The Renaissance


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The Renaissance

  1. 1. The Renaissance<br />Unit Review<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Worldview<br />
  3. 3. Worldview <br />A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or group<br />The overall perspective from which one sees/interprets the world<br />Worldview is not a point of view or perspective<br />
  4. 4. 7 Worldview elements<br />Values<br />Society <br />Beliefs <br />Time <br />Geography <br />Knowledge <br />Economy<br />
  5. 5. Chapter 1<br />Times of Change<br />
  6. 6. Feudalism <br />Social Structure: People were born into a level of society and were expected to stay in that role for the rest of their lives<br />European society was organized by feudalism <br />A hierarchy<br />In a hierarchy people are ranked according to their societal importance<br />Feudalism was based on land, loyalty and duty<br />
  7. 7. Feudalism<br />Crown<br />Barons, Abbots <br />and<br />Bishops <br />Knights<br />Commoners<br />(Peasants)<br />
  8. 8. Feudalism<br />The Crown (monarch) was in charge. <br />Bishops had as much power as Barons. <br />Nobles/Knights swore oaths of allegiance. They promised to fight for the king in exchange for manors or fiefs<br />Bishops received their land from the King (Crown), and the Church became a large land owner in time. <br />The Church was very important to medieval people<br />
  9. 9. Peasants <br />Most people in the Middle Ages were peasants who lived in rural villages on a manor<br />Assigned strips of land to plant/harvest<br />In exchange for use of the manor, peasants gave the lord a portion of their crops <br />Were illiterate and uneducated <br />Some were freemen, who rented land from the lord or worked for pay<br />Most were serfs, who couldn’t leave the manor without the lord’s permission<br />
  10. 10. Hierarchy of the Church<br />The Pope<br />Archbishops<br />Bishops<br />Priests<br />Parishioners<br />
  11. 11. The Church<br />Religious men became monks; joined monasteries<br />Religious women became nuns and joined convents<br />Many members of religious orders died as a result of caring for victims of the Black Death<br />Were well educated<br />Some monasteries became learning centers<br />
  12. 12. The black death #1<br />Made some people reconsider their faith<br />They believed that they had failed God<br />People began having a more critical attitude towards the church.<br />Critics said that it cared more about luxur-ious living than spiritual values <br />
  13. 13. Threats to feudalism<br />Peasants Revolts<br />1337: War started between England and France (The Hundred Years’ War)<br />Peasants revolted cuz of high rents/taxes they had to pay to finance the war <br />The revolts were put down by the authorities but the cause of their revolt was unresolved<br />
  14. 14. Threats to Feudalism<br />The Black Death #2<br />Millions of Europeans died<br />Regular outbreaks continued for the next several hundred years<br />Severe labour shortages on manors, feudal estates, and became bankrupt<br />Nobles began to sell their land to serfs <br />Renaissance: a “rebirth” of classical knowledge and writing; started in Italy<br />
  15. 15. Important people<br />Christine de Pisan: French poet, philosopher, historian. Wrote that women should be allowed to participate more in society<br />Vasco da Gama: Portuguese explorer. Was the first person to sail directly from Europe to India.<br />Francois 1: King of France. Supported the construction of buildings using Renaissance architecture<br />Martin Luther: German religious thinker. Translated the Bible into German.<br />
  16. 16. Important people<br />Nicolaus Copernicus: Polish astronomer and mathematician (Sun center of universe)<br />Leonardo da Vinci: architect, inventor, engineer, painter, musician<br />
  17. 17. Chapter 2<br />The Expansion of Trade<br />
  18. 18. The Crusades<br />Palestine was under Christian control for many years <br />In the 7th Century, it was taken over by the Turks (later, Muslims)<br />1095: Pope Urban 2 launched a Christian crusade to drive out the Muslims. Thousands walked across Europe to the Holy Land, but were taken out.<br />Groups of knights set to do battle with the Turks<br />The 1st Crusade created a Christian kingdom in the Middle East for 100 years<br />The Muslims regained their land<br />
