column, we present a newwide including NGOs, univer- breakthrough in water sup-sities and embassies and some ply management. The bre-community. It seems that akthrough is made by LocalPercik gets its own position among water as there is a conflict of interests. Government of Sragen District, whichand sanitation (AMPL) stakeholders. Moreover, everyone knows that large always makes breakthroughs in go-Percik goals to be AMPL stakeholders fund is prepared for solution of the vernmental administration.information and communication media issues. Usually people will come to a In story column, we present privyhave come true. pleasant place. heroines from some regions. They ha- Nevertheless, we havent satisfied Lesson we learnt from this Ban- ve successfully established and imple-yet and we will always make improve- dung waste case is we dont give any mented free open defecation programment. In the next edition we will serious concern about cleanliness, and as model by community empo-release Percik Junior (Percik for especially relating with waste. We just werment and stakeholders for thechildren), which will contain informa- focus on other aspects. In fact, clean- successful development even thoughtion on water and sanitation especial- liness brings significant impact to they are not paid for for children so that they concern health and beauty. Ignorance of sani- Another interesting topic is that weand care about water and sanitation tary landfill, for example, has proven are allowed to interview Director ofas well. Curious about Percik Juni- to claim individual loss. Indisposed Water Resources and Irrigationor? Just wait the the next edition. waste has proven to disturb people Bappenas concerning drought that is ta- In this anniversary edition, we and affect city beauty. Waste manage- king place in some regions in Indonesia.present topic about Bandung waste ment is not easy; it needs cooperation In fact, water management is the causeissues. In our opinion, this is an inter- and coordination among regions. of the problems in addition to naturalesting topic. Until today, waste issues Bandung waste tragedy shows that and environmental conditions. Finally,in the city have not finished. The city government cannot address the we wish you success in taking benefitavailable solution is only temporary issues itself and even provincial and from Percik of this edition. Percik August 2006 1
  3. 3. R E A D E R S VO I C E CARICATURE BY RUDI KOSASIH Hadits CLTS CLTS training was held on 16-20May 2006 involving three districts inLombok Island (Lotim, Loteng andLobar Districts). Each districtinvolves three villages for field tryout. Especially for Lombok TimurDistrict, CLTS training was held on16-18 May 2006 in Hotel Meliwis, Jl.Labuhan Haji - Lombok Timur.During RTL in the classroom (last dayof 18 May 2006) participants fromthree tryout villages were present,namely from Sikur, Kerongkong and There is an interesting thing from water machines from morningTeros villages. one of the women participants from till late at night (currently almost Participants were shaken up with Teros village, namely Mrs. Murni 24 hours operation)one of participants from Sikur village, (Posyandu cadre and community 2. Stink coming from one or both ofnamely Ustadz Mohamad Saleh health coordinator/TKM Health pro- the places(Head of Segire/ Binong Hamlet) motion of Taros village). She told that For the reason, we hope that Pokjawhich presented hadits narrated by she was triggered to make the closet AMPL can inspect operation feasibili-Muslim and Abu Daud in relation to by herself without having to wait her ty of the rubber factory and hog farm,CLTS, namely God will curse the husbands help as she holds principles either from aspect of tolerated noisehuman being who defecate on the that motivation should begin from her and odor or environmental impactroad or others shelter. own self and to be model for another. analysis. We are concern that this will Meaning of the abovementioned affect peoples health especially ourhadits is: family in the short or long term. 1. "Watch out of two things that will Sugito, People have previously claimed bring Gods curse", Prophet Lombok Timur this problem to the local authority Mohammads friends asked: (RT/RW) but there is no follow up "What are the two things that will Noise and Stink until today. We do hope that Pokja bring curse, Oh Gods Prophet? AMPL will give attention and find out The prophet said: "They are who I, representing people of Dago Tol solution. defecates on the road or others Vila, Serua Village, Ciputat Sub-dis- shelter" trict of Tangerang District, Banten, A. Cholid, SIP (HR. Muslim and Abu Daud) inform you that a rubber factory and (021) 74701362 2. "Anyone who defecates should be hog farm are built in our residence, in the closed rather than open precisely in front of our houses block Thank you for your attention. We place which only bordered by river flow sep- will forward your letter to the relevant (HR. Abu Daud) arating Ciputat and Serpong. authority in your residence, namely 3. "Do not harm yourself and other" Presence of the places causes prob- Bapedalda of Tangerang District. We (HR Ibnu Majah and Ad-Da- lems, namely: hope this problem will be addressed 1. ruqutni) 1. Noise generated from rubber and immediately. (Editorial) 2 Percik August 2006
  4. 4. HEADLINESBecause of waste, Bandung becomes the dirtiest city inIndonesia. Some actions have been taken for solution.Is it sustainable? What measures are taken for solution in the future?I f Leuwigajah tragedy never existed on 21 Fe- closing of Leuwigajah landfill, wastes are disposed of bruary 2005, we might not give focus on waste temporarily in TPA Jelekong, Cicabe and Pasir Im- issue. The incident has awaken us to focus on pun as emergency landfills. This must be inevitablewaste issue more seriously. In fact, we dont have su- because in such a condition, Bandung city should befficient facilities, either physical or nonphysical (re- host of 50th Anniversary of Asia-Africa Conference.gulations), to solve the problem in local or national Resumption of these existing landfills is not easy.level. People around the landfill areas reject reopening of The most horrible tragedy in Indonesia took place these landfills; additionally their capacity is limited.and claimed 146 individual losses. Besides, the tra- TPA Jelekong on 10 ha area which was reopenedgedy left new problem, especially for Bandung city on March 2005 was closed on 31 December 2005. Asand surrounding area. Closing of Leuwigajah landfill substitute, waste was disposed of to TPA Cicabe on 9caused the city cannot dispose of their waste any- January 2006. Some other was disposed of to TPAmore. Pasir Impun, which has been closed since 1990, in or- Waste in Bandung city is left in amid the city. Pa- der to commemorate 50th Anniversary of Asia-Africaris van Java has changed into waste city. Stink and fli- Conference. Finally both landfills cannot accommo-es spread everywhere. Waste stacks disrupt the traf- date Bandung waste and since 15 April 2006 there isfic. Unsurprisingly, Ministry of Environment gave no more landfill.Bandung a predicate as the dirtiest city in Indonesia Indeed, Government of Bandung City has also at-during commemoration of World Environment Day, tempted to reduce onsite waste dump such as issu-the embarrassing predicate. ance of Circular Letter of Bandung Mayor No. 658.1/- SE 055-BPOD dated 28 April 2005 regarding proac-Emergency Response Plan tive measures of Bandung waste management Based on prediction, each people of Bandung and through 3R program and circular letter of Bandungsurrounding area produces 7,500 m3 waste. Since Mayor No. 658.1/SE.135-PD.KBR dated 27 Decem- Percik August 2006 3
