His 101 chapter 12 -the renaissance


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His 101 chapter 12 -the renaissance

  1. 1. The Renaissance
  2. 2. What is the significance of the Renaissance?
  3. 3. Renaissance “Rebirth” does not mean that there was a lack of learning during the middle ages that was “reborn” between 1350 and 1550 “Rebirth” does not mean that Renaissance society experienced a rebirth of classical learning and paganism Renaissance personalities loved classical learning but this love did not replace their Christian beliefs There was no single Renaissance position on anything
  4. 4. Distinguishing trends of the Renaissance Rediscovery  Works of Roman thinkers such as Livy and Tacitus  Recovery of classical Greek literature, especially Plato and Aristotle  Mastery of Greek language and Greek literary heritage Renaissance scholars used classical texts in ways that were new  More aware of the conceptual gap between their own world view and the world view of classical authors  Recognized similarities between ancient city-states and Italian city-states Renaissance culture was more worldly and overtly materialistic than medieval culture  Importance of urban political arena  Importance of living well in this world  Increasing weakness of the Church in political arena
  5. 5. Renaissance Humanism A program of studies intended to replace the 13th and 14th century emphasis on logic and metaphysics with the study of language, literature, rhetoric, history and ethics Focus on classical Latin and Greek Focus on producing virtuous citizens and able public officials rather than securing salvation and protecting the Church
  6. 6. Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance Italy was most advanced urban society in Europe Italian aristocracy lived in urban centers not rural castles  More fully involved in urban public affairs  Less distinguished from the wealthy merchant class  Urban aristocrats engaged in commerce and banking activities  Urban merchants imitated the manners and lifestyles of the aristocrats Demand for education to further commercial interests  Lay educators rather than clergy  Produced learned treatises on politics and ethics
  7. 7. Petrarch: The Father of Renaissance Humanism (1304- 1374)
  8. 8. Petrarch & Christian Humanism Scholasticism is misguided for concentrating on abstract speculation rather than on teaching people who to live virtuously and gain salvation Cultivate literary eloquence to inspire people to do good Italian Sonnets Focus on contemplation
  9. 9. Petrarch Sonnet No. 134 (translated by Anthony Mortimer)I find no peace, yet I am not at warI fear and hope, I burn and freeze;I rise to heaven, and fall to earth’s floorGrasping at nothing, the world I seizeShe imprisons me, who neither jails nor freesNor keeps me for herself, nor slips the noose;Love does not kill, nor set me free,Love takes my life, but will not set me loose.I have not eyes, yet see, no tongue, yet scream;I long to perish, and seek release;I hate myself, and love another.I feed on grief, and in my laughter week;Both death and life displease me;Lady, because of you, I suffer.
  10. 10. Civic HumanistsLeonardo Bruni(1370-1444) Leon Batista Alberti (1404- 1472)
  11. 11. Bruni and Alberti Man’s nature equipped him for action  Usefulness to family and society  Serving the state Ambition and quest for glory are noble impulses Refused to condemn striving for material posessions Alberti, On the Family  Nuclear family instituted by nature for well-being of humanity  Women’s place is to “increase and continue generations” and nourish children  Similar to Greek views on women’s place in society
  12. 12. Neoplatonism Platonic Academy founded by Cosimo de’ Medici in Florence  Byzantine scholars and Italian scholars focused on works of Plato, ancient mysticism and Christianity  Marisilio Ficino (1433-1499)  translated all of Plato’s works to Latin  Pico della Miradnola (1463-1494)  Oration on the Dignity of Man: there is “nothing more wonderful than man.”  Man is endowed with the ability to achieve union with God
  13. 13. Nicolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
  14. 14. The Prince Reflects the unstable political conditions in Italy at the time he wrote it  Invasions by France and Spain  Internal dissension and competition of Italian city-states  1498 prominent official in Florentine Republic established when the French deposed the Medici family  Attempt by Cesare Borgia (Son of Pope Alexander VI) to create his own principality  1512 Medici’s returned to power and Machiavelli is dismissed
  15. 15. Machiavellian Advice to Rulers A prince’s actions must be judged by their consequences not by their moral quality Human beings are “ungrateful, fickle and deceitful, eager to avoid dangers and avid for gain.” Necessity of preserving the state will often compel a prince to act in ways that are the opposite of “loyalty, charity, humanity and religion.” Stick to the path of good as far as a prince is able but know how to follow evil
  16. 16. Machiavelli’s Discourses on Livy Praised the constitutional form of government Equality among citizens Political independence for city-states Subordination of religion to the service of the state Some view this as contradicting views expressed in The Prince  Are these views contradictory?  Can these views be reconciled?
