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Western Civilization Lecture 2
 

Western Civilization Lecture 2

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    Western Civilization Lecture 2 Western Civilization Lecture 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Western Civilization
      • IS-VNU
      • Mr. Mike Beard
      • Session 2
      • Foundations of Western Civilization – Part 2
    • Introduction to Western Civilization
      • The Birth of Christianity
      • Rome and Western Christianity
      • Key People of the Middle Ages
      • Medieval Art
      • Medieval Architecture
    • Introduction to Western Civilization Christianity – Jesus of Nazareth
      • Central Figure of Western History
      • Western Calendar based on Jesus' birth
      • A.D. = Anno Domini (Year of the Lord)
      • B.C. = Before Christ
      Earliest Know Image of Jesus, 235 AD
    • Introduction to Western Civilization Christianity – Jesus of Nazareth
      • Jewish Rabbi
      • Biblical Genealogy claims that Jesus was from the line of King David.
      • Hebrew name “Yeshua” = God Delivers (Rescues)
      • Born in Bethlehem, Raised in Nazareth
      Earliest Know Image of Jesus, 235 AD
    • Introduction to Western Civilization Christianity – Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • The Divine Logos
      • The Christ - Messiah
      • Virgin Birth
      • Performed Miracles
      • Crucified under Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate
      • Buried in a tomb sealed and guarded by Roman soldiers
      • Resurrection
    • Introduction to Western Civilization Christianity – Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • Logos
      • Heraclitus – The principle of order and knowledge
      • Aristotle – Reasoned discourse (Logic)
      • Stoics – Divine animating principle of the universe
      • The Divine Logos
      • “ In the beginning was the Logos, and the Logos was with God, and the Logos was God. ” (John 1:1–2)
    • Introduction to Western Civilization Christianity – Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • Christ - Messiah
      • Christ = Greek translation of “Messiah”
      • Judaism
      • Anointed one (king)
      • A future King from the line of David
      • “ Jesus said to them, 'But who do you say that I am?' Simon Peter replied, 'You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.'” (Matthew 16:15–16).
    • Introduction to Western Civilization Christianity – Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • Virgin Birth
      • Nicaean Creed
      • “ We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ...For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven, was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became truly human.”
      • Gospel of Luke
      • The angel Gabriel was sent from God to a virgin [whose] name was Mary. He said, “you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David. The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you.”(Luke 1:26–38).
    • Introduction to Western Civilization Christianity – Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • Performed Miracles
      • Purpose of Miracles
      • “ Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.”
      • (John 20:30–31)
    • Introduction to Western Civilization Christianity – Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • Crucifixion
      • Well Documented Event in Roman History
      • Biblical Accounts
      • Mara Bar-Serapion
      • Roman historian Tacitus
      • Greek satirist Lucian
      • Jewish historian Josephus
      • Babylonian Talmud
      Masaccio, The Trinity
    • Introduction to Western Civilization Christianity – Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • Burial
      • Speared in his side to confirm death
      • Buried by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus
      • Tomb sealed and guarded by Roman soldiers
    • Christianity Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • The Resurrection Biblical Account
      • After 3 Days Jesus' tomb was found empty
      • Women followers claimed to see a resurrected Jesus
      • Disciples claimed Jesus appeared to them
      • Apostle Paul claimed that Jesus appeared to him
    • Christianity Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • The Resurrection
      • Central Belief to Early Christians
      • “ If Christ has not been raised, our preaching is useless and so is your faith.” (1 Corinthians 15:14)
    • Christianity Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • The Resurrection
      • Biblical Account
      • “ For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died...was buried, that he was raised on the third...and that he appeared to Peter, then to the twelve...then to more than five hundred brothers at one time... Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me.” (1 Corinthians 15:3–8).
    • Christianity Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • Arguments Against the Resurrection
      • Stolen Body – Jesus' body was stolen by his followers to fake a resurrection
      • Swoon Hypothesis – Jesus' didn't die but merely lost consciousness. After lying in a tomb for several hours he regained consciousness and walked out of the tomb
    • Christianity Early Beliefs about Jesus
      • Arguments for the Resurrection
      • The Roman Guard and sealed tomb
      • Against the Swoon Hypothesis – Rome knew how to execute people
      • Women as first eye-witnesses
      • Multiple Eye-witness accounts
      • Willingness of eye-witnesses to die for claims
    • Rome & Christianity
      • Persecution of Early Christians
      • Emperor Nero issued first systematic persecution of Christians
      • Diocletian Persecution
      • Series of four edicts banning Christian practices
      • Over 20,000 Christians killed
      • Methods of Killing
      • Crucifixion
      • Fed to Wild Animals
      • Burned Alive
      • Killed in Dramas
    • Rome & Christianity
      • Peace between Rome and Christianity
      • Emperor Constantine I
      • 312 AD – Vision of a cross as a sign to conquer the West
      • 313 AD – Edict of Milan legalizes Christianity in Rome
      • 325 AD – Sponsored the Council of Nicaea
      • Funded Church Buildings and Clergy
      • Theodosuis I
      • 27 February 380 AD – Christianity become the State Religion of Rome
      Emperor Constantine I
    • Rome & Christianity
      • Roman Church Councils
      • 325 AD – Council of Nicaea
      • 381 AD – First Council of Constantinople
      • 431 AD – Council of Ephesus
      • 451 AD – Council of Chalcedon
    • Rome & Christianity
      • Christianity & Military Power
      • Jesus taught, “Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.” (Mt 5:39)
      • The Middle Ages is also know as the “Dark Ages” because of the violence associated with it.
