Motivation
Organizational Behaviour
Motivation


Overview
◦ The study of motivation is complex. It is a
significant study for managers because
employees when...
Motivation


What makes motivation a complex study
is the fact that it takes different
approaches to motivate an employee...
Objective


Students should be able to:
1. Define motivation.
2. Understand the process of motivation.
3. Explain the con...
The Motivation Process

Unsatisfied
need

Tension

Drivers

Search
behaviour

An unsatisfied need creates tension that
sti...
Definition of motivation
Motivation represents forces acting
within a person the causes a person to
behave in a specific, ...
Categories of motivation theories
A group of theories that places
emphasis on needs that motivate
people

Motivation

Cont...
Content Theories
Motivation
•Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
•Herzberg’s Two-factor theory
•McClelland’s Acquire needs theory
...
Maslow’s Motivation Theory
• Achieving one’s potential, self-fulfilment, becoming
Selfactualization what one is capable of...
Maslow theory – the
explanation
Lower-end needs are the priority
needs, which must be satisfied before
higher-order need a...
Implications of Maslow’s theory
in the workplace
Not everyone is motivated in the same
way.
 Motivation and need satisfac...
Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory
Hygiene Factors
Working conditions
Pay and security
Company policies
Supervisors
Interpersona...
Herzberg’s theory explanation




Hygiene factors involve the presence or
absence of job dissatisfiers. When the
hygiene...
Implication of Herzberg’s
theory




Providing the hygiene factors will
eliminate employee dissatisfaction but
will not ...
Maslow and Herzberg
compared
Acquired-Needs Model
The basis of the model is that needs
are acquired or learned from the life
experiences in the culture...
Acquired-needs model
n-ach – the drive to excel, to
accomplish, and to achieve a standard
of excellence.
 n-pow – the nee...
Implication


Acquired-need model provides
managers with the understanding of
the underlying needs that motivate
people t...
Process theories
•Expectancy

theory
•Equity theory
•Goal setting theory
Equity Theory
A process theory that focuses on
individuals’ perception of how fairly
they are treated relative to others.
...
Equity theory explained
According to the theory individuals
assign a degree of importance to their
input and outcomes. Ind...
Equity theory explained


Consequences of inequity:
1. Change in inputs – a person may choose to
increase or decrease his...
Implication of the equity
theory
Implication for the equity theory for
managers is that employees do
evaluate their percei...
The Expectancy Theory


A process theory simply states that
people are motivated to work when
they believe that they can ...
Expectancy theory
Valance
The value
of outcome

Expectancy
Probability
that effort will
lead to desired
performance

Indiv...
Implication for Managers
Managers need to find out what
rewards under their control have the
highest value (valence) and l...
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Motivation