  19. 19. City-states<br />Most countries in Europe were kingdoms ruled by monarchs<br />Italy was a collection of City-States<br />City-State: a city that is politically independent, and the rural area around it<br />
  20. 20. Italian City-state success <br />1. Geography: Italy was the closest to the port cities of Northern Africa/Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Trading was easier)<br />2. Climate: Italy’s climate was warmer than Northern European countries, so trade/travel could continue throughout the year, and had a long growing season.<br />3. Leadership: In pre-modern Europe, most countries were monarchies. Northern Italy was a collection of independent city-states.(Had their own government, armies, and controlled their own affairs).<br />
  21. 21. Italian city-state Success<br />4. Social Organization: Feudalism did not have a strong hold in Italy – Nobles tended to move into towns, and took their place in urban society<br />Merchants: purchased goods in one place<br />and sold them for a profit in another.<br />
  22. 22. Venice and Genoa<br />Were important because:<br />Venice was easily defended by invasion<br />Became a good trading center as a result of its dealings with the East<br />Had thousands of ships travelling through the Mediterranean Sea<br />The Venice Arsenal was the largest ship building center in Europe<br />Genoa controlled a share of the trade in the East Mediterranean and the Black Sea<br />Controlled trade with Barcelona and Valencia<br />Genoa and Venice were on equal terms for centuries<br />The Genoese fleet was destroyed in a battle in Venice, 1380<br />Genoa never regained its former power<br />
  23. 23. Chapter 3<br />The Humanist Approach<br />
  24. 24. Humanism<br />An era in the Renaissance where people began to look at ancient works in a different way. <br />A result of intercultural contact with earlier civilizations.<br />David!<br />
  25. 25. Humanism and the individual<br />Belief in dignity/potential of the individual<br />People could shape their lives through efforts/talents<br />Beings can use power of reason to find truth<br />Important to be curious/open/questioning<br />Can achieve things through learning<br />One should be skilled in many different areas (Develop mind/body/spirit)<br />Christian worldview: to develop one’s talents was to serve God, because He gave you those talents.<br />
  26. 26. Civic humanists<br />Believed that being a responsible citizen meant educating yourself about history/politics and working to improve society. <br />Uffizi!<br />
  27. 27. Humanist education<br />“Never wasted time by loitering, but returned home after business and spent his time studying Greek or Latin” –Leonardo Bruni (in the eyes of a wealthy merchant)<br />It was important to train children’s bodies/characters/minds (educating the whole child)<br />Encouraged a curious/questioning attitude towards students<br />Humanists were sometimes tutors for students<br />
  28. 28. Humanism and religion<br />Thinkers emphasized ideas/values like individual achievement/the importance of history and the arts<br />Religion played an important role in their lives<br />Duomo!<br />
  29. 29. 5 elements of renaissance art<br />Natural World<br />Light/Shadow<br />Texture/Pattern<br />Realistic Details<br />Elegance<br />Sistine Chapel<br />
  30. 30. Chapter 4<br />The Exchange of Ideas<br />
  31. 31. Scientific method<br />Process of making observations, experimenting and drawing conclusions based on evidence<br />
  32. 32. Important people<br />Johannes Kepler: concluded that planets travelled in an elliptical orbit, not circles as Copernicus believed<br />Galileo Galilei: confirmed Copernicus’ idea of a Sun-centered universe <br />
  33. 33. Medicine<br />Doctors had little knowledge of anatomy/disease<br />Remedies based on astrology, superstition, etc, were common<br />During the Renaissance medical knowledge grew<br />Doctors/scientists began applying the scientific method<br />Andreas Vesalius: dissected bodies while his students watched<br />
  34. 34. Martin Luther<br />A German monk<br />Concluded that the Bible should be a Christian’s guide, not the Church<br />1575: Luther nailed the 95 Theses, criticizing the selling of indulgences on the Church door in Wittenberg<br />
