Multi Village Drinking water. Indonesia Water and Sanitation magazine. 2nd Edition 2010


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Multi Village Drinking water. Indonesia Water and Sanitation magazine. 2nd Edition 2010

  1. 1. 15 millions Households in Indonesia Still Do not Have Access to Drinking Water Edisi II, 2010 II Edition, 2010 INFORMATION MEDIA OF WATER SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION Multi Village Drinking Water
  2. 2. Information Media on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Table of Published by: ContentsWater Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group (WSES Working Group) From The Editor.......................................................................................................... 3 Your Voice .................................................................................................................. 4 Responsible Person Main ReportHousing and Settlement Director of Bappenas Story on Multi Village System in NTT ………………………………………………….............. 5 Environmental Sanitation Director of the Reflecting On the Multi Village System in North Kodi NTT …..………………….......... 8 Health Ministry Bernd Ugner, Tears Stream as Telling The Story about NTT Child Who Water Supply Development Director of the Apreciate the Water ……..................................................................................... 12 Public Work Ministry RegulationNatural Resources Improvement and Efficient The Arrangement of Water Management Needs Technology Director of Domestic Affair a Sound Umbrella Regulation ............................................................................ 15 Ministry Agenda Director of Spatial and Environmental Facili- The World Environment Day............................................................................... 17 tation of the Domestic Affair Ministry The Land Degradation and World Drought Mitigation Day ………………………….... 20 Discourse Head of editorial staff 15 Millions Households in Indonesia Do Still Not Have Access Oswar Mungkasa to Drinking Water .........................................................................................…… 22 BPSAB Study in 5 Districts in West Java And East Java …......…………………………… 27 Editorial Staff Interview Maraita Listyasari Budi Yuwono General Director of Cipta Karya …..........…………………………………… 31 Nugroho Tri Utomo Inovasion Simple Technology to Turn Rain Water Into Drinking Water. …………………......... 34 Managing Editor Through Ozonization and Filtration Peat Water Becomes Clean ………...……...... 36 Eko Budi Harsono Different Side Water Crisis And Indonesia’s Water Endurance …..............…………………………… 38 Design and Production Testimonial Agus Sumarno Teti Suryani, The Teacher Who Becomes Trash Composer...………………………….. 42 Sofyar Reportation Community Based Total Sanitation Roadshow In Grobogan. ……………………..….. 44 Circulation/Secretariat The 2010 AMPL Development Consolidation Meeting .……………….................... 45 Agus Syuhada The Ministry of Environment High Level Forum Nur Aini The Impact of Water Crisis On Society, Women, and Children ….………………..... 46 The INDOWATER Exhibition 2010 …………………………………….…………................... 48 Editorial Address Jakarta’s Ground Water is Not Decent to Consume. ………………………............….. 49 Jl. RP Soeroso 50, Central Jakarta, Guidelines Ph/Fax: (021) 31904113 An Easy Way to Built Sun Distalator for Water Purifying. ………………………......... 52 Website: http// CD Info ………………………………………………………………………..……………............................ 54 e-mail: Book Info ………………………………………………………………………..…………........................... 55 Web Sites Info …………………………………………………………………………………….................. 56 AMPL Library ...……………………………………………………………………………......................... 57 Editors accept external papers/article Factsconcerning water supply and environmental Facts Related to the Water Scarcity……………………………………………….................. 58 sanitation.
  3. 3. From Edisi II, 2010 The Editor drinking water development activities. However, later in this edition we highlight more the example of multi village system in the area of Kodi (NTT) by consideringI these activities has reached the largest population until n the past ten years, the water supply and now, which is about 17,000 people. This is very surprising sanitation development has gone a lot of considering many of PDAMs’ can only reach around substantial changes. Especially after the agreement 2.000 – 5.000 customers. of National Community-Based Water Supply and We also need to inform you that until now we have Environmental Sanitation Policy in 2003 and the succeeded in publishing Percik in two versions, whichoptimal functioning of Water Supply and Environmental are the regular edition and special edition. RegularSanitation Working Group (AMPL Working Group) edition is published 4 (four) times each year, and plannedin AMPL development. This condition encourages regulrly on a three monthly basis, although in reality itthe rampant development of can only be issued after June.Community-based water supply As for the special edition, it isand sanitation in throughout the result of collaboration withIndonesia, which involves stakeholders to present a specificalmost all stakeholders ranging topic, with a flexible time offrom central government, local publication. Until now, there aregovernments, NGOs, and 3 special editions that have beencommunities. Further on, the published, namely edition ofspirit has created a movement “Community-based Solidwastethat goes far beyond our Management” in collaborationimagination. Take for example with BORDA and its network,major projects that currently “A Decade of Community-implement community-based based AMPL Mainstreaming POKJAapproach, among others are Efforts” in collaboration withWASPOLA, Pro AIR, WSLIC-2, CWSH, WASPOLA, and “7 Years of SANIMAS” in collaboration PAMSIMAS, ISSDP that becomes USDP, WES, with BORDA. In 2010, two editions were planned to beUNICEF, Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), published, one edition on the Sanitation Developmentwhich has been enhanced to become the national Acceleration Program (PPSP) in collaboration withCommunity Based total Snitation program (STBM) and the Technical Team of Sanitation Development, andreplicated into Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing “The Water and Environmental Sanitation (WES)(STOPS). This is not to mention the activities of NGOs UNICEF” in collaboration with UNICEF. Severalthat cooperate with the government including Plan special editions are now on the negotiation phase withIndonesia, and SIMAVI. Also not to forget, the activities several stakeholders. The entire special editions were alsoin the form of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) by published in English. Surely this is good news for thecompanies. development of our beloved magazine. From the rise of Community-based activities, the Starting this edition, readers will lsee some changesemergence phenomenon of community-based activities in the editorial composition because of the mutations ofinvolving more than one community and across more some members of the AMPL working group, who havethan one village, and even reach the population in the been involved in publishing Percik. Nevertheless, we hopenumber of tens of thousands of people, are identified. that this will not reduce quality, but on the contrary, Some people even call it PDAM Village, in term of improves the quality of our beloved size. The interesting fact is that the process is based on Finally, we do not forget to congratulate for those whocommunity-based. This seems to violate the mainstream are fasting. Enjoy, and please do not forget the things thatrules that the community-based activities are very local we always wait from you, the critics and suggestions(one village, one community), not exceeding certain from readers. (OM)amount (average 2000-3000 population). But in reality many areas already have multi-village 3