  5. 5. HEADLINESber 2005 regarding optimization of Sub-district of Bandung District standing homework is how to manageCircular Letter of Bandung Mayor No. (owned by TNI AD) on 1.5ha area; city waste in the long-term period. Or658.1/SE 055-BPOD. Various peo- Blok Cigedik, Sarimukti Village, Cipa- otherwise, this can be time bomb forples activities have been conducted tat Sub-district of Bandung District the people at anytime.(see: Peoples waste management ac- (owned by Perum Perhutani) on 21.2 The city government itself is abouttivity in Bandung). This activity can ha area; and Blok Gunung Hejo, Cian- to establish waste management plantonly reduce 10% of total waste dump. ting Village, Sukatani Sub-district of after Mayor visit to Shanghai of China In line with that, Government of Bandung District (owned by PTP and Singapore to view closer wasteBandung City is attempting to find out VIII). The latest blok is not applicable management in both cities. It showsempty land owned by government, yet. Blok Cikubang was used from 26 that waste management plant is esta-people and corporation to be used as May to 11 June 2006, while Blok Cige- blished amid the city to produce ener-waste dump area. The locations found dik was used on 28 May 2006 until to- gy with the process not leaving anyinclude Regol (200m2), Cibenying day. waste. "Bandung city will refer to thisKaler (50m2), Kiaracondong During 15 April 2006-26 May approach," said H. Dada Rosada re-(400m2), Bandung Kidul (50m2), Su- 2006, the waste dump was increasing cently.mur Bandung (60m2), Bandung Ku- with the volume about 400 thousand To meet the demand, City Go-lon (264 m2) and Arcamanik m3. This waste has been relocated to vernment has attempted new(1,800m2). The locations are full by Blok Cigedig, Sarimukti by maxi- land as plant area, which is si-waste dump. mizing the existing fleet about 140 tuated downtown, in East Ban- This condition makes Government dump trucks from Bandung Cleaning dung area on an area of 20 ha di-of Bandung City to seek alternatives Agency, rented truck and assistance vided into 5 ha for plant, 5 ha for re-but this is not easy. There are 31 loca- from army. For temporarily, waste serve area and 10 ha for revegetati-tions expected for new or emergency problem can be addressed. on. According to Mayor, the locationlandfills. From such number, three doesnt bring any problem as it isbecome nominees, namely Blok Cime- City Governments Long Term owned by only one person whorang, Citatah village of Bandung Dis- Planning doesnt mind of the plan.trict; Blok Legonk Nangka, Nagrek Bandung is clean now. Predicate of Proposal of Bandung city govern-Sub-district of Bandung District; and the dirtiest city can be omitted. But it ment is based on waste managementSumur Bandung village, Cipatat Sub- doesnt mean that waste problem in strategy, namely (i) change in viewpo-district of Bandung District. Never- the city has been finished. The out- int and perception of (waste producertheless, they are hampered by permit SOURCE:MUJIYANTOand people around the locations rejectthe scheme. Government of West Java Provin-ce takes action. Moreover, central go-vernment gives serious attention tocondition of Bandung city. ProvincialGovernment, together with Muspida,Government of Bandung City, Go-vernment of Bandung District, Go-vernment of Cimahi City, Perum Per-hutani unit III West Java, Kodam IIISiliwangi and PTP VIII through a se-ries of discussions, have agreed threelocations for temporary landfill, na- mely Blok Cikubang, Sumur Emergency Landfill: TPA Sarimukti. Bandung Village, Cipatat 4 Percik August 2006
  6. 6. HEADLINESand management) on waste, from dis-posable or destroyed thing to sustain- WASTE PHYSICAL CONDITION IN BANDUNG CITY PER DAYable resources, (ii) maintaining ser-vice sustainability as management NO. COMPONENT WEIGHT AND VOLUMEsystem will minimize likeliness of co- Weight (ton) % Weight Vol (m3) %Volngestion or saturation of operational 1. Organic Waste 1.11 59,5 3.592,5 47,9link, i.e. disposal system. Congestion 2. Paper 223 11,9 2.235 29,8or saturation of disposal link will stopother service links such as waste col- 3. Textile 10 0,5 112,5 1,5lection and transportation and this 4. Plastic 236 12,6 697,5 9,3will cause waste dump in the dump 5. Fragile 26 1,4 60 0,8area and other places. 6. Metal 28 1,5 292,5 3,9 While going to realize the goal, city 7. Others 236 12,8 525 7,0government in cooperation with Ban-dung Institute of Technology (ITB) Total 1.875 100,0 7.500 100.0 Source: Pemkot Bandungwill develop small scale waste mana-gement plant. Everyday this plant will cient for plant operation), plant ma- The committee is responsible forprocess 24 ton waste and produce 500 nagement will be handled jointly by formulating strategic measureskWh energy. private company and city government in the effort of waste reduction This energy is considered too with subsidy mechanism. in Bandung Metropolitan as wellsmall and inefficient. This plant will According to Bandung Mayor, this as establishing cooperation andin turn produce 25-30 megawatt ener- plan will not affect the Greater Ban- and obtain 1,500 ton waste intake dung Waste Management Corpora- Through a series of meetings, theper day. This plant will also produce tion (GBWMC). He considered that ad hoc committee establishes the fol-steam and ash for concrete brick. And Bandung waste is abundant. "We will lowing strategic principles: keep implementing the program," 1. Waste reduction through 3Rthe electric power will be sold to thepeople. said Dada. (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in This plan seems to be realized. Ci- order to minimize collection,ty government has associated with PT. Ad Hoc Committees Policy transportation and disposal Waste management in Bandung 2. Polluter pays principle, namelyBandung Raya Indah Lestari (BRIL)and Daarut Tauhid, ITB and PLN. city cannot be imposed only on city any polluter is liable pay wasteCity government will serve as waste government. Many stakeholders in- management volve in this issue, including regional 3. Landfill is still necessary for cityproducer, PT. BRIL and Daruut Tau-hid as waste management and PLN as government around the capital of waste management West Java Province. So the manage- 4. Regional cooperation to findelectric power buyer and seller, whileITB provides the waste technology. If ment should be inevitably integrated landfill location and joint wastethere is no obstacle, the plant will be with all stakeholders either for short- management term (until end 2007), mid-term (2-3 5. Further development plan,established next year. In management aspect, city go- years) and long-term period (10 namely waste use for other inter-vernment prepares concept. Firstly, years). Accordingly, central govern- ests and effective reduction, suchcalculation of business operability in ment established ad hoc committee as implementation of Wasteaccordance with market mechanism on 23 June 2006. The committee con- to Energy.(business feasibility), with plant ma- sists of local team (Bandung city go- For short-term plan, onsite was-nagement referred to private compa- vernment, district government, Cima- te management will be conductedny. Secondly, if the plant cannot ope- hi, and ITB) and central team through household-scale sor- rate as per market mechanism (Bappenas, Ministry of Public Work, ting, 3R, and composting. There- (proceeds of sale is insuffi- Ministry of Environment and BPPT). fore, socialization, training and Percik August 2006 5