      • During the Dark Ages Christianity spread through War and Conquest
    • Rome & Christianity
      • Spread of Christianity
      • Clovis
      • In AD 481, Clovis united the Franks and became their king.
      • The Franks were the largest of the Germanic tribes
      • Clovis converted to the Roman Catholic Christianity.
      • Essentially, the Franks blended Germanic and Roman cultural practices.
    • The Middle Ages
      • Key People
      • Charles Martel
      • Ruler of the Franks
      • 732 AD – Battle of Tours (France) against Muslim expansion into Europe
    • The Middle Ages
      • Key People
      • Charles Martel
      • Video
    • The Middle Ages
      • Key Key People
      • Charlemagne
      • 768 AD – King of the Francs
      • Forces most of Western Europe to convert to Christianity or face death
      • Massacre of Verden - Executed 4,500 Saxon Pagans
      • 800 AD – Crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo III
      • Successfully stopped the spread of Islam in Europe
      • Expanded Roman Catholic Christianity throughout Europe
    • The Middle Ages
      • Key People
      • Charlemagne
      • Video
    • Rome & Christianity
      • Spread of Christianity
      • St. Benedict
      • 500 AD – St. Benedict Monastic Rules
      • Father of Monasticism
      • Monks and Monasteries spread Christianity across Eurpoe
    • Rome & Christianity
      • St. Patrick of Ireland
      • Taken to Ireland as a slave at age 16 and escaped after 6 years
      • Became a Christian priest, and later a Bishop
      • Returned to Ireland as a missionary
      • Converted Irish to Christianity
      • VIDEO
    • The Middle Ages
      • Key Philosophers
      • St. Augustine of Hippo
      • Most Influential Writings – City of God and Confessions
      • Wrote against the Pelagians and formulated doctrine of original sin
      • Wrote extensively about Human Free-will and Divine Sovereignty
      • Major influence on Western Theology and Philosophy
      • Influenced Reformers
    • The Middle Ages
      • Key Philosophers
      • St. Thomas Aquinas
      • Italian Dominican Priest
      • Wrote Summa Theologica and Summa Contra Gentiles
      • Philosophy - knowledge of any truth requires Divine help
      • Natural (reason) and Supernatural (scriptures) Revelation were two sources of truth
      • Re-introduces Aristotle to Western Theology and Philosophy
    • The Middle Ages Medieval Art & Architecture
      • Hints of Plato
      • Directed Attention to the Heavenly Realm
      • Not Concerned with this World
      • Focus on the Divine
    • The Middle Ages Medieval Art Coptic Icon of Jesus and an Abbot
      • Early Medieval Characteristics
      • Iconic
      • Religious
      • Halos
      • Anti-Realist
      • Flat
      • Minimal Background
    • The Middle Ages Medieval Art (1308-11) The central panel of Duccio's Maestà altarpiece
    • The Middle Ages Medieval Art Mary Magdalen announcing the Resurrection to the Apostles, St Albans Psalter, English, 1120-1145.
    • The Middle Ages Medieval Art The oldest Byzantine icon of Mary, c. 600, encaustic, at Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai retains much of Greek realist style.
    • The Middle Ages Medieval Art The Bamberg Apocalypse, from the Ottonian Reichenau School, achieves monumentality in a small scale. 1000-1020
    • The Middle Ages Medieval Art Byzantine Church Mosaics from the late 12th century.
    • The Middle Ages Early Medieval Architecture
      • Romanesque Architecture
      • Massive Buildings
      • Cross-shaped
      • Thick Walls
      • Round Arches
      • Decorative Arcading
      • Large Towers
      • Vaulted Ceilings
      The Cathedral of Lisbon
      • Romanesque Architecture
      • Massive Buildings
      Angoulême Cathedral The Middle Ages Early Medieval Architecture
      • Romanesque Architecture
      • Massive Buildings
      Tournai Cathedral The Middle Ages Early Medieval Architecture
      • Romanesque Architecture
      • Cross-shaped Building Plan
      Angoulême Cathedral Plan The Middle Ages Early Medieval Architecture
      • Romanesque Architecture
      • Thick Walls
      The Middle Ages Early Medieval Architecture
      • Romanesque Architecture
      • Round Arches
      • Decorative Arcading
      The Church of le Puy en Velay The Middle Ages Early Medieval Architecture
      • Romanesque Architecture
      • Large Towers
      Catedral de Worms The Middle Ages Early Medieval Architecture
      • Romanesque Architecture
      • Vaulted Ceilings
      The Middle Ages Early Medieval Architecture
    • The Middle Ages Late Medieval Architecture
      • Gothic Architecture
      • Skeletal Stone Structures
      • Stained-glass Windows
      • External Flying Buttresses
      • Pointed Arches
      • Ribbed Stone Vaults
      • Clustered Columns
      • Sharply Pointed Spires
      The Cathedral of Reims
    • The Middle Ages Late Medieval Architecture Gothic Architecture Skeletal Stone Structures The Piazza Duomo
    • The Middle Ages Late Medieval Architecture
      • Gothic Architecture
      • Stained-glass Windows
    • The Middle Ages Late Medieval Architecture
      • Gothic Architecture
      • External Flying Buttresses
    • Gothic Architecture Pointed Arches
    • The Middle Ages Late Medieval Architecture
      • Gothic Architecture
      • Ribbed Stone Vaults
      Inside the Cologne Cathedral
    • The Middle Ages Late Medieval Architecture Gothic Architecture Clustered Columns
    • The Middle Ages Late Medieval Architecture
      • Gothic Architecture
      • Sharply Pointed Spires
      Salisbury Cathedral