  4. 4. Your Voice We are very glad to read your letter. Thank you very much for your attention The Deepening Gap of Water Distribution and your trust to our magazine as a media that’s consistently and trusted in providing the information related to Our Planet Earth is rich of water. the drinking water and environment Every expert says that our worldPuskesmas issues. We will, of course, give have at least 1.360.000.000 km3 ofNeed Percik Magazine attention to your request to get this water. From that total volume, about magazine regularly. Greetings to all 1.320.000.000 km3 or about 97,2 We are one of the Percik Magazine friends at the Puskesmas Batulampa. percent is the sea. 25.000.000 km3reader, even though until now we or about 1,8 percent is ground water.only recieved once of the last Percik 250.000 km3 is plain water in the lakeMagazine March and October 2008 Save Our Water and river, and rest of it 13.000 km3 oredition, we want to be a permanent about 0.001 percent is a water in thecustomer and get the latest edition. Nobody needs no water, Yes, atmosfer in form of rain cloud.As a Sanitarian who works at the everybody needs water. Everyone However, from the volume of thePuskesmas with more than 10 years needs at least 5 litre of water everyday. water that’s so big, not all of it can(2000-2010) working time of course I Without it, there will be no life. be use by human for living. Only thehave a lot experience, but it doesn’t But, it’s very dissapointing when ground water and half of the plainmean that all the sanitation problems a lot of people doesn’t care about the water volume that can be use forcan be handled easily. For one example, water supply. Spoiled the water with living. The worst thing is, that cleanthere was a time when we were asked using it more than what is needed. water volume has been decreasingto give the technical assistance for the Just like we didn’t need it. In fact, fast because the deforestation,latrine production, specifically for the every human being needs water. Of industrial and house toxic pollution,beach area, flood and stage house. We course, we pay every drop of the water the increased of population of thehad a little bit of problems, because that’s filled our bathroom tank, but it worlds, also the increased of thewe didn’t have the manual book or doesn’t mean that we can consume living standards so the consume ofthe technical guidelines. Beside, of the water without a limit. Of course the water was increased too.course the knowledge or the theory the Government who controlled the These conditions press thethat we received at the University was water, so it could be delivered to the United Nation to proclaim year 2005not easy to be recalled again. public. But it doesn’t mean that the until 2015 as a ‘water decade’. The Because of that, we hope you can responsibility of the water is just the proclaimed of ‘water decade’ by UN iskindly send us or provide the informa- Government job. Because, the truth is a real policy. From a series of scientisttion to us about the magazines, books, that water has it own limit. Because of researches it is known that the usedCDs, and other things that’s related that, if every stakeholder don’t care, of the water has been increased sixto the latrine production. If you can, there is the possibility of water to times in the last 100 years. The effectplease include one that’s completed stop flowing. is, in that period, 20 percent from thewith the picture and the size. Let’s imagine if the water stop total volume of the clean water on Thank you so much for your atten- flowing. Do we have to expect from Earth is all gone, while the price of ittion. We wish that Percik Magazine the rain water? Or do we have to has increased twice of the real price.will always sparks the knowledge and distil the seawater? Poor us if those The problem is not just that. Fromthe informations everytime, especially things come true. We have to save the time to time, the water distribution isthe one that’s related to the drinking water as early as possible. Because creating a biger gap.water and the environmental sanita- water would be very useful for ourtion. generations, so we have to take care Maximus Ali Perajaka Na’ Mal Saleh of it. It’s a moral responsibility for us Pesanggrahan, Jakarta Perumahan Puskesmas to keep it sustainable. Batulampa Kabupaten Pinrang, Lina Naibaho South Sulawesi Medan, North Sumatera 4
  5. 5. Main Edisi II, 2010 ReportThe Story About MultiVillage System in NTTK PRO AIR odi Sub district, West Kodi Sub district, West Sumba Daya water service in Kodi subsdistrict was Sumba Daya Regency, Regency was focused on the construc- finished last year. Now the villagers East Nusa Tenggara tion of the clean water service that can be happy and say “Getting water is one of the real suc- serves five villages, which are Kori vil- is so near”,” said Bernard. cessful example of the lage, Homba village, Karipir village, Bernd recognize that the devel-multi village clean water facility devel- Hohawungo village, and Wailabubur opment program of drinking wateropment. this is due to the fact that the village. The total number of the vil- multi villages in Kodi was conductedmulti villages drinking water supply lagers who need this service is 17.000 by the community with struggle. Aprogram that has been done in view people with the cost of 37 billions Ru- number of obstacles had occured. Thevillages in Kodi Subsdrict was done piah in form of water source protec- target of pipeline construction almostwith a high budget and manage to tion system. could not be reached because of thecover services for the public in a very “The multi village drinking wa- poor work of the contractor, especiallylarge population. Not to mention the ter system that we do is a pipe with a the main contractor who were work-complex problems at the field, neither gravity flow in 4 villages with the wa- ing on the construction at the watertechnical or non technical, during the ter tank capacity of 400 m3, the trans- source location. "We are grateful thatimplementation. mission pipe is 6,8 km, distribution we could easily solve the prob- According the coordinator of Pro pipe is 60 km, and also build 55 unit lems. The main obstacle in theAir, Bernd Ugner, the service of the of water shop and 210 house con- development process ofdrinking water in multi village in nections. This multi village drinking multi vil- 5
  6. 6. Main Report PRO AIRlage drinking water successfully solved on the additional funds request for The main reason of all the villagesby replacing the main contractor with that extra work. Every time the prob- in NTT proposed for the multi villag-the sub-contractors who have a better lems come, we involved the commu- es drinking water program is becauseperformance," he said. nity and village officials to find the of the difficulty of obtaining water. To In addition to drinking water solutions together. The principle is fulfill their drinking water needs usu-supply multi villages in Kodi, ProAir that the society’s interest is important ally they have to walk no less than 2also constructing another one in Alor for the development acceleration of miles to the water source or get waterdistrict. From 6 system that’s entirely facilities and sustainability courses of in the river at a distance of 1.5 the form of pipe system, located multi-village drinking water system to Spurred by difficulty to fulfill thein Pantar district, East Pantar, South be able to succeed. need for clean water, which they haveWest Alor, East Alor, Northeast Alor, been experienced for many years,they are expected to utilized by ± Other District therefore, when the Pili community10.280 people from a number of vil- Beside the Kodi district, the suc- and its neighboring village recievedlages. Now the development of pipe- cess story of ProAir in implementing information that ProAir offers theline proccess is still on going. It is ex- the multi village drinking water can cooperation for development of cleanpected that in December 2010 it can also be found in the Pili village and water service, some society leaders ofbe completed. Kamura village, which are the vilage Pili village took the initiative to gather Special for Bouweli village and Ka- program location for ProAir in Timor the community for discussion in or-bir in the district of Pantar, the multi Tengah Selatan (TTS) district, Nusa der to prepare the contribution that isvillage pipeline construction was in Tenggara Timur. The valuable lessons requiered by ProAir.a slow progress, but now it’s already learned of successful management During the meeting, the commu-back to normal. This is because of multi-village drinking water can be nity discussed several issues that werechanges in the water network system seen during the process of filing pro- required in order to be involved indesign and construction (Detailed posals, planning, construction, until ProAir programs, including the pool-engineering design / DED) from the self-management, maintenance of wa- ing of in-cash contribution that must consultants that have ter supply facilitiy by the community be shown through initial maintenance an impact itself. savings. Soon after that meeting, the 6