  7. 7. HEADLINESestablishment of KSM (Kelompok Mid-term plan, onsite level, in- ding of waste management, full costSwadaya Masyarakat/Self-support cludes replication of sorting program, recovery achievement and pilot projectCommunity Group), household com- 3R, household composting and pu- of regional composting. In final disposalposting and law enforcement will be nishment. In temporary disposal site site (TPA) level, implementation of RSLcarried out. In temporary disposal site (TPS), increase in transport coverage, and SL technology for TPA Leuwigajah,(TPS), increase in waste coverage will replication of regional composting construction of Integrated Waste Mana-be implemented by enhancing trans- program and study and construction gement (capacity 100m3/day on an areaportation fleet, TPS inventory and re- of landfill. In final disposal site level, 1,500 ha with investment Rp. 2.3 bil-vitalization, GIS (Geographic Infor- feasibility study, environmental im- lion); Waste to Energy - Pilot Projectmation System) based route regulati- pact analysis and DED of TPA Ci- Waste to Energy (100 ton/day), supervi-on and schedule, regional composting tiis/Legok Nangka; socialization of sion of Pilot Project Waste to Energy andprogram, and study and construction Reusable Sanitary Landfill (RSL) and evaluation.of TPS. While in final disposal site, Sanitary Landfill (SL) technology in Waste management by ad hoc co-TPA Sarimukti will be revitalized TPA Leuwigajah; feasibility study of mmittee seems result of compilation and(landfill 21.2 ha) through Detailed Regional Sanitary Landfill; interregio- compromised ide-as of stakeholders.Engineering Design (DED) and deve- nal cooperation; cooperation with (see: Options of Waste Managementlopment of composting plant together private company; DED of integrated Concept in Bandung City). Theore-with operation and maintenance in waste management, pilot project was- tically, the policy is promising. But,addition to positioning of Integrated te to (i) energy, (ii) organic fertilizer is it applicable? The question isWaste Management Plant, land acqui- and Pilot Project Landfill Gas to Ener- necessary since implementationsition, environmental impact analysis, gy (LFGTE). involving many relevant parties isDED, TPA Citiis/Legok Nangka; iden- Meanwhile, long-term plan includes usually inapplicable as expected. Ho-tification of action plan as per onsite waste management, similar to pingly it is just an apprehension. NowGBWMC result and settlement of previous plan. In temporary disposal site we just wait which action will anticipatelegal status of TPA Leuwigajah. (TPS) level, efficiency and capacity buil- Bandung waste. Mujiyanto. GBWMC P R O G R A M AT GLANCE G reater Bandung Waste Management Corporation (GBWMC) is a WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE corporation established for waste management in Bandung City WASTE MAN- Phase - 1 Phase - 2 Phase - 3 (and surrounding area). This establishment is based on MoU of AGEMENT Bandung Waste Management dated 7 March 2005, Decision of Area 1 TPA 100 ha PHASE 100 ha 100 ha Governor of West Java Province regarding Establishment of Formulation Team of Bandung Waste Management and Joint Decision Life Period 20-25 years > 25 years >>> 25 years regarding Establishment of Collective Waste Management in Bandung City dated 27 December 2005. Local government involving in this Waste TPA TPA TPA Storage GBWMC includes Bandung City, Cimahi City, Bandung District, Garut Management Sanitary District, and Sumedang District. Two other districts, Purwakarta and Cianjur, have not given any confirmation. Model Landfill Recovery Storage Waste to Energy The GBWMC implementation strategy adopts 3 principles namely: 1. Technical Products ---- - gas, compost - electric, chemical a. Onsite waste prevention: residential area, farm, stores, inclu- Revenue Rp. 0 Rp. XXX Rp. YYY ding offices and schools (regulations and enforcement) b. Sanitary landfill is still necessary 2. Institution and human resources a. Waste is public management Implementation of GBWMC (Sanitary landfill and onsite waste re- b. Capacity building of public services or outsourcing duction) requires capital cost Rp. 385 billion. There are four financing 3. Culture and spirit scenarios, (i) central-province-district/city sharing, (ii) province-dis- a. Physical waste is resulted from nonphysical waste trict/city sharing, (iii) province-district/city-investor sharing, (iv) b. Approach: culture/model and spirit (campaign/socialization) World Bank loan by involving private company as operator. There will be two sanitary landfills in Bandung City, namely one GBWMC plans to establish collective waste management not later for east region and other for west region. Based on survey, there are than 27 December 2006. Governor of West Java Province is expected two selected locations, namely Citiis (100 ha) and Legok Selong to having issued decision on the designation of sanitary landfill loca- (70ha), while phases of waste management are described as follows: tion. MJ 6 Percik August 2006
  8. 8. HEADLINES Onsite Waste ReductionI n addition to seeking alternative landfill, Bandung composting in Ex TPA Pasir Impun and recycling of PET Cleaning Agency has established cooperation with and PE (plastic bottles and glasses of mineralized water) stakeholders for waste reduction onsite or in tempo- and plastic recycle to dustbin.rary disposal site (TPS). The standing partnership will be The activities include:Composting by Bitari Foundation in Ex TPA Pasir Impun Self-support activities Area = 2,000 m2 PT PINDAD Waste volume = ± 20m3/day Area = 600 m2 Compost production = 660kg/day Waste volume = 9 - 10 m3/day Compost production = 500 - 1000 Kg/Day Type of waste: 90% leaves, 10% office refuse (paper + food remnant). Inorganic residues are incinerated.Plastic recycle by CV. Fajat in ex TPA Pasir Impun andJl. Holis Area = 2,000 m2 RW 1 1 C i b a n g k o n g Volume of plastic waste = ± 0,5 - 1 ton/day Area = ± 400 m2 Production = chips and containers (including land for revegetation pilot project) Waste volume ± 400 m2 Compost production = 1 - 1,5 ton/Day Inorganic residues are sorted and sold. J h o n Pi e t e r s Location: RW 06 and Jl. Cipamokolan No. 77 Cipamo- kolan Village, Rancasari Area = ± 2.500 m2 Plastic waste volume = ± 6 ton/dayBesides, other activities are implemented through Metals waste volume = ± 8 ton/dayWJEMP-CEF program, from which the work having Product: plastic pelletbeen carried out is composting in 5 RW ofGegerkalong village, Sukasari Sub-district Composting with Green Phoskko RW 04 Cipadung vil- Area = ± 300 m2 lage, Cibiru Sub-district Waste volume = ± 2-3 ton/day Compost production = ± 1 - 1,5 ton/day Area = ± 100 m2 Inorganic residues are sorted and sold Waste volume ± 2 m3/day Compost production = ± 0.35 m3/day Inorganic residues are sorted and sold Leachate is used for making liquid fertilizer Composting with Green Phoskko RW 14 Palasari vil- lage, Cibiru Sub-district Area = ± 100 m2 Waste volume = ± 1,2 m3/day Compost production = ± 0,2 m3/day Inorganic residues are sorted and sold Inorganic residues are incinerated, ash is used for bricking. Percik August 2006 7