  17. 17. 3 perspectives on Machiavelli Machiavelli endorsed princely tyranny for its own sake, amoral, interested in power only Italian patriot who saw tyranny as the only way to liberate Italy from its foreign conquerors Follower of St. Augustine who understood that in a fallen world a ruler’s good intentions do not guarantee that his policies will have good results
  18. 18. The Ideal of the CourtierBaldassare Castiglione(1478-1529)
  19. 19. The Book of the Courtier The qualities of a Renaissance Man  Master all skills of medieval warrior  Physical proficiency of a champion athlete  Possess the refinements of a humanistic education  Latin and Greek, vernacular  Familiar with the classics  Speak and write well  Compose verse  Draw  Play musical instrument  Sprezzatura – air of nonchalance
  20. 20. Principal Characteristics of Italian Renaissance Art Chicaroscuro  Effects of light and shade Anatomy and proportions of human body Linear perspective Opened art to non-religious themes and subjects  Reveal hidden mysteries of the soul  Appeal primarily to intellect  Delight the eye Introduction of oil painting
  21. 21. Masaccio (1401-1428)Masaccio, Trinity, 1425-1428,Fresco, Santa Maria Novella,Florence, Italy
  22. 22. The Tribute Money
  23. 23. Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) The Birth of Venus
  24. 24. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
  25. 25. Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper
  26. 26. Virgin of the Rocks
  27. 27. High Renaissance Venetian School  Reflected pleasure-loving life of merchants in Venice  Appealed to senses by painting idyllic landscapes  Portraits of the rich and powerful  Subordinated form and meaning to color and elegance Rome  Center of High Renaissance in 1st half of 16th century  Raphael (1483-1520)  Michelangelo (1475-1564)
  28. 28. Michelangelo, Jacopino del Conte
  29. 29. Renaissance Sculpture Free-standing statues in the round  1st time since antiquity  Established sculpture as a separate and potentially secular art form Donatello, David Michelangelo, David  The Pieta, Descent from the Cross  Experimented with mannerisms for communicating mood
  30. 30. Two Davids
  31. 31. The Pieta
  32. 32. Descent from the Cross
  33. 33. High Renaissance (1490-1520) Center shifted from Florence to Rome Papal undertaking to restore the ancient city  Use of indulgences to do so sparked the Protestant Reformation  Pope Julius II commissioned Donato Bramante to rebuild Saint Peter’s Cathedral  Harmonious design  Tempietto San Pietro  Andrea Palladio Villa Rontunda
  34. 34. Tempietto San Pietro
  35. 35. Villa Rotunda
  36. 36. The Waning of the Italian Renaissance French invasion of 1494 Constant warfare 1527 Charles V of Spain invaded and sacked Rome Gradual shifting of trade routes from Mediterranean to the Atlantic Region cost Italy its supremacy in trade Counter-Reformation  1542 Roman Inquisition  1564 Roman Index of Prohibited Books
  37. 37. Northern Renaissance Christian Humanism  Sought ethical guidance from Biblical and religious precepts  Challenged Roman Catholic Church traditions & hypocrisy  Desiderius Erasmus  Sir Thomas Moore  Both men wanted to challenge and reform the Roman Catholic Church, not leave it
  38. 38. Desiderius Erasmus & Christian Humanism  Criticized wealth, “worldliness” and corruption of the Roman Catholic Church  Learn Latin, Greek and Hebrew  Bible  teachings of the early church fathers  Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536)  Return to basic teachings of Christ  Criticized dogma and ritual  Translated New Testament from Greek  Erasmus’s New Testament was the source for vernacular editions of the New Testament
  39. 39. Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) Appointed Lord Chancellor of England in 1529 Utopia (1516) Ideal community Critique of excesses Refused to acknowledge Henry VIII as head of the Church of England Executed in 1535
  40. 40. Decline of Christian Humanism Supplanted by the Reformation Supplanted by the Rise of Lutheran, Calvinist and Anglican Churches
  41. 41. Alfred Durer (1471-1528)
  42. 42. Italian Renaissance and Northern Renaissance Italian Renaissance  Northern Renaissance  More secular  Focused on reforming  More urban Roman Catholic Church  Still fervent Christianity  Christian Humanism  Conclusions reached by  Less urban greatest minds of antiquity  Still fervent Christianity are compatible with  Conclusions reached by Christianity greatest minds of antiquity and Church fathers are compatible with each other and Christianity