  7. 7. Edisi II, 2010Pili village community succeded to they can also use it for business like annual work plans and Annual Cash-collect in cash contribution as expect- gardening, planting vegetables for flow of the group, the collection ofed in time and relatively faster than nutritional fullfillment of the family. monthly fees to increase the financialother villages who also became ProAir Beside, the water can also be sold to group capacity. Particularly for finan-program target areas. provide additional income for month- cial groups Aitum Banum, until Sep- In fact the Pili and Kamura vil- ly fee. Apparently, by experiencing the tember 2009, has been recorded anlagers raised the maintenance fund approach process, which places the income Rp. 25,974,370 .- in the formno more than three weeks. Some of community as the main actors, it ac- collection of initial savings andmonth-the community representatives of Pili tually built the independence, while ly fees. Meanwhile, the expendituresvillage then went to the ProAir office encouraging the awareness of com- are used for management incentivesto bring the proposal, complete with munity to be responsible for the sus- fees, meeting cost, procurement in-evidence of initial savings in the form tainability of the program’s output. ventory, maintenance system (valvesof photo copy of bank account worth The sense of ownership and aware- replacement ), transportation,officeRp.7.000.000, - and several commu- ness to maintain the sustainability of supplies and others, with the total upnity consensus documents as required the program outputs is what really to to Rp.7.495.549,.by ProAir. is encouraging the community that In overall, the cash balance In response to this request, ProAir institutionalized within the Clean of Banum Aitum group until thefollowed up with some activities, both Water Management Body (BP-SAB) end of September 2009 is up toplanning together with the communi- "Banum Aitium" to fix seriously the Rp.18.478.821,-. Interestingly, it wasty, training or construction activities. group. These are proved by the estab- noted that the monthly fees was al-The community is very enthusiastic lishment of a semi-permanent build- ready paid by the community (cover-and proactive in following the process, ings for office sized 6 x 16 m, formu- age members) until December 2010,because people really want to get out lation of rules (AD / ART), which which is administratively recordedfrom their difficulties that they have was then legalized with the issuance properly and regularly by the treasurerbeen facing all those time. of Notary Groups, development of of the group. Thus, any of the techni- What happen next? cal side, the group has alreadyThanks to the cooperation had the technical personnelwith ProAir, active participa- skilled. These people has beention, perseverance and hard following the internship atwork, they were finally suc- the time of job constructionceded in building clean water progress. In addition, theygravity piping systems with also have been provided withpipeline along the 5403 me- equipment and training by aters and 11 pieces Tugu Kran/ professional technical person-Public Hydran. The system nel from ProAir before thecan serve 274 households system was handed over toor 680 people. In addition the community.there are also 5 units of well Of course everything be-that serve 166 households or comes a pride for the commu-about 501 people. For sani- nity because the result of theirtation facilities, there are 14 hard work also get a positiveunits Floor Wash/Bathroom appreciation from outsidersand 1 toilet. Now the people who are triggered to place theare satisfied and pleased with community as the main ac-the presence services. tors in development, for the Since the water is now sustainable results of theavailable, the water is not development itself.only used for bathing, wash-ing, cooking and drinking, PRO AIR 7
  8. 8. Main Report Reflecting On the Multi Village System in North Kodi NTT PRO AIRN orth Kodi in the Nusa Teng- ity in Sumba in 2002 and planned to Water Source "Mataloko" gara Timur is one of the be finished in 2010. There is only one large water area in West Sumba, which In 2005-2006, during the time source in Kodi known as "Mataloko"experiencing water shortages almost of the survey, the piping system from with debit of water 40 to 250 litersthroughout the year. Although dur- the community have been damaged, per second. This water source is locat-ing rainy season, abundant water, soil while the deep wells need the expen- ed in a cave in the hills of Wailabuburcoral and rock structure of the karst sive pump operation and mainte- in Rokoraka forest. The ProAir teamresulting in low capacity in saving wa- nance. The water price becomes ex- survey showed that this water sourceter. The government has sought over- pensive because the water from wells can be used to supply water for aboutcome through several water supply or the river was transported by the ve- 50,000 people in 10-12 the village inprojects in form of providing shallow hicles that could reached Rp.150,000 Kodi. However, the effort to build awells or deep wells, and gravity piping for all conveyance, which is only 2-4 system of this magnitude actually ex-systems, but it seems only to function m3, which is only enough for a week. ceeds the ProAir framework, becausepartially. In addition, that water as well as the it was not anymore a simple develop- And then the latest project is water sources in the region has been ment of rural water supply systems.ProAir, namely the Rural Water Sup- heavily polluted. And then several vil- However, after a long discussionply Project NTT, financed by KFW lages community in Kodi asked the and long negotiations between the and GTZ, had started ProAir assistance to build water sys- Steering Committee in Jakarta (bet- its activ- tem. ter known now as a AMPL working 8
  9. 9. Edisi II, 2010group) and the Southwest Sumba calculating the contribution of mon- 2007, the implementing consultantdistrict local government, eventually ey in unit volume rice. The donated that empowers the community con-KFW (Credit Anstalt fuer Wieder- money required to support the supply cluded that the payment with oneaufbau) is willing to provide techni- system development water by ProAir price (Flat rate) as generally in com-cal support and financial, and GTZ was intended not to pay for construc- munity-based system in rural areas is(Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusam- tion but as savings for financing initial not sufficient in funding for systemsmenarbeit) is ready to provide a sup- operation and maintenance system by with public taps. To reach the levelport for community empowerment in community groups manager water of service and collection of the fundsbuilding the multi village system in (maintenance savings). needed in professional management,four villages (Wailabubur, Homba- With the accumulation of funds, it needs a combination of system withkaripit, Hoha Wungo and Kori). The stakeholders decided to prepare the the water kiosk and household con-support has conditional arrangement development of water supply system nections.that communities provide a cash do-nation and labor and material/energy(in-kind), and were willing to alsomanage the system. As the first step a survey that in-cludes water sources measurementsand alternative investigation, consid-ering Kodi’s geography is very flat. Inaddition, in-depth discussion aboutexpected results in terms of social,institutional, financial and technicalbefore any final decision. At the sametime, it was also decided to build aspecial management organizationbased on the principle ownership bysociety, professional management inthe clear law framework. In 2006 a Master Plan was devel-oped for the North Kodi and in 2007,the monthly fees from the commu- PRO AIRnity began to be collected and