  9. 9. HEADLINES OPTIONS OF BANDUNG WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTI n fact, Bandung waste has been ITB 22.66% (total transported waste anticipated even just temporari- Integrated waste management, na- 3,200 m3/day). Implementation of ly. This tragedy calls stakehol- mely: 3R concept for long term period mayders for brainstorming in solving the Household composter achieve 30-60% of total dump.problems. There are at least three Composting in RT/RW level Capital cost required during 2006institutions contributing their con- about 10 RT : 3 waste cart with will be Rp. 2 billion.cepts in addition to Bandung city go- volume 4.5-5m3/dayvernment itself. The concepts are sug- Integrated waste management, BPPTgested by Technological Studies and capacity 100m3/day; requiring Scenario 1Implementation Board (BPPT), Ban- 1,500 m2 area; main hangar, Rehabilitation TPA Leuwi-dung Institute of Technology (ITB) composting hangar, greenhouse, gajah (if applicable) intoand Ministry of Environment. The fol- conveyor belt, organic waste qu- reusable sanitary landfilllowing are concepts of each institu- antifying machine, composting and 3R-based integratedtion: aeration system, gasification and waste management. Mana- biogas reactor, compost filter, in- gement cost per ton waste is BANDUNG CITY GOVERNMENT cinerator, brick casting machine, Rp. 79,074 Short-term before application of weighing scale, etc. Operating Scenario 2 waste management technology cost at minimum capacity Implementation of reusable sani- Community participation through (20m3) is Rp. 27,000/m3 and at tary landfill (if TPA Leuwigajah is 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) maximum capacity (100 m3) is inapplicable and new adequate Composting, small scale incine- Rp. 5,400/m3. landfill area is found) and 3R- ration based integrated waste manage- Local dump MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT ment. Two RSL locations are Advanced waste management Implementation of 3R concept by required with capacity 13,000 Development of waste manage- maximizing 6 potential dump area m3/dasy and 7,000 m3/day. ment plant to produce energy, during 2006. This method is expect- Management cost will be Rp. organic fertilizer or other products; ed to reduce 725 m3 waste or about 87,079 per ton waste plant capacity 1,500 Scenario 3 ton/- day; 24 hours FOTO:MUJIYANTO Implementation of waste to ener- operation; energy gy through incinerator, small output 30 M watt scale RSL and 3R-based in- Management is de- tegrated management (if TPA signated to private Leuwigajah is inapplicable and company if business new but small landfill area is fo- calculation is suita- und). Incinerator will have ca- ble with market me- pacity 1,000 ton waste per day chanism. If not, the equipped with heat to energy plant will be jointly system. It requires 5 ha and operated by city go- two RLS areas with capacity vernment and pri- 8,000m3/day, respectively. vate company Cost management per ton waste will be Rp. 124,870. MJ 8 Percik August 2006
  10. 10. HEADLINES Mayor of Bandung City, H. Dada Rosada Nothing More to Do with Traditional Way SOURCE:MUJIYANTOC an you explain waste mana- gement in Bandung beforeemergency response? waste dump raised on 26 May 2006, which lasted 41 days. There was 7,500 m3 waste everyday and, if multiplied by So far, waste management is carri- 41 day, produced 400 thousand m3ed out traditionally, namely sanitary waste. Therefore I asserted thatlandfill to maximally control landfill. Bandung is under waste emergency.In sanitary landfill, waste is disposed And this is not national issue but alsoand leveled at a certain location, while international. I kept attempting solu-in control landfill, waste is disposed tion. On 26 May, Governor and Com-of, leveled and overburdened with so- mander of Kodam III Siliwangi tookil. Either sanitary or control landfill action to provide us with 21 ha area inwill bring serious problems if theyre Sarimukti owned by Perhutani. In theleft unmanaged. meantime, we used Kodam land area Sanitary landfill needs wide area. of 2.5 ha in Cikubang but it was appli-If the land is small, the waste dump cable only for 10 days. Now we usewill in turn cause accident. For exam- vestors. The three investors made land in Sarimukti. In Sarimukti,ple, TPA Leuwigajah tragedy. If we consortium called PT. Bandung Raya Governor executed MoU with Per-overburden it with soil, the result re- Indah Lestari (BRIL). On September hutani on 7 August as legality for themains the same because of leachate 2005, we executed MoU with the land use. That waste produced byand potential collapse. We cannot company, in which they should seek Bandung district, Cimahi, Bandungeven dump it vertically. With the Leu- an area and acquire it for factory. Pre- city will be processed as compostwigajah incident, we have to do better viously, on July-August 2005, we visi- based on ideas of the team establishedand do not repeat the same mistake, ted Shanghai China for comparative by Minister of National Planning andwhich will just cause incident and loss study to see waste management plant Development/Head of Bappenas,to people and city government. in the city. So we will adopt their tech- State Minister of Environment, Mi- nology although Head of Bandung nister of Research and Technology. What will local government District and I have ever been trained The government granted Rp. 14 billi-do after Leuwigajah collapse? about waste management so that I can on to build compost plant in Sari- Upon Governors verbal approval, complement the comparative study in mukti. After visit to Singapore onearound March 2005, we invited 15 in- Japan and China. On September week ago, I found that there is avestors who have concern of waste 2005, BRIL sought the area and it downtown waste management tomanagement that produces compost, seemed uneasy. Some government energy, water treatment. We havefertilizer, energy, briquette, brick, ce- agreed but the people disagreed. So it four locations and for power energy,ment, etc. They come from domestic is not easy. The last, we still disposed Bandung city is potential because itand foreign investors. To select them, of waste in Jelekong, Bandung Dis- uses only 5 ha area for plant, 15 ha forwe established a formulation team trict, and then closed. We also have greenbelt and 5 ha for reserve, and 10consisting of city government, envi- landfill area 7 ha in Pasir Impun but it ha for revegetation. Based on experi-ronmental specialists and Unpad re- was closed, also we have in Cicabe but ences from visiting some countries,presentative. The team worked hard it was closed on 14 April. So, on 15 the waste management remains noand selected five and finally three in- April no more landfill at all. Until residue at all because waste is Percik August 2006 9