  35. 35. The Protestant Reformation<br />Luther’s Protestant translation of the Bible reached an unprecedented number of Germans<br />A new Church was created (Lutheran Church)<br />Luther’s ideas spread across Europe<br />People who agreed with Luther were called Protestants – became known and the Protestant Reformation<br />Protestants “protested” against the Church’s refusal to allow “reform”, and achieved a Reformation<br />
  36. 36. Information was spread through:<br />Universities:<br />Early humanists taught at Italian universities<br />Shared their ideas through discussions and through their writings<br />Some humanists attracted students from all over Europe, and they went back to their home cities and shared their knowledge<br />
  37. 37. Information was spread through:<br />Travelling Celebrities:<br />Famous Humanists were the celebrities of their time<br />They were in demand all over Europe<br />Trained younger people<br />Engaged in discussions with scholars all over Europe<br />
  38. 38. Information was spread through:<br />Royal Courts:<br />Kings/Queens wanted scholars in their courts <br />Francois 1’s court became a center of learning<br />He collected manuscripts, paintings and sculptures <br />
  39. 39. The printing press<br />1450: Johannes Gutenberg made the printing press<br />Printers produced thousands of books in the time it had once taken to make one<br />Cheaper because they were printed on paper instead of parchment <br />
  40. 40. Chapter 5<br />The Age of Exploration<br />
  41. 41. definitions<br />Islam: The religious faith of Muslims<br />Christianity: Religion (Protestant, Orthodox, etc.)<br />Circumnavigate: travel completely around something (circumnavigating the Earth)<br />Expansionism: the actions and attitudes of a state/country whose goal is to expand its power and territory<br />
  42. 42. The three m’s of exploration<br />1. Mindset<br /><ul><li>Definition: a way of thinking that determines somebody’s behaviour/outlook
  43. 43. E.g.: personal accomplishment of finishing a race </li></ul>2. Motivation<br /><ul><li>Definition: the act that drives or gives incentive to do something
  44. 44. E.g.: A medal (race)
  45. 45. 3. Means
  46. 46. Definition: the equipment and resources that enable an action to be possible</li></li></ul><li>Mindset<br />The ocean was still a frightening place to some Renaissance people. So why were explorers determined to venture off into the unknown and possibly dangerous territory?<br />Because of:<br /><ul><li>Curiosity/adventure
  47. 47. Role of the individual
  48. 48. Faith in the potential of human beings
  49. 49. European monarchs supported the voyages even though they might not succeed.
  50. 50. Increase in wealth, territory and power of acount</li></li></ul><li>Motivation<br />Economic factors that motivated exploration:<br /><ul><li>Demand – luxury goods and spices
  51. 51. Expand Gold Supply
  52. 52. Expand Christianity
  53. 53. Expanding the Known World
  54. 54. Expanding Navigational Technology</li></li></ul><li>Motivation<br />Europeans believed that a sea route to the East was the solution to their trade problem. A sea route would give them control over their supply of goods. And they hoped to get rice by bringing in spices and other trade goods on the European market.<br />The trading economy depended on the exchange of goods and resources for money<br />European mines were running out of gold and silver, and needed new sources of precious metals. <br />
  55. 55. Religious factors that motivated exploration<br />“Go into all the world, and proclaim the good news to the whole creator” – Mark, 16:15<br />Renaissance explorers believed they were doing to work of the Lord<br />Muslims who follow the Qur’an have five religious duties to uphold the “Five Pillars of Faith”. One of these pillars include: If possible, make a pilgrimage to the city of Mecca during one’s lifetime.<br />Europeans wanted to ensure the spread of Christianity and prevent the spread of Islam.<br />
  56. 56. means<br />Despite European worldview to be open and curious of outside influences, their knowledge beyond their borders was very limited.<br />Navigation: the science of determining the course, position and distance travelled by a ship<br />It comes from the Latin words:<br /><ul><li>Navis: ship