initialpreparation of water management in Kodi can be continue, including DED had to be adjusted and Ingroup was performed. On 25th No- making Detailed Engineering De- April 2008 a new tender process forvember 2006 and again in early 2007, sign / DED. On 13th August 2007, pipeline transmission can begin. Ten-the stakeholders gathered at Kodi and KFW submitted to the Ministry of der for transmission pipelines andagree that at least 75% of money do- Health that all conditions precedent distribution system, as well as supply,nations of Rp 30,000 per member of for the system in Kodi has been met should be conducted separately. Besidehouseholds for about 15,000 users and there’s no other objected imple- the preparation and appraisal processwater must be collected on June 31, mentation in Kodi development sys- that needs a long time, this communi-2007. On 4th July 2007 cash dona- tem. So it was began the development ty-based system also face many prob-tions from community collected to- of DED and preparation of tenders lems in construction. For example, thetaled Rp.424.034.505, or 94% of based on calculation magnitude of the shift of the pipeline due to renovationthe amount needed Rp. 450 million. safe from Mataloko source that is 32 or widening the road. Or the need forThis succeed is based on the efforts liters per seconds. land purchases in Noha villageand cooperated of community groups But a complex system like this is and Wailabubur border becauseand government in developing an in- not without challenges. In the pe- only this place, which isnovative approaches, for example by riod between October and November slightly 9
  10. 10. Main Reporthigher, suitable for public reservoir not only in the terms of construc- developed at 2007 and in its develop-construction of 400 m3. The pur- tion but also with the development ment will be adjusted with the localchase of this land is governed by the of community-based organizations. circumstances. However, when thecommunity and sub-district heads of The ProAir team has worked hard to water begins to flow later at the end ofNorth Kodi and facilitated by ProAir build this community organization, 2010, all the resources is must alreadyand Local Government in Southwest not just at the village level but also be formed and ready to function.Sumba. The delayed process was com- at inter-village for the comprehensive At this time water rates is set atpounded by problems with local con- management by considering the de- Rp. 5 per liter or Rp.100 for onetractors and rain, which is happening cent representation. In the end, this buckets or jerry cans of 20 liters. Forall over the year. Another problem is organization is even greater than re- this reason, a special coin producedthe difficulty of obtaining Ministry gional organization of drinking water by the project is used, until now thereof Forestry for permission to build in West Sumba. is 250,000 pieces. One coin valued ata transmission pipeline in Rokoraka The organizational structure for Rp.2.550 worth to pay 510 liters.forest. Because the governance system the multi village system in Kodi that The transmission pipeline is cur-and legal forest status is not so obvi- was developed in the year 2007/2008, rently under construction. When it’sous, the process of obtaining permits was based on the concept like this: completed, there will be a 6.8 km(temporary) takes almost a year. Dur- (see diagram) pipeline transmission and 46.4 km ofing that time, construction transmis- Professional unit that demands the distribution pipes. The communitysion work is stops. staff is paid was selected and trained. has built 57 stalls, where one will be Members of this unit will do the man- used specifically for water trucks. From Community Based agement, operation and maintenance the target of 210 households connec- Multi Village Organization of daily routine while the multi vil- tion, 170 connections have already However, in 2009 the construc- lage organization will be watching been installed. It is expected that bytion of the system is well performed, them. This management concept was the end of year 2010 this system will PRO AIR 10
  11. 11. Edisi II, 2010 Diagram Konsep Struktur Organisasi Penyedia Air Bersih Kodi Utara Pimpinan Konsultasi dan Manajer Umum Komite Rekomendasi Keuangan Dewan Federasi Koordinasi Audit Harian Laporan Laporan Rutin Keuangan Rekomendasi 4 Anggota Terpilih Bagian Bagian Teknis Keuangan Staf Staf Federasi Pengelola Air --- --- 4 --- --- Kepala Komite Pelaksana Kepala Kepala Kepala Kepala Komite Komite Komite Komite Pelaksana Pelaksana Pelaksana Pelaksana Komunikasi dan Kerjasama Harian Pelaksana Pelaksana Pelaksana Pelaksana Harian Harian Harian Harian cal government of West Sumba is very Anggota supportive and planning to develop a further new type of the system, which is Community Based Organization or CBO that utilizes the professional Asosiasi Asosiasi Asosiasi Asosiasi expertise, and expected to become an Pengelola Pengelola Pengelola Pengelola organization that is sustainable in serv- ing the needs of water for community, Kodi. With coverage of 10 villages and 50,000 water users, this system is the Penguna memilih perwakilan untuk masing-masing Asosiasi Pengelola same size as the system for a rather large city in the province. Pengguna Pengguna Pengguna Pengguna For that, it requires support for the CBO, access to the information and "expertise" (special skill knowledge) and the availability of materials and proper equipment, adequate funding and guaranteed, as well as the expertisebe completed and operated normally. helps to prepare and guide the people. in the institutional and technical fields.The Kfw total investment is Rp.37 bil- Engineer and site Inspectors design, And finally it requires the right proc-lion or about 3 million Euro. manage, and oversee the construc- cess to develop the organizations as the This complex process of multi vil- tion and the construction contractor. owner and legitimate managers.lage development and construction is Many of the problems faced. How-long and difficult because besides in- ever, thanks to cooperation between The author isvolving many parties, this process faces citizens and local government that has Team Leader Financialvarious problems. Many peoples are been facilitated by the project team, Cooperation ProAir (MOH, KfWinvolved. The people team motivator most problems could be fixed. The lo- Component) / RODECO 11
  12. 12. Bernd Ugner, Tears Stream as Telling The Story About NTT Child Who Apreciates the WaterO PRO AIR ne of the figures behind the success of providing the community-based drinking water in NTT. the Pro Air program in providing water At the first time he got connected with the community service for the people of Nusa Tenggara NTT, particularly in rural areas, the condition at Timur (NTT) is Bernd Ugner. A tall that time was not like now. First time I was in East German man who is 198 cm tall, maybe Sumba the condition was more apprehensive. Waterhe’s one of the "Champions" behind the successful of availability was very limited, the villagers must walk upmulti-village drinking water in Nusa Tenggara Timur. to tens of kilometers to obtain drinking water in Nabbo "I am often overwhelmed when remembering the water source.struggle of small village society in Nusa Tenggara Timur According to Bernd, one of the greatest obstaclesto get drinking water. One of the stories that I could in multi-village water supply in NTT is the geographicalnever forget is a10 year old child who walked 3 km issues and cultural issues. Geographical issue is verycarrying a jerry can into one of a water source. When clear because most of village in NTT is hilly, as for thehe reached the water source and filled his jerry can, he cultural issues; the people in NTT have a habit to staydid not remove the rest of the water that he got, but on top of the hill, while the water source is locatedput it back into the well. Children as small as he was below. They do not want to get close to the waterrealized the importance of the water for his another source and prefer to be on the hill because of reasonsbrother," said Bernd touched when telling the story to to survive from their enemy attacks is far more easy toPercik. do. And they’re hold it very strong. In fact the reason Bernd Ugner has since 2003 involved was absurd, because if the enemy is already control in the ProAir program in the water sources, of course they will never get water. 12