  11. 11. HEADLINES ILLUSTRATION BY: RUDI KOZ Local the important thing G o v t. is ACTION, man....processed continuously. Bandung ci- results in collective landfill in Sari- difficulty in finding out the plant area.ty will refer to thee approaches. I ho- mukti, Bandung District. Bandungpe, if realized, this will be the first in district and Cimahi have less waste. From the waste tragedy, doesIndonesia. Bandung city produces 7,500 m3 per Bandung still maintain the exis- day while Cimahi produces only 450 m3 ting master plan or prepare the Does city government only per three months. We are who want new one?cooperate with private compa- the waste changed into electric power. We prepare the new master plan.ny? By chance, PLN has not been able to The existing one is sanitary landfill, On 31 July ago, cooperation of serve all people. isnt it? It is inapplicable anymore.Bandung city government was exten- Now were preparing a new masterded with ITB, PLN san Darut Tauhid. Where will the plant be estab- plan, which consists the locationThe decision: City Government is lished? points, while in RT/RW and RDTRK,waste producer; PT. BRIL and Darut It will be established in Bandung we plot Bandung Timur as non-pollu-Tauhid are management, PLN is ener- Timur. It is under process now. Insya tant industry and warehousing buyer and seller, and ITB provides Allah we dont have any problemdesign and technology. Previously because the land is owned by one per- What you just explained re-ITB and PLN have made small-scale son and he has agreed with. We hope fers to how management of finaljoint-operation of 24 ton waste/day the plant establishment will not be the waste is. Hows community em-producing 500 Kwh electric power. same as in Bojong. We have made powerment in waste reduction?This was considered too small so that socialization to our community and We encourage the community toPLN suggested cooperation with city they agree with our plan. sort their household waste as applica-government as the latter has abun- ble in the developed countries. Atdant waste supply. We plan to change How do you think of budget? least, they sort between organic and1500 ton waste per day into 25 It will be given gradually. inorganic waste. We then pick up andmegawatt electric power. bring their waste to the depot. And How much will it be alloca- there, the waste is sorted again. In the What kind of regional coope- ted? management plant, we will prepareration you establish with local We havent fixed it yet. All to do casual until skilled workers.government? now is legality. We havent prepared Cooperation with government of the business plan as we are encoun- How is your cooperation withBandung district and Cimahi city tering many problems, for example private company?10 Percik August 2006
  12. 12. HEADLINES We refer the work to them. They transport from the TPS to final dis- incident as Bandung has?invest and operate the plant; we give posal site (TPA) without any treat- Firstly, there must be behavioralour waste and pay them so they take ment. Community should pay retribu- change. We should not dispose ofprofit from our payment. Besides, tion for waste transport we conduct waste carelessly. We should sortthey sell waste energy to PLN. from TPS to TPA. wastes, and local government should not adopt traditional waste manage- What is impact of waste mana- Is there any special regula- ment, such as sanitary landfill.gement plant to performance of tion on this agreement?Bandung Cleaning Service Agency? It is just MoU. What should other local go- Well, well make it gradually; vernment do if they were toprobably we involve them in the It means that legality must be encounter waste emergency?operation. The plant will be returned prepared for this? They should refer to high techno-to city government if BOT or BTO is Yes, it must. Moreover, this agree- logy waste management, either collec-completed, wont it? ment involves ITB, PLN and Darut tive (joining with other local govern- Tauhid. ments) or individual management. How long the work agree-ment with private company? How much budget will be Do you mean, in emergency? Well, minimally 20 years required for this waste manage- Yes, we with all levels of communi- ment? ty implement 3R, reduce, reuse and Does local government pre- We obtain Rp. 20 billion from recycle. But it is highly emergency andpare special regulations to le- local government. But charge im- it didnt work maximally. During 41galize this agreement? posed on Cleaning Service Agency for days were facing about 400 thousand Yes, it does. The local regulation retribution is only 53% of budget m3 waste. By implementing 3R, wehas been issued. It regulates Waste demand of more than Rp 20 billion. could only reduce 10 thousand m3.Management, transport from houses Besides, the process will not immedi-to temporary disposal site (TPS) is Do you have any suggestions for ately bring revolution. This model isconducted by RT/RW community and other cities to prevent the similar only for long-term plan. Not all people SOURCE:MUJIYANTO can implement waste management in their houses. So change in waste ma- nagement from traditional way to high technology is a must. When will the plant be ope- rated? Construction is under way this year. It needs 1 year. And for the peri- od of time, we dispose of waste in Sarimukti and so far so good. Is your plan not causing con- flict with GBWMC program? It doesnt matter with GBWMC. We keep following the GBWMC pro- gram. Moreover, Bandung waste is abundant. So there is nothing to worry about with Sarimukti. MJ. Corner of Bandung city that is already clean. Percik August 2006 11
  13. 13. HEADLINES Lesson Learned from Bandung Waste Emergency SituationW aste in Indonesia has been needs immediate actions. Eventually, so apprehensive, signalized By: Endang Setyaningrum* not less than four ministers (Minister by numbers of waste pollu- of Public Work, Minister of Envi-tion and get the peak when TPA Leu- 300,000 m3 waste was retained ronment, Bappenas and BPPT) andwigajah collapsed on February 2005 downtown as no other landfill will even ITB were rushed with wasteago which claimed 146 victims and accommodate the waste of 4,000m3 emergency response plan even thoughfollowed by hot debate and blaming per day, or precisely, peoples strong Presidential Instruction was referredeach other. Nevertheless, as common- resistance against alternative landfills only to Minister of happening in out country, Leuwi- (TPA Jelekong, TPA Babakan, etc.). In this emergency response plan,gajah tragedy is not followed by ade- With such a condition, it is sure that Indonesian Army also took action toquate improvement, either technical Bandung, which is known as cool and evacuate waste out of the city (certain-or political. The incident seems to be beautiful city has now changed into ly with assistance of local governmentlowest anticlimax in Indonesia waste the city of stink and disgusted wastes personnel and cleaning service agen-management. and even potential diseases spreading cy) by deploying personnel, heavy Although government of Indone- everywhere. equipments and providing dump lo-sia makes official announcement of Whether there is or not waste cation in Cikubang, Darangdan Sub-waste "emergency" in Bandung, the emergency statement officially from district of Purwakarta District (4 hafact shows that since May 2006, after government, we should admit that the area). This was probably referred toLeuwigajah collapse, a total of condition has been supercritical and emergency situation as similar to war condition where TNI was in the front SOURCE:ENDANG SETYANINGRUM line as well as establishment of Taskforce and Ad Hoc Committee. Besides, the waste was also dumped in plantation area owned by Perhutani in Sarimukti village (21 ha), Cipatat- Rajamandala Sub-district, Bandung District. Actually there are optional loca- tions for emergency landfill but upon peoples resistance against the waste, governor chose 3 locations: - Cikubang (4 ha), 28km from Bandung city, an area owned by Army in Purwakarta District - Sarimukti (21 ha), 42 km from Bandung city, an area owned by Perhutani in Bandung District - Gunung Hejo (8 ha), 33km from Badung city, an area owned by Waste piles up at temporary disposal site (TPS) PTP VIII in Purwakarta District12 Percik August 2006