  57. 57. Agere: to drive</li></li></ul><li>What factor might motivate a society to venture into unknown regions beyond its borders?<br />Power: explorers and the government of the country sponsoring the explorer would have more power if the quest resulted in a newly discovered country, ocean, etc, they would receive more power<br />E.g.:<br />Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand sponsored Columbus, but stated that any possible unknown oceans would be theirs<br />
  58. 58. What elements of the worldview or Renaissance Europeans led to exploration and expansionism?<br />The Renaissance belief of the potential of the individual lead people to explore (role of the individual, faith in the potential of human beings)<br />Increase in wealth, territory and power of a country.<br />
  59. 59. What are the similarities and differences between expanding Christianity and the five pillars of faith?<br />Similarities: Both of them believed in some way that they were doing the work of their Lord, and each act was somewhat based on their religion.<br />Differences: Christian explorers/monarchs were set on expanding Christianity, and preventing the spread of Islam, whereas the Islam's where more so set on defending their religion.<br />
  60. 60. What instruments were important for successful navigation of the earth?<br />Compass: used for finding the direction a ship is travelling; developed in China about1700 years ago, used by Muslim travelers in navigation.<br />Astrolabe: used the North Star or Sun to calculate latitude, the distance north or south of the Equator; probably invented by ancient Greeks, further developed by Arab mathematicians and astronomers. <br />Cross-staff: used to measure the altitude of the Pole star above the horizon to determine latitude; invented around 1342 for astronomy and first used around 1514 for navigation<br />Back-staff: used to measure the altitude of the Sun to determine latitude; developed in 1594 as an improvement over the cross-staff.<br />
  61. 61. Which country was the first European country to become involved in organized exploration and how did this affect other countries?<br />Portugal was the first European country to become involved in organized exploration.<br />They focused on travelling East to reach Asia by travelling around Africa<br />Bartholomeu Dias lead the first Portuguese expedition around the Cape of Good Hope. His crew mutinied and prevented the exhibition from reaching India. <br />When Columbus crossed the Atlantic, it put pressure on the Portuguese to explore and expand<br />They needed to reach the East before the Spanish.<br />
  62. 62. continued<br />5 years after Columbus’ voyage, Vasco da Gama sailed around Africa, across the Indian Ocean to Calicut<br />He returned with precious spices and established a sea route to the East. <br />
  63. 63. The Battle of Diu<br />After Vasco da Gama achieved the sea route to the East, Portuguese fleets made yearly trips to the East to trade. <br />Arab merchants believed that the Portuguese were intruding<br />Large Arab fleet and a small Portuguese fleet<br />The Portuguese had an advantage because of cannons<br />1500s: Portugal became the most powerful trading country in Europe.<br />
  64. 64. Explain how slavery was present before and after the Europeans ventured out to explore the world <br />Slavery: a system under which people are treated as property (forced to work)<br />Slavery has been a part of many country’s worldview.<br />By the 1440s, the Portuguese were involved in the slave trade in Africa. <br />They brought the African slaves to work on sugar plantations that they had established on islands in the Atlantic ocean. <br />Slavery existed in Africa before the arrival of the Europeans <br />
  65. 65. continued<br />During the next 3 centuries, Europeans captured and transported millions of Africans to the Americas as slaves<br />Millions of them died on route from their terrible conditions on the slave ships or from overwork when they arrived<br />
  66. 66. What are the advantages and disadvantages to slavery?<br />Advantages: Europeans had people to work for them on their businesses; always had something to do<br />Disadvantages: Slaves died from overwork and terrible conditions, lack of freedom, etc.<br />
  67. 67. Why was the “Articles of agreement between the lords of catholic sovereigns and cristobal colon” important?<br />It is important because it states the rules of Christopher Columbus’ exploration(s). Also, Spain wouldn’t have been able to claim territory, etc.<br />How would this affect the New World inhabitants?<br />It stated that Columbus had control over lands and goods, etc.<br />