  13. 13. Edisi II, 2010They also no longer able to move to the source water NTT there are also rivers that have a lot of water.because of their ancestors were buried at that hills. The position and role of the government is quite The first time I created a program to empower positive though the local government itself is facingcommunities to obtain drinking water in East decentralization problems. Specialization is one of theSumba, from a number of districts only two districts problems, beside the supervision, the cooperationproposed the need to get a technical assistance and between parties and community service. PDAMinfrastructure. At least 84 villages were proposing that activity was more directed at the provision of drinkingthey need to get the water needs fullfilled as soon as water in urban areas, while the regular funds frompossible. Unfortunately a number of proposals had the central government were not sufficient to supplymany weaknesses because of the cultural issues and drinking water in rural areas.water resources are located under the village and ProAir is a community based drinking water project,need time to lift it above. From the number of those in order for community to maintain and manage theproposals (84 villages) only 8 villages that matched the facilities. This is the translation of national policy listedgravity system, they are which Pro Air helped at that in the National Community Based Water Supply andtime. There are many separated village, distance from Environmental Sanitation Development Policy. Ofone house to another house is quite far. The number course it’s not easy to change the peoples behaviorof this proposal shows the evidence of water demand so they can be responsible for managing their ownis very high. facilities. "We traveled to every village to see how big their This project is different from the other conventionalneeds were. We see these things are very serious. It project, where the system has been finished and used.was indeed a real dilemma, if they were provided with In Pro Air, it takes a very difficult struggle to makewater pumps to lift water upward the hill it would people aware of the usefulness of the system, and thebe very difficult because there was no electricity final target is people able to maintain, manage andand diesel. And we also doubt the public was able care about their own facilities. "So don’t be negativeto manage it. Finally, we only helped 8 villages. thinking, because in ProAir, construction is a processInvestment that ProAir provide to each person was not just build up and finish. But it’s also importantabout 100 Euros per head, " he said. about what about the next. This is what ProAir wants ProAir, is a German government drinking water to achieve. I have the experience about how difficult itproject in NTT, which was began in 3 districts namely is to run this program," he said.East Sumba, West Sumba and Central South Timor. How difficult it is to give the understanding toAnd then it was extended to the districts of Alor the communities. Until now we are still learningand Ende. ProAir is a water and looking for the mostdrinking service program optimal form so thisthat has a based on rural program can succeed. Thecommunity that use the gravity expected commitmentsystem and dug wells. ProAir from the community is thatinvolve all parties, including the community realize theengineers that set the design importance to manage andand programing in accordance maintain the public facilities,with the rules of the game of especially the drinking waterinternational standards, as well so that the system can surviveas sustainability. as long as possible and not just Drinking water was found end up as monuments.deep in the soilarid and rocky This is the reality in villagesland in NTT. The problem in the most districts in thewas how to lift the water up province of East Nusato the surface, to serve the Tenggara. The smallcommunity especially for those rainfall rate, dry landwho live in the high land. In PRO AIR 13
  14. 14. PRO AIRconditions have made the water as a rare item. the investment. ProAir partners in the region isAlmost every house in countryside should send one the Regional Development Planning Board Agencyof its members to walk to get water in a considerable (Bappeda), Health agency, Public Works agency, anddistance place every day. And it’s no exception for Rural Community Empowerment Agency (BMPD).children. Many learning time is wasted due to “pulling The aim is to form the structure of simpleup” the weight to fulfill the water needs at home. management at the village level that enables the It must be admitted, said Bernd, the NTT resident independence in the management of potable waterenthusiasm to get water could be seen from the supply system and sustainable sanitation. Thiscontribution of personnel for the smooth construction program also helps the local governments in order toof drinking water facilities in their village. Old, young, establish and empower management organization andmale, female, all present to realize their dream infrastructure, building monitoring systems for thetogether. This cooperation is essential for increasing water structure, and develop the regulation on waterthe ownership sense from public for the facilities. source protection. It has been described by Bernd, that ProAir is a The impact that’s expected in long-term, supply ofsynergy of the Ministry of Health of the Republic drinking water and sustainable sanitation is expectedof Indonesia (Kemenkes), KfW Bankengruppe (KfW to improve health conditions of the community.Banking Group), and Germany Technical Cooperation Closer distance to the water source will reduce the(GTZ), who agreed to implement together the ProAir time spent by the mothers and children to fetch theprogram along the district Government in East Nusa water. This will opened up opportunities to performTenggara. more productive activities, which in the end will Within the scope of this cooperation, GTZ provides reduce poverty level. By transferring the responsibilitya technical assistance for the community development, responsibility for managing the water and sanitation and KfW provides a temporary to the community, it will create new employment financial assistance for opportunities and economic diversification. 14
  15. 15. Regulation Edisi II, 2010 The Arangement of Water Management Needs a Sound Umbrella RegulationW ater is the gift from God to his people, includ- general dicipline that’s reflected the society justice. ing the Indonesian people, while in the Article 33 the 3rd paragraph of the 1945 Constitution The Management Authoritymandated that mastery over the earth, water, and airspace, Since the enactment of Otda Law No. 22 on1999 untilas well as wealth contained in it is to be used maximumly it has been revised into Law No. 32 on 2004, laws that’sfor the sake of prosperity of the people. The ownery which related to water management is Act No.7 on 2004 on wa-has wrote does not place the country as the owner, but re- ter resources. In the law of Water Resources there are twomained on the implementation of countries functions. types of authority that explained in detail (chapters 16 and Water is the most thing that living things need, includ- 18). The law of water resources provides the authority anding humans, plants and animals, therefore the used of the responsibility of local government on water resource man-water is need to set to provide benefits for the people. In agement including setting water resources managementthe water network distribution, it’s required a coordinated policy, setting the patterns of water resources management,system, both among the actors or the policy makers, and establish a management plan water resources, establish andthe guarantee of getting enough water. manage the protected water source resources, carry out So importance the wa- the management of water re-ter problems are, neither sources, regulate, establish andto meet the needs of many permit the supply, allocation,people’s live or for the ag- exploitation of water, form aricultural needs (especially water resources council, meetfood plants) and purposes the minimum basic of day-in other sectors. It can’t be to-day needs of the water anddenied that water becomes a maintain the effectiveness, ef-commodity that has a stra- ficiency, quality, and order im-tegic position of interests plementation of water resourcefor the needs of living, busi- management in the river areaness, industry, agriculture / in one districts / city.irrigation, and food that has This way, the water resourcebeen a part of the national law in overall describes the au-defense system. The strate- thority both substantive andgic position of the water in technical. Technical author-controlling many part of the ity particularly concern rulesliving can’t be circumvented regarding settings, determina-that the water would be a tion, licensing, supply, alloca-matter of attraction from tion, utilization, and the uti-various interests. Therefore, lization of water resourcesthe issue of the water must and the formation ofbe well handed through the councils, while the waterlaws and regulations that POKJA authoritycan protect and realized the 15