  14. 14. HEADLINES SOURCE:ENDANG SETYANINGRUM Disposal in Cikubang area wasconducted by army using adequateemergency disposal namely cut andfill method. I think that army person-nel understand not only military butalso familiar with the "cat method".Unfortunately, waste dumped in Ci-kubang was only about 50,000 m3(land area used was only 1.5 ha of 4 haarea) for 30 days. Meanwhile, disposal in Sarimuktiis more emergency because it reliedonly on open dumping with com-paction (without backfilling as imple-mented in Cikubang) with disposalcapacity 800m3/day (today it accom-modates 70,000 m3). Actually land Waste trucks stand in line to enter TPA Cikubanguse permit in Sarimukti area is forcomposting but due to emergency sit-uation, composting has not been com- dination cost, waste delivery cost,menced yet until today. Currently which was repeatedly rejected by peo- ple, cost of ill people due to waste pol- In the meantime, land use in only Rp. 15,000.-/m3Gunung Hejo (8 ha, and 5.5 ha lution in the city, cost for reduced is available far below local tourists which cancelled theirusable) situating in the edge ofCipularang toll road, has not been im- reasonable cost of waste visit to Bandung, etc.plemented. Although quick detailed What expensive a waste emer- management. gency situation in Bandung is. Wereengineering design has been imple-mented for better waste disposal due And finally we just TPA Leuwigajah not to collapse; were TPA Leuwigajah able to be operatedto presence of spring around the area, make suppositions.Local House of Purwakarta rejected with appropriate sanitary landfill;the land use although water supply were fund allocation adequate (cur- for 3 months equals Rp. 8.1 billion rently only Rp. 15,000.-/m3 is avail-requirements for people around the - Disposal cost in Cikubang (heavy able far below reasonable cost ofarea (Cibentar and Pasirmalaka vil- equipments, personnel and safe- waste management). And finally welage) have been fulfilled by Ministry of ty infrastructures) just make suppositions.Public Work. Even access permit via - Disposal cost in Sarimukti (heavytoll road was being under process by equipments, personnel and When will waste emergencyMinister of Public Work. repair of access road to location) situation last? - DED Cost of Sarimukti After 3 months passes and based onCost of Emergency Response - Preparation cost of Gunung Hejo calculation of waste volume having beenPlan location (DED, water supply) evacuated from Bandung and Cimahi to Emergency response plan, which - Seven units of heavy equipments emergency landfill, there are in fact tensinitially expected to finish for 1 month costing Rp. 11 billion of thousands m3 waste retained in thepursuant to Presidential Instruction, - Cost of water supply in the Gu- city even it is not as dirty as it was.takes 3 months. During the period, nung Hejo location Bandung gradually returns back to bethere have numbers of cost payable by Such costs do not include those clean and even crowded by tourists fromseveral parties for the following items: difficult to estimate such as land cost Jakarta, especially during holiday and - Transport cost (Rp. 750,000/trip) either in Cikubang or Sarimukti, coor- weekend. of 180 dump trucks (2 trips/day) Percik August 2006 13
  15. 15. HEADLINES Does it mean that emergency Executives and legislatives sho-response plan ends? How is uld not be reluctant in allocatingcontinuity of landfill improvement Executives and budget for better waste manage-in Sarimukti which is conducted ment, especially for improving land- legislatives should notonly through open dumping method fill quality after emergency responseand possible contaminating by be reluctant in (TPA Sarimukti) and actualizingleachate? How is continuity of inte- allocating budget large-scale integrated compostinggrated composting in Sarimukti (as plant.per Perhutani permit)? There is still for better waste Finally, waste master plan sho-a number of problems requiring fol- management uld be prepared as long-term refer-low up to prevent "waste emergency ence for stakeholders, including spa-volume 2". tial allocation for landfill area com- plete with buffer zone and applica-Scenarios After Emergency been alleviated from Bandung, we tion of "landfill borderline". LandfillResponse should think and learn lessons from allocation is also for long-term in- For scenario post emergency Bandung incident as starting point vestment because we will obtainplan, infrastructure improvement in toward spirit of better waste ma- "new land" after landfill, possibly asCikubang and Sarimukti is recom- nagement. green open land.mended to overcome contamination People awareness of waste reduc- * Staff at the Directorate oflikely visible in Sarimukti, especially tion by means of composting and Settlement Sanitary Development,leachate contamination and prepa- recycling should be supported, for Directorate General of Humanration of integrated waste manage- example, by giving them incentives. Settlement, Ministry of Public Work.ment (composting and recycling). SOURCE:ENDANG SETYANINGRUM Further step is returning back toGBWMC scenarios consisting of: - Socialization to community and stakeholders to prevent social conflict as it was - Land acquisition (Citiis and Kebon Nangka-Nagrek) with appropriate compensation - Preparation of adequate landfill area and waste management facility especially relating to preparation of buffer zone, environmental conservation facility, etc. - Landfill operation in professio- nal ways and causing adverse impact or social conflict as well as TPA Leuwigajah manage- ment after collapse and TPA Jelekong.Lessons Learned Although storm (of waste) has Entered condition to TPA Cikubang14 Percik August 2006