  68. 68. Who are they?<br />Where are they from? What were their goals? What did they accomplish?<br />Christopher Columbus<br />Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand<br />Arab and Italian merchants<br />Mansa Moussa <br />Prester John<br />Prince Henry <br />Bartholomeu Dias<br />Giovanni Caboto<br />Jacques Cartier<br />
  69. 69. Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) <br />His goal was to find a quicker route to the East, because spices and other goods were becoming too expensive because they were handled so much on the way to the countries in Europe, and a quicker route would lower the price immensely.<br />Was sponsored by Spain, although he was Italian. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand (Spain) declared their sovereignty over unknown oceans, that any industry discovered or acquired would be claimed or bought. Columbus was given power to the places he visited. (pg. 125)<br />
  70. 70. Columbus briefing<br />His goal was to go to Asia through the Atlantic Ocean<br />Took 3 voyages to the Caribbean. He died after his 4th voyage in 1506<br />Was convinced until he died that he had reached Asia<br />
  71. 71. Ferdinand magellan<br />He found the Philippines but was killed after getting involved in a local war. His voyage was the first recorded voyage to circumnavigate the world.<br />
  72. 72. Prince Henry the navigator <br />Prince Henry of Portugal (1394 – 1460)<br />Interest in ships and navigation<br />Sponsored many voyages of exploration<br />Established a center at Sagnes to improve navigational equipment and create new maps.<br />
  73. 73. Prester john<br />The legends of Prester John were popular in Europe from the 12th century through the 17th centuries.<br />The legend tells of a Christian patriarch and king said to rule over a Christian nation lost amidst the Muslims and Pagans in the Orient<br />Prince Henry and many others wanted to locate Prester John. Prince Henry hoped that Prester John would help the Portuguese explorers to convert people in Africa and to join the Christian nations of Europe in a crusade against the Muslims.<br />
  74. 74. Mansa moussa<br />Was the Muslim ruler of the powerful and wealthy empire of Mali in Africa. <br />Mali was situated on important trade routes that dealt in gold, salt, ivory and slaves.<br />In 1324, he set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca, the most holy city of Islam.<br />He distributed wealthy goods to the poor on his way<br />Italian merchants trading in Cairo spread stories around Europe about Moussa’s gold and rich empire. <br />
  75. 75. others<br />Giovanni Caboto: Travelled for England in 1497, and discovered the northern part of Newfoundland. <br />Jacques Cartier: Travelled for France in 1534, and also rediscovered the northern part of Newfoundland.<br />
  76. 76. Chapter 6<br />O Brave New World<br />
  77. 77. Imperialism <br />The extension of power over a territory and its resources and people.<br />
  78. 78. The treaty of Tordesillas <br />Portugal wanted to make sure that the got their share of Asian trade after everyone thought that Columbus had reached Asia<br />Portugal and Spain couldn’t agree, so they asked the pope to settle it<br />1494: the pope proposed a secret treaty, that divided the world between the Spanish (West) and Portuguese (East)<br />Other European rulers were angry when they heard about this. England and France ignored its terms and sent out explorers across the North Atlantic to find new territories. King Henry VI (England) sent Giovanni Caboto, and France, Jacques Cartier.<br />
  79. 79. European Imperialist attitudes<br />Territories Columbus discovered were named New Spain<br />Spanish government granted land to people who wanted to settle in New Spain to mine and set up plantations<br />Indigenous people were enslaved<br />Bartolome de Las Casas: wrote about the atrocities committed against Indigenous people in New Spain<br />
  80. 80. Cost of imperialism<br />Europeans learned that there weren’t any monsters in the ocean<br />That people everywhere looked similar to themselves<br />The world was very different from how they had imagined it. <br />Europeans saw themselves as superior to Indigenous civilizations because they were close to nature, did not live in a crowded civilization, and they focused on equality/sharing<br />