  1. 1. Motivation Organizational Behaviour
  2. 2. Motivation  Overview ◦ The study of motivation is complex. It is a significant study for managers because employees when motivated are stimulated to achieve organizational goals. Employees who are motivated remain focus in a systematic way. Without a knowledge of motivation managers are in danger of guiding the behaviour of subordinates and make mistakes towards the desired outcomes of the organization.
  3. 3. Motivation  What makes motivation a complex study is the fact that it takes different approaches to motivate an employee. In addressing what it takes to motivate an employee, we need to examine the following: ◦ Meeting the basic needs. ◦ Designing jobs that motivate employees. ◦ Creating the belief that desired goals can be achieved. ◦ Treating people equitably.
  4. 4. Objective  Students should be able to: 1. Define motivation. 2. Understand the process of motivation. 3. Explain the content theories and process theories of motivation. 4. Grasp the implications for managers.
  5. 5. The Motivation Process Unsatisfied need Tension Drivers Search behaviour An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates the drive within an individual to generate a search behaviour to fins particular goals, if attained, will satisfy the need and reduce the tension (Robbins and Decenzo, 2004 p.280). Satisfied need Reduction of the tension A need is and internal state that makes certain outcomes attractive.
  6. 6. Definition of motivation Motivation represents forces acting within a person the causes a person to behave in a specific, goal-directed manner (Slocum and Hellriegel, 2007 p.392).  The arousal, direction, and persistence of behaviour (Daft 2005 p.588).  The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need (Robbins and Decenzo, 2004 p. 279). 
  7. 7. Categories of motivation theories A group of theories that places emphasis on needs that motivate people Motivation Content theories Process theories A category of theories that explain how employees select behaviours to meet their needs
  8. 8. Content Theories Motivation •Maslow’s hierarchy of needs •Herzberg’s Two-factor theory •McClelland’s Acquire needs theory • Alderfer’s ERG theory
  9. 9. Maslow’s Motivation Theory • Achieving one’s potential, self-fulfilment, becoming Selfactualization what one is capable of becoming. Esteem Social Safety Physiological • The desire for a positive self-image, to achieve attention, recognition, and appreciation from others. • A need to be accepted by peers, friendship, being part of a group. • A need for safe and secure fro physical and emotional environment, free from threat. • Food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other bodily requirements.
  10. 10. Maslow theory – the explanation Lower-end needs are the priority needs, which must be satisfied before higher-order need are activated.  Needs are satisfied in sequence.  When a need is satisfied, it declines in importance and the next need becomes dominant.  To motivate an individual one must know where that person is in the hierarchy and focus on satisfying at or above that level. 
  11. 11. Implications of Maslow’s theory in the workplace Not everyone is motivated in the same way.  Motivation and need satisfaction are anticipatory in nature.  Managers must seek to guide and direct employee behaviour to meet the organizational needs and individual needs simultaneously. 
  12. 12. Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory Hygiene Factors Working conditions Pay and security Company policies Supervisors Interpersonal relationships Satisfaction Motivators Achievement Recognition Responsibility Work itself Personal growth No satisfaction Motivation factors Hygiene factors No dissatisfaction dissatisfaction
  13. 13. Herzberg’s theory explanation   Hygiene factors involve the presence or absence of job dissatisfiers. When the hygiene factors are present, the individual is not dissatisfied; however when they are absent the individual is dissatisfied. In any case hygiene factors do not motivate. Motivators are factors that influence satisfaction and consequently motivate the person from within as he or she achieve the higher-level needs of achievement, recognition, and personal growth.
  14. 14. Implication of Herzberg’s theory   Providing the hygiene factors will eliminate employee dissatisfaction but will not motivate workers to high levels of achievement. Recognition, responsibility, and the opportunity to achieve personal growth will promote satisfaction and employee performance. The benefit of this theory has implications for the effect of company systems and job design (how work is arranged and how much employees control their work) on employee satisfaction and performance.
  15. 15. Maslow and Herzberg compared
  16. 16. Acquired-Needs Model The basis of the model is that needs are acquired or learned from the life experiences in the culture in which we live (Lewis et at, 2007 p 381).  The acquire needs model focuses on three important needs in the work environment:  1. Need foe achievement (n-ach) 2. Need for power (n-pow) 3. Need for affiliation (n-affil
  17. 17. Acquired-needs model n-ach – the drive to excel, to accomplish, and to achieve a standard of excellence.  n-pow – the need to influence and control one’s environment; may involve either personal power or institutional power.  n-affil – the need for friendly and close interpersonal relationships 
  18. 18. Implication  Acquired-need model provides managers with the understanding of the underlying needs that motivate people to behave in certain ways. This model does not explain why people choose a particular way of behaviour.
  19. 19. Process theories •Expectancy theory •Equity theory •Goal setting theory
  20. 20. Equity Theory A process theory that focuses on individuals’ perception of how fairly they are treated relative to others.  A situation that exists when the ratio of one person’s outcome to input equals that of another person.  Input – an individual’s contribution or effort  Output – what an individual receives from his or her contribution or effort 
  21. 21. Equity theory explained According to the theory individuals assign a degree of importance to their input and outcomes. Individuals feel that they are treated fairly when they perceive that their outcomes to inputs are equal to that of others.  Any deviation from this perception leads to a feeling of inequity and demotivation. Such inequity feeling results in various actions the individuals are likely to take. 
  22. 22. Equity theory explained  Consequences of inequity: 1. Change in inputs – a person may choose to increase or decrease his or her inputs to the organization 2. Change outcomes – a person may change his or her outcomes to restore equity. An unpaid person may request a salary increase or better working conditions. 3. Distort perceptions – a person may mentally distort the situation to achieve a balance. 4. Leave the job – a person may tender his or her resignation of request a transfer to another department.
  23. 23. Implication of the equity theory Implication for the equity theory for managers is that employees do evaluate their perceived equity of their rewards compared to others’.  Smart managers should try to ensure that there is fairness in the distribution of rewards to keep employees motivated. 
  24. 24. The Expectancy Theory  A process theory simply states that people are motivated to work when they believe that they can achieve things they want from their jobs. Such expectation depends on their ability to perform the task, given their effort and the attractiveness of the reward.
  25. 25. Expectancy theory Valance The value of outcome Expectancy Probability that effort will lead to desired performance Individual effort Outcome E P P O performance Expectancy theory is base on a relationship between effort and performance. A great individual effort should lead to high performance, which should result in the desired out. If the outcomes that available from high effort and high performance and are not attractive, the individual motivation will be Expectancy The probability that performance will produce the desired outcome
  26. 26. Implication for Managers Managers need to find out what rewards under their control have the highest value (valence) and link reward to the employees performance.  If effort is low, managers might provide coaching, leadership and training to increase them. 
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