  16. 16. I N T E RV I E W Director of Water Resources and Irrigation, Bappenas, Ir. M. Dony Azdan, MA, MS, PhD Java Needs New Storages SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE water to the river when rain and retain it when dry. Irrigation pattern Drought is occurring several regions in in Indonesia is commonly gravitation- Indonesia recently which brings significant al irrigation. So, it only dams up and losses. Amazingly, the regions are flooded dur- raise water level. There is no water ing rain. This is an interesting phenomenon to control except dam. That is what big be discussed. Why does it happen and is this dams do for. It is full control. But merely natural phenomenon or human inter- most our irrigations are semi control, vention? Accordingly, Percik is allowed to meaning irrigation by raising water interview Director of Water Resources and level. Irrigation Bappenas, M. Dony Azdan in his office as quoted below. What kind of environmental intervention will be? Talking about environment, we do nothing but recommendation such asD rought is hitting Indonesia. What causes it? There are three main causes; first- progressively. Until today we have technical irrigation of 4.6 million ha in full control. There are also semi no cutting forests. Low-income far- mers in the upper catchments area usually plant crops such as cassavaly global climate change because rain technical and simple irrigation of and corn, which are unsuitable withand dry take place outside the fixed almost 7.2 million ha. There is also the river flow as the crops are not ca-months. Secondly, environmental fac- the so-called rained irrigation, which pable of retaining water. Many devel-tors. Thirdly, water infrastructure. is usually applied in the rural area opers forget that the new settlementsEnvironmental factors are clear; there without technical irrigation. they build are parking area of theare significant factors outside water water. For example, Jakarta was usedsystem such as forestry, dry farm, etc. How far does it affect dro- to have a lot of swamps, which retainso that capacity of natural or artificial ught? water before flowing to the sea. Now,water flow will deplete. We can see If we talk about drought, it looks the area is developed and raised, etc.dams with very high deposits. like two-sided coin. One side is dro- so that water has no place to stay and ught and another side is flooded. This this often causes flood. How about infrastructures? indicates change in ability of a river to For infrastructures, we have in- retain sufficient water as the catch- Is there relationship betweenvestment of almost Rp. 10 billion in ment area has been destroyed, etc. drought and river characters?water resources including irrigation, What were focusing in our research is Rivers in Java are commonly steepriver control and swamp development whether the dry area is flooded during but short so that they have rapidin the beginning of New Order era. rain. In fact, big rivers commonly act flushing. In the meantime, we have noThe largest investment is allocated for so. But for development areas such as storages to save water for dry season.irrigation as the time being we were irrigation areas, the fact is not neces- Today we have 120 dams. But if weencouraged to food self-support and sary like that. This refers to control. observe, especially in Java Island, wethis made irrigation was developed Artificial irrigation areas will release can only save 10% water, while other Percik August 2006 15
  17. 17. I N T E RV I E W90% is never used until the water dition Java Island has based on wet or dry. If this year is dry, all out-reaches the sea. Thus, it has steep and the study? lets are closed to allow water raise toshort flow, rapid flushing and too bad We have regencies with potential optimum level rather than releasing itthat we have no storages. Until 1990s, water deficits based on hydrology and at anytime. If this year is wet, somewe have developed numbers of dams. demand for agricultural and industri- outlets are opened. Lets say this yearSince early 1980s to end 1990s, many al sectors. A total of 77% districts in we have storage, then we will haveconflicts arose from friends of envi- Java are water deficits. Such deficits planting pattern, especially in the ter-ronmental ministry to build dams are divided into three categories, minate area. So, in Karawang andwith reasons that it will change envi- namely light category between 0-3 Purwakarta districts will have definiteronment, etc. that it is so difficult to months per year; moderate category water supply according to plantingbuild dams. They compare with US or between 3-6 months per year and acreage. For regions with small waterEurope. The US has 25 thousand severe category more than 6 months debit, we make classification. Untildams while we have only hundreds. per year. If this condition is left with- certain extent, if water is depleted,Indeed, there are two influential fac- out infrastructure intervention, then there should be predetermined plan-tors, land acquisition and environ- in 2015, 78% regions will undergo ting pattern. In Indramayu for exam-mental change, but I personally consi- deficit, with light to moderate or to ple, because water debit is small, riceder the storages to be necessary. If we severe category will increase. Location planting is delayed. Then plantingneed to build dams, it means we sho- will not significantly change but classification is provided, for exampleuld do it because it is really necessary. deficit is severer. In 2025, deficit may from rice-rice-intercrops to rice-inter- reach 80.5%. And if we list the avail- crops-intercrops. This planting mana- Does it mean, we could pre- able information, there are 26 gement was previously controlled bydict the drought based on natu- regions, which will subject to dry, for ulu-ulu with strict authority. But inral condition? example Bandung. This region is the present, farmers are difficult to be From all regions in Indonesia, quite severe. Garut has light deficit. controlled. Although they know it isthere are two regions with potential Indramayu is severe. Kebumen is dry season, they plant rice. And whenwater deficit, namely Java and Nusa quite severe. Wonosobo is unusual. It water supply is insufficient, they getTenggara, while others are based on should not be deficit, but the fact angry. Indeed, farmers may not takeglobal water balance, not deficit. shows that it is deficit. So there is a water along the bed channel becauseUnfortunately, we see it locally. In problem of water management. Se- it is allocated for the terminate areas.essence, if we see by island, the Java marang is light deficit. Purbalingga Everyone will get quota. Sometimes,Island has potential water deficit. should not be deficit as it obtains wa- they pump water into their rice fieldAccording to our global calculation, ter from Comal and Serayu rivers, but and then terminated area will drybased on study of water resources the fact shows that it is dry. This is in Java Island, Java is due to water management, and this iswater deficit 5 billion m3 per year. what were studying now. What do you think of enforce-This means saving level should be ment?raised. We need large storages. The Which management should It is difficult to implement nowa-current strategy is, because of many be implemented to prevent the days. Previously farmers followed ulu-conflicts from environmental factor drought? ulu instruction, now they dont. Thisarise in building the dams, we should Lets take an example of Jatiluhur water management has slightly cha-build large number of small and with full control. It has west channel nged with regional autonomy. Whomedium scale dams such as embung- for Jakarta supply, east channel for will hold responsibility? Although re-embung. Each district, for example, Indramayu and surrounding areas, gulations have been applicable, res-should have one dam. and north channel for coastal areas. ponsibility for irrigation over 3 thou- Actually in the end or mid of rainy se- sand ha lies on central government, 1- Could you explain what con- ason, we can see whether this year is 3 thousand ha lies on provincial res-16 Percik August 2006