  16. 16. Regulationis dealing with the other eight substantive authority, which ual or business party with the permission of the Govern-can briefly be said as an autonomous authority of natural ment or local government within their authority.resources management. The water resources law is seen to set about the com- Licensingmunity participation. In this section letter (d) it says: ‘In Can be understood that licenzing put the position andline with the spirit of democratization, decentralization, role of the state in accordance with the basic philosophyand the openness in the order of society life, nation, and Constitution (UUD 1945), in UU SDA it’s importantstate, the society needs given a role in the management of for placing the society sense of justice. Licensing referswater resources’. This rules is set more comprehensive and to the protection of the interests of the people thoughtwidespread in the CHAPTER XI about rights, obligations many of the raw water needs and the concept of conser-and society participation. It has been said “society has an vation environment and sustainability of water resources.equal opportunity to participate in the planning process, Licensing in SDA was gave as a whole (art.45), includingimplementation, and supervision of management water the use of water at the location (4a), Waste water containerresources.” The implementation of that participation will (4b), the utilization of water resources (4c), water alloca-then stipulated in the Government Regulation. This law tion for business and water resource management plan (ar-also stipulates the right of the people that has to fullfil as ticle 46).a prerequisite of the implementation of true participation.Those rights are the rights of information, benefit, com- Domestic Raw Waterpensation, objection, reports and complaints and the right In the case of household drinking water supply, thento sue to the court as the management of water resources. the development system is became the government and local government responsible, but its implementation can The Water Right Arrangements be given to state-owned companies, cooperatives, private The Water Use Rights enterprises, and communities (Law SDA Article 40). Ad- The water use rights enumerated in the Act SDA article justing for the provision of systems development drinking6, 7, 8, and 9 were divided into 2 (two) categories, namely water aims to:the right to use water and water rights lease. The right to a. the created of a quality drinking water managementuse water is the right to use the water for daily basic needs services with a reasonable price;or noncommercial, while the water rights lease is to cul- b. a balance achieving between consumer interests andtivate water for the purposes commercial. This has been service providers; andexplicitly placed the water as a commodity item that can c. the increased of efficiency and coverage of drinkingbe traded. Rights of the water may not be leased or trans- water services.ferred, partially or completely, while the right to use waterobtained without permission to meet daily basic needs for Conservationindividuals and for small-scale agriculture within an irriga- UU SDA emphasizes the concept of conservation oftion system. natural resources and distribution of resources to maintain The right to water use requires a permission by the the stability of the source power and water cycles, as wellGovernment or regional governments within their author- as administrative thinking (licensing and granting rights).ity if: Conservation gets emphasis to the sustainability of the wa- a. how to use it was done by changing the natural con- ter resources that have been destructed at the forests on dition of water sources; the uplands (mountains) with the prevention efforts in b. intended for groups that require a large amounts of concrete. water; or Forest and environmental destruction that has been c. used for agricultural irrigation system of the people done systematically as stated in UU no. 23 1997 on the outside the existing ones. Environment is to get more serious attention, the punish- The right to use the water includes the right to drain ment against the destructor was formulated in the conceptthe water from or into the soil through other people’s of a very hard punishment neither a physically punishmentland adjacent to the land based on the approval of holders or fines as much as possible. Conservation must cultivate of land rights (can contain damages or compensa- the spirit to all elements of society to preserve the water tion agreement). These rights can be resources, farm conservation in the upstream region to be granted to any individ- stimulated the spirit of conservation. (eko / dewi) 16
  17. 17. Agenda Edisi II, 2010 ISTIMEWA as UNEP launched the official site will be centered in the city of Kigali, the capital of Rwanda, a country in East Africa. UNEP is planning to make the World Environment Day (WED) 2010 as the largest celebration in stimulating the public of the world awarenessT for the importance of he World Environment Day/WED is environmental sustainability. commemorated on 5th June every year since WED theme this time is related to the declaration of The UN held environment conference in 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversity with COP Stockholm in 1977. The commemoration 10 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Nagoya, of the World Environment Day was held Japan, which lasted on 18 to 29 October 2010.under the coordination of United Nations Environment This theme is expected to invite the whole world toProgramme (UNEP), which established the United preserve the diversity of life on earth. Provide awarenessNations since 1977. that a world without biodiversity is a very bleak On this World Environment Day 2010, it has prospect. Millions of people and millions of speciestheme of "Many Species. One Planet. One Future". The sharing together in the same planet, and onlyCommemoration of the World Environment Day 2010, together we all can enjoy a 17
  18. 18. Agendasafer and more prosperous future. The selection of this theme is considered important by Living environment, often referred to as the the Ministry of Environment Gusti Mohammad Hatta asenvironment, is a term that can include all living and non it reminds that Indonesia is blessed with biodiversity richliving creatures in nature that are in earth or part of the by God and it must be inherited to the next generations.Earth, which functions naturally without excessive human "Indonesia is blessed with a very high biodiversity withintervention. The opponents of environment are artificial a 90 types of ecosystems, 40 thousand plant species, andenvironment, which covers an area and its components 300 thousand species of animals. A lot of biodiversity is awhich heavily influenced by humans. potential which can be exploited for the national economic The World Environment Day is celebrated in many development and increased the society welfare," saidcases in countries such as Kenya, New Zealand, Poland, Mohammad Hatta. President Yudhoyono himself in hisSpain and the United States. The activities include rallies speech said the importance of biodiversity for Indonesiaand streets parades, as well as concerts, planting trees, and and the world. "Our Country have a unique campaigns. In many countries, the annual event We are rich of biodivertsity and we also have a wealth ofis used to improve the political attention and the action nature, the worlds longest beach, the worlds third largestto increase the public awareness about the importance of forest. Rich of the flora, fauna, and plasmanufa. We haveconsidering environmental problems. 