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  1. 1. The Crusades
  2. 2. I. Background <ul><li>The Seljuk Turks (Muslims) took control of the Holy Land (Jerusalem) . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In 1095, Pope Urban II organized a crusade (a holy war to recapture Jerusalem). </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>REMEMBER? </li></ul><ul><li>The Holy Land is considered holy to Jews, Christians and Muslims. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE!
  5. 5. <ul><li>C. There were SEVEN Crusades fought over 200 years. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>D. European kings united for the church instead of fighting each other. </li></ul>
  7. 7. II. Causes of the Crusades <ul><li>1. Pope Urban II believed this would increase his power. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Christians believed they would go to heaven. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>3. Nobles wanted wealth, land and adventure! </li></ul><ul><li>4. Serfs hoped to escape feudal oppression (hardship). </li></ul>
  9. 9. DON’T WRITE! <ul><li>In the First Crusade , Christians captured Jerusalem in 1099, massacring Muslim inhabitants. </li></ul>The fighting goes on and on …
  10. 10. <ul><li>Muslims leaders tried to regain these kingdoms, which resulted in THREE more Crusades over the next 200 years! </li></ul>DON’T WRITE! And on …
  11. 12. III. During the Crusades <ul><li>A. Saladin – the Muslim General </li></ul><ul><li>During the Second Crusade in the 1100s, Saladin retook Jerusalem. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE! And on …
  12. 13. <ul><li>He forbade his soldiers to kill, harm, or steal from the Crusaders, who had surrendered to him. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE!
  13. 14. <ul><li>B. Richard the Lion-Hearted – famous King of England. </li></ul><ul><li>Though he vowed to retake Jerusalem in the Third Crusade (1189-1192) , it never happened. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE!
  14. 15. <ul><li>During the Third Crusade, Saladin learned that Richard’s horse was killed. </li></ul><ul><li>He sent him another horse, declaring that so gallant a warrior should not have to fight on foot! </li></ul>DON’T WRITE!
  15. 16. <ul><li>Another account tells that Richard fell ill and wanted fruit and drink. </li></ul><ul><li>Saladin sent him pears, peaches, and his personal doctor! </li></ul><ul><li>Saladin repeatedly remarked that if he must lose Jerusalem, he’d rather lose it to Richard than to any other man alive. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE!
  16. 17. <ul><li>C. These two leaders greatly respected one another. </li></ul>WRITE!
  17. 18. <ul><li>The Fourth Crusade was supposed to regain Jerusalem, but the crusading knights ended up looting Constantinople. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE! And on …
  18. 19. <ul><li>Muslims overran the crusader states by 1291. This time, the Muslims massacred the Christian inhabitants after their victory. </li></ul>And on … DON’T WRITE!
  19. 21. IV. Impact/ Effects/ Results/ Outcomes of the Crusades
  20. 22. <ul><li>1. A legacy of religious hatred & intolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between Christians, Muslims and Jews. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. 2. Education Increased in Europe <ul><li>Europeans gained a wider view of the world. </li></ul>DON’T WRITE! <ul><li>Europeans were exposed to Muslim math, science, literature and art. </li></ul><ul><li>Rediscovery of Greek and Roman writings (Muslims preserved them too!) </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>3. Increased trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As demand for good grew, Italian city states (Venice & Florence) grew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DON’T WRITE! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spices, sugar, lemons, rugs, coffee, perfumes, silk, cotton, raisins and glass. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>4. A money economy grew </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants paid rent in $$, not labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes financed Crusades </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>5. Increased power of European kings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings won the right to tax people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The power of the feudal nobility declined. </li></ul></ul>