  18. 18. I N T E RV I E W SOURCE:MUJIYANTOponsibility and below one thousandha lies on district responsibility; thequestion: is institution ready? Over 3thousand ha for example, who holdsresponsibility in the central level?Inevitably there should be secondingassignment to local level. In that case,region holds more responsibility. Li-kewise, provincial level has not prepa-red person in charge, and finally sec-onding assignment is required. Theseunits are changing. Previously, al-though from central level, the person-nel can be used by district/ provincial Water storage in Situ Cibereum, Bandung, is decreasing.level. Therefore, it is still under im- How is our water infrastruc- and secondary one remains on go-provement if seen from management ture nowadays? vernment control and that is prone topoint. From infrastructure aspect, we ha- conflict because the users are not only ve problems with operation and main- farmers. We hope that farmers will be How much storage do we tenance. It is fact that if we build con- responsible for this tertiary channelneed? struction in one place, we often forget by establishing farmers group to Java Island needs 5 billion m3. As maintenance in the previous place. maintain the infrastructure. In case ofillustration, Indramayu is a dry re- Operation and maintenance have financing, government will give aid.gion. It is supplied from Jatiluhur. So been problems since 1980s. Forthere is a design for Cimanuk, namely example, the existing irrigation net- How is composition of waterJatigede dam. If Jatigede dam has work has limited maintenance period use?been built, the storage will be used for so that it must be repaired in 5 years. Irrigation is actually 89-94 per-Indramayu and Sumedang regions If we have good planning, rehabilita- cent; DMI municipal and industry isand this will minimize consumption tion should be carried out in 15 years. between 4-11 percent; developingof Jatilihur water supply. And we allo- This is the problem in water infra- region is 8-9 percent. For examplecate Jatiluhur supply more to west or structure and our priority forward. Bekasi and Karawang. So, large pro-north. For example, if Jatigede water We understand that our government portion is still available for irrigation.volume is almost 500 million m3, it itself cannot conduct the operationwill need 10 dams as large as Jatigede and maintenance; there should be It means that agriculturalregion. But we can also build small ownership system. In our approach, sector will bear loss of dry?dams. It is ideal if we have embung- the most benefited person is farmer Dry brings significant impact toembung in district or sub-district le- because he knows which is to be ma- agricultural sector but it is not alwaysvel. Even there is a brilliant idea: dam intained first. It is different from ser- the case. There are regions, which areis provided per hectare. The problem vice staffs where they only see physi- dry previously, for example Pacitan oris: owners in Java have small areas, cal appearance of the infrastructure Indramayu. The question: if we talkaveragely 0.25 hectare and so are fer- although they dont know its function. about municipal or industry, especial-tile lands, almost 100% have no prob- Therefore since 1990s we have intro- ly municipal, water quality becomeslems with water. But in the arid land, duced our approaches that for opera- problem. Our major problem changeswater is difficult to find. For example, tion and maintenance, we involve far- from agricultural to urban area, fromsomeone have to find water until 23 mers. We even wanted to deliver it to which water cannot be automaticallykm long; if storage is provided in the the farmers but serious complaints transformed. For dry urban or ruralarea, water resources may or may not occurred. However, it is applicable areas, people depend highly on aqui-be available. only to tertiary channel, the primary fer. Aquifer and surface water is high- Percik August 2006 17
  19. 19. I N T E RV I E Wly different where layers between 30- of Bappenas; daily director being stakeholders. Besides, we are intro-60m subsurface may have contact Minister of Public Work and 11 minis- ducing integrated water resource ma-with surface. But if it is more than ters as members. This team is aimed nagement and we focus on the imple-60m deep, aquifer will have no con- in discussing intersectoral water mentation. We should be aware thattact with surface water and it is possi- issue. There are Minister of Energy everything will strongly relate tobly difficult for recovery. In the re- and Mineral Resources, Minister of water.mote area, it is difficult to find surface Health, Minister of Environment, Mi-water as well as make well. Aquifer nister of Communication, etc. So that Do we have grand design onbasin has catchment area in the up- all problems can be solved according- water?stream; maintenance of the upstream ly. This team made draft regulations; Yes, participation. The most im-area will bring two advantages; clean one of them is Law No. 7 on Natural portant thing is that this is not onlywater and good capacity and good Resources. In this Law No. 7, we have government responsibility. It is thepercolation so that we can maintain introduced authority of central to dis- people who can manage water appro-the aquifer level for the depth 30- trict government as well integration priately. The important thing is how60m. For 125m deep, for example, between exploitation and manage- to make them aware of water. If ne-water sources will be difficult to reach ment of the natural resources as well cessary, we introduce it to educationas it may lies behind other catchment as appointed person for natural re- level. Water salvation is not onlyareas. source management. This will be physical activity; it must be imparted elaborated into PP (government regu- since childhood. We will make design How is cooperation estab- lation) on rivers, PP on irrigation, etc. and plan along catchment areas. Eachlished with relevant institution as well as ministerial and presidential river should have one design andto maintain our natural resour- decrees. This integration requires plan. We are used to have master plances? involvement of relevant sectors. Besi- for Bengawan Solo containing proce- In 2001, TKSDA (Tim Koordinasi des, there is also GNKPA (Gerakan dures how to build dam, embank-Sumberdaya Air/Water Resources Nasional Kemitraan Penyelamatan ment, dredging and other physicalCoordinating Team) was established Air/National Partnership for Water works. The design is aimed at arrang-based on Presidential Decree No. 123, Salvation); we hope this will come in- ing sustainable water source manage-which chaired by Coordinating Minis- to implementation. The program fo- ment. In the plan we do not focus onlyter for Economy, Finance and Indus- cuses on river rehabilitation. This in- on physical works and this is beingtry and deputy chairman being Head volves not only government but also implemented in Citarum River. We SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE are making design on sector with rele- vant work and district with relevant responsibility. What will you recommend to the people? I hope they will follow workshops and trainings, especially farm extension. If the region capacity is possible, we should build water storages, although small. I hope that people will be aware of water saving from now on. This is the case of culture. They regard river a dis- posal place. This is still prominent in Java. People should also control water use and water disposal to the river. If necessary, we sue the perpetrator. MJ18 Percik August 2006