500 species of mammals, 12 percent owned by the world. 500 species of reptiles or 7 percent owned by the world. In Indonesia 1500 bird species or 17 per cent owned by the world. 38 In Indonesia the World Environment Day thousand plant species, 1260 species of medical plants, 700commemorations is have a good welcome from the seaweed species, 450 species of coral stone, and 2 thousandgovernment and people of Indonesia. The President fish species, "said SBY.Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, along with the First Lady "Let us think about it, how God Almighty endowedAni Yudhoyono is celebrating the World Environment Indonesia with such biodeversity that’s difficult to findDay, which falls on 5th June, 2010 at the State Palace. in another countries. Therefore, our moral obligation,Indonesia, through the Ministry of Environment, adopted our humanitarian duty, is to maintain its sustainability,the spirit of the whole nation in the world, and brought and when we use for the welfare of the people, and thenthe theme, “The Biodiversity, Our World Future”. United it must necessarily maintain the sustainability rules forNations Environment Programme (UNEP) itself picks the good environment, namely systemable development. Nottheme “Many Species, One Planet, One Future“. just for our generation but for our grandchildren in the future. Green development," YudhoyonoPOKJA explained. On this occasion President Yudhoyono gave the Kalpataru award to 12 people/organizations in 4 categories, the Adipura award has increased from 126 cities in 2009 to 140 cities in in 2010. As for the Independent Adiwiyata awards are given to the 25 schools. Some regions also celebrated the World Environment Day. The Government of Riau Islands Province perform a flag ceremony that’s lead by the Kepri Governor HM Sani himself in the Office of the Governor, Tanjungpinang. The series of commemorations in the province of Riau Islands is the making of book about the environment. This book received the national award level. Other activities 18
  19. 19. Edisi II, 2010 FOTO-FOTO: ISTIMEWAare management of environmental impact, socialization and Chairman DPRD Gorontalo province Marten Tahaof the danger of B3 waste for the environment and also and then followed by the other officials.the management and utilization of clean water. Another The top of the World Environment Day 2010 in theactivity is to conduct a memorandum of understanding East Java was held at Dam Sub Selorejo Ngantang Malangbetween the Government of Riau Islands Province, the and in Kota Batu on 26th July. The head of EnvironmentControling Agency of Batam and the Government of Agency in East Java Province, Indra Wiragana SH on LJ,Batam, about the marine management. said, a series of events was started on 23rd to 26th July with "The peak of Environment Day is planting 500 trees several activities, including a green tent held on 24 to 26in Sungai Pulai and a dove release at the Governor Office", July in Dam Selorejo-Malang.said the Environment Head of Riau Islands Province, The questionnaire distribution on "Caring for theKhairul Jafar. Watershed (DAS) Brantas " was held on July 23rd, in Kota In order to commemorate the nature of Gorontalo Batu. "With the spread of this questionnaire is intendedProvince, the 38th World Environment Day at the for the community so they will know about the currentProvincial Gorontalo together with the meeting of Korpri condition of the Brantas river and make them participateand the 17th National Family Day at the District Level of in preserving and improving the quality of this watershed",Gorontalo, Vice Governor of Gorontalo H. Toni Uloli, SE Indra said. Furthermore, by conducting the vehicleattended the memorial ceremony and was accompanied by emission tests for the public so they will know about thethe DPRD chairman of the Gorontalo province Marten burden potential of CO2 pollution by motor vehicles,Taha at the Bongohulawa District Limboto camp ground which will be held on July 23rd on the Road of Kotain Gorontalo district. This ceremony was started by trees Batu. (Eko)planting by the Deputy Governor of Gorontalo Toni Uloli, 19
  20. 20. POKJA I n 1994 the UN General has declared June 17th as the Day of the Land Degradation and World Drought Mitigation Day through the resolution No. A/Res/49/115 to increase public awareness about the dangers of land degradation. This shows that the land degradation is a global problem and it is a dangerous process of environmental degradation in the world. The UN General called on all countries and in civil society groups to commemorated, and support the activities related to prevention and control of land degradation every June 17th to raise the awareness of the society towards sustainable development principles sustainable. As one of concern from our country and solidarity to the problem of global land degradation, Indonesia ratified the 1998 UN Convention on the UN Convention Combat Desertification, which abbreviated as UNCCD, through Presidential Decree No. 135 of 1998. UNCCD also known as the Convention Rio, which is the result of Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro with the other couple of environmental conventions, namely the Convention on Bio Diversity/CBD and UNFCCC (Convention framework for climate change). The Ministry of Forestry efforts to invite the society to plant the trees together through the Indonesian plant campaign, such as the National Movement for Land Rehabilitation and Social Forestry (Gerhan), 20
  21. 21. Edisi II, 2010 ISTIMEWAThe Indonesian Planting Action (APSI), Womens Indonesia.Planting and Maintain Trees Movement (GPTPP) is This World Degradation Reduction Day in 2010 wasan implementation of the UNCCD convention in adjusted to the theme of year 2010 as the InternationalIndonesia. Year of Biodiversty, namely: "Enhancing anywhere soils, Also the development of society Forest, Peoples enhances life everywhere ".Forest and Non-Wood Forest Products (NTFPs) which That theme illustrates that land degradation andis conducted on lands that must be protected. However, drought is significantly affecting all of the components ofnowadays the activities are more referred with the carbon biodiversity in the soil. Size of the critical and very criticalsequestration as a framework implementation of the land throughout Indonesia has exceeded 30 million ha.convention of the climate change (UNFCCC). The prevention or rehabilitation of degraded land must The purpose of convening Memorial Day of be carefully programmed which in line with sustainableprevention of land degradation is to recall the problem agricultural development for a positive impact on peoplesof land degradation in connection with the carrying welfare.capacity of watershed issues for the future of the nation. In relation to the construction of water supply andWith that, the goal to be achieved is to increase the sanitation, of course the reduction in critical lands willunderstanding of land degradation and awareness the increase the sustainability of water resources, anddangers to the national life in order to obtain support reduce flooding in the rain season and drought infrom the stakeholder concerning the forest and the summer [Eko].land protection and rehabilitation throughout DAS in 21
  22. 22. Discourse 15 Millions Households in Indonesia Still Do not Have Access to Drinking WaterBy Lauren DamiarD rinking water supply in Indonesia is quite big actually. Indonesia has 6 percent of the worlds water supply. While in Asia Pacific, 21 percent of water supply is in Indonesia. But compared to Malaysia and some othercountries in Southeast Asia, the fulfillment water supply forthe population in Indonesia is much lower. Until now the Indonesian people who have access ofdrinking water is less than 40 percent. The coverage of pipesystem only 17 percent, far below the target that has been setearlier. The network covers only 32 percent of the urban areasand much lower in rural areas. Of course the real scope inthe field is much lower, and in many places, it’s not optimallyfunctioning. Currently, the Ministry of Public Works is working hardto build a drinking water facilities for 15 million family in30,000 village in Indonesia who have a difficulty in gettinga drinking water. and the required budget is Rp 15 trillion.Each year until 2010 Rp 5 trillion is needed. The assumptionis each village requires Rp 500 million. The condition of water supply in Indonesia is not so dif- ferent with what happened at the global level. Indonesia is facing the avail- 22
  23. 23. Edisi II, 2010ability of drinking water problems that continues to decrease season, people in the Sungai Rengit village, Talang Kelapa subto 15-35 percent every year due to natural damage and pollu- district, and Limbang Mulia village, Pangkalan Balai subdis-tion. This condition will get worsen if the supply of drinking trict, Banyuasin district must be patient to wait in the line ofwater are compared with the population growth. By the year a hundreds people, day and night, to get the drinking waterof 2015, the number of Indonesias population is projected from the only well in the area. And who can’t stand in the lineto reach 245.7 million people. More than half that number is forced to buy the water at the price of Rp.3.500 per 20-literlive in the city with a more large drinking water usage per jerry can at the Air Batu, 18 kilometers from their village.capita than the rural population. Consequently, the growthof drinking water demand is not comparable with the condi- Nusa Tenggara Timur: Water Crisis Regiontions of supply and increase of the supply. Nusa Tenggara Timur is one of the most place that’s face Because of that, it’s hard to avoid the majority of Indo- the worst water crisis. The crisis are both in the aspect ofnesia society to deal with the limited compliance of drinking availability (quantity) or quality. Throughout 2007, the newswater as their daily problems. About 6 million poor people in about the water crisis in East Nusa Tenggara fills the pages ofseveral places in Indonesia should buy drinking water from local newspapers almost everyday. The drinking water crisisvendors at a much more expensive price than the price of wa- occurred almost of the part of East Nusa Tenggara. From theter taps. At least there are 15 million Families in 30,000 vil- 19 (now 20) districts in East Nusa Tenggara district only 5lages in Indonesia do not have a clean water service. districts that are relatively provided for their needs. A number of drinking water problems occur in almost In the dry season, 29 water sources and nine pumpedevery place. In the district of Tembuni, Tembuni Bay, the wells that has become the water source of Kupang citizenscommunity found it difficult to gett drinking water because drops dramatically, from 10-75 liters per second during thethe water is mixed with oil. In Palembang, during the dry rainy season to 0.5 to 20 liters per second. This thing is makes POKJA it difficult for the PDAM distribution with the principles of gravity, so that the water distribution reduced from 3 days to 5-7 days. In addition to supply shortage, the people of Kupang also deal with water quality issues. According to the results of the City Health Office of Kupang, 12 dug wells that serve water tank owned by PDAM and the local entrepreneurs to sell to the citizens is less than 80 meters. Many of them even less than 10 meters. Therefore, the available water was comee from bacteria-contaminated surface water. Rural, the question of the availability of drinking water is more challenging. Almost all districts in the regency of Ku- pang, which are the rural areas, face the clean water crisis. Villagers Lefuleo, West Kupang district must walk 4 km from their village to get clean water. In East Baumata village, North Baumata and Kuaklalo in the district Taebenu, the community can’t afford to fi- nance the operational cost of water pump anymore that need Rp.600.000 per four hours. While in some villages in the dis- trict of West Amarasi, residents are forced to buy water worth Rp. 200.000 thousand per tank. The water crisis even experienced by the residents of Ti- long, in the Oelnasi village, that has the biggest dam in NTT. The networkpipe and 11 container vessels that have been built in the village, such as fringe benefits of land transfer by the people to the dam (the people surrender the land in cultural way with the promise of getting the water service), and the water was 23
  24. 24. Discoursenever flowed. Every day the mother in Tilong have to walk 3 filtration. To obtain the water that is free from infiltration ofkilometers to carry the water. sea water, a borehole that reach tens of meters deep is needed. The water crisis is even worse on the island of Sabu, both Community do not have a sufficient funds and technologyin West Sabu districts, East Sabu, Sawu Mehara and Liae dis- to it.trict. Evenly across the community there is dealing with thelack of clean water supply. In Belu regency, from the 400,000 The Suffering Continuesinhabitants, only 12 percent who enjoy the clean water. The Drinking water crisis is affecting many problems, suchvillages resident in the Benanain riverside like Tafuli village as disease, the decrease of the level of prosperity, the low ofin Rainhat district, Benae village in Central Malacca district, productivity, and neglect of the opportunity to get education.and Manleten village in West Tasifeto district was forced to In East Nusa Tenggara, throughout August until Septemberconsume Benanain river water, which is muddy and contami- 2007, 11 childrens died due to diarrhea due to lack of avail-nated with animal feces. Residents are not able to walk 30-10 ability of drinking water and the poor conditions of sanita-km each day to the nearest water source or buy pumps and tion. In this province, children die in case of diarrhea occurspipes for water to drain from the water source that is located throughout the the valley. The same pattern was faced by the society of In addition to drinking water access, which is one of the welfare indicators, for the people who’s forced to buy the drinking water from peddler (tank cars and wheelbarrow), the limited of drinking water mean additional burden budget for home consumption. The price of water on the seller is much more costly than the usual price from PDAM. Therefore, people who do not have the access for the PDAM service or the supply water stops in the dry season, must reduce the another consumption so they could cover the expenditure to buy clean water. Villages that do not have enough water resources, the people will have to walk for hours just to take one or two jerry cans of water from the source that’s so far away, or spend their time POKJA in the long line at the only source ofKateri village in the Weliman district, and Buliaran village in water that’s existing and limited. If only houses in the villagesSasitamean district. has been served water pipelines, of course the available time As in Belu district, the society in Ngada district was also can be used to perform the economic activities that supply theforced to consume river water because the source of drink- family incomes, or also socio-cultural water is away from the village. Too tiring to walk 3-7 km For childrens, far and limited water resources from hometo the source of drinking water every day, villagers of Mainai or settlements means that they will lose the opportunity tovillage in Wolomeze and Benteng Tawa village in the Riung continue to go to school. In West Solor, East Flores, before theBarat district, was forced to used the muddy river water and existance of the development rainwater tanks program (PAH),become the puddle of the animals. The residents in Pondok young women can’t proceed to go to school at the higher levelvillage West Sumba district, experience similar problems. because they must take the responsibility for the availability In Solor, East Flores district and 8 districts in Lembata of the water for household. For hours they spent to walk anddistrict, despite having a well, the public consumes water that waiting in the line to take the water from the sources that’s is not safe. The residents owned wells are con- located far away from home. That responsibility is a division taminated by the sea water in- of roles with the parents who work in the fields. 24