◦ The study of motivation is complex. It is a
significant study for managers because
employees when motivated are stimulated
to achieve organizational goals.
Employees who are motivated remain
focus in a systematic way. Without a
knowledge of motivation managers are in
danger of guiding the behaviour of
subordinates and make mistakes towards
the desired outcomes of the organization.
What makes motivation a complex study
is the fact that it takes different
approaches to motivate an employee. In
addressing what it takes to motivate an
employee, we need to examine the
◦ Meeting the basic needs.
◦ Designing jobs that motivate employees.
◦ Creating the belief that desired goals can be
◦ Treating people equitably.
Students should be able to:
1. Define motivation.
2. Understand the process of motivation.
3. Explain the content theories and
process theories of motivation.
4. Grasp the implications for managers.
The Motivation Process
An unsatisfied need creates tension that
stimulates the drive within an individual to
generate a search behaviour to fins
particular goals, if attained, will satisfy the
need and reduce the tension (Robbins and
Decenzo, 2004 p.280).
A need is and
internal state that
Definition of motivation
Motivation represents forces acting
within a person the causes a person to
behave in a specific, goal-directed
manner (Slocum and Hellriegel, 2007
The arousal, direction, and persistence
of behaviour (Daft 2005 p.588).
The willingness to exert high levels of
effort to reach organizational
goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to
satisfy some individual need (Robbins
and Decenzo, 2004 p. 279).
Categories of motivation theories
A group of theories that places
emphasis on needs that motivate
A category of theories that
explain how employees select
behaviours to meet their
•Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
•Herzberg’s Two-factor theory
•McClelland’s Acquire needs theory
• Alderfer’s ERG theory
Maslow’s Motivation Theory
• Achieving one’s potential, self-fulfilment, becoming
Selfactualization what one is capable of becoming.
• The desire for a positive self-image, to achieve
attention, recognition, and appreciation from
• A need to be accepted by
peers, friendship, being part of a group.
• A need for safe and secure fro
physical and emotional
environment, free from threat.
• Food, drink, shelter, sexual
satisfaction, and other
Maslow theory – the
Lower-end needs are the priority
needs, which must be satisfied before
higher-order need are activated.
Needs are satisfied in sequence.
When a need is satisfied, it declines in
importance and the next need
To motivate an individual one must
know where that person is in the
hierarchy and focus on satisfying at or
above that level.
Implications of Maslow’s theory
in the workplace
Not everyone is motivated in the same
Motivation and need satisfaction are
anticipatory in nature.
Managers must seek to guide and
direct employee behaviour to meet the
organizational needs and individual
Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory
Pay and security
Herzberg’s theory explanation
Hygiene factors involve the presence or
absence of job dissatisfiers. When the
hygiene factors are present, the
individual is not dissatisfied; however
when they are absent the individual is
dissatisfied. In any case hygiene factors
do not motivate.
Motivators are factors that influence
satisfaction and consequently motivate
the person from within as he or she
achieve the higher-level needs of
achievement, recognition, and personal
Implication of Herzberg’s
Providing the hygiene factors will
eliminate employee dissatisfaction but
will not motivate workers to high levels of
Recognition, responsibility, and the
opportunity to achieve personal growth
will promote satisfaction and employee
The benefit of this theory has
implications for the effect of company
systems and job design (how work is
arranged and how much employees
control their work) on employee
satisfaction and performance.
The basis of the model is that needs
are acquired or learned from the life
experiences in the culture in which we
live (Lewis et at, 2007 p 381).
The acquire needs model focuses on
three important needs in the work
1. Need foe achievement (n-ach)
2. Need for power (n-pow)
3. Need for affiliation (n-affil
n-ach – the drive to excel, to
accomplish, and to achieve a standard
n-pow – the need to influence and
control one’s environment; may
involve either personal power or
n-affil – the need for friendly and close
Acquired-need model provides
managers with the understanding of
the underlying needs that motivate
people to behave in certain ways. This
model does not explain why people
choose a particular way of behaviour.
•Goal setting theory
A process theory that focuses on
individuals’ perception of how fairly
they are treated relative to others.
A situation that exists when the ratio of
one person’s outcome to input equals
that of another person.
Input – an individual’s contribution or
Output – what an individual receives
from his or her contribution or effort
Equity theory explained
According to the theory individuals
assign a degree of importance to their
input and outcomes. Individuals feel
that they are treated fairly when they
perceive that their outcomes to inputs
are equal to that of others.
Any deviation from this perception
leads to a feeling of inequity and
demotivation. Such inequity feeling
results in various actions the
individuals are likely to take.
Equity theory explained
Consequences of inequity:
1. Change in inputs – a person may choose to
increase or decrease his or her inputs to
2. Change outcomes – a person may change
his or her outcomes to restore equity. An
unpaid person may request a salary
increase or better working conditions.
3. Distort perceptions – a person may
mentally distort the situation to achieve a
4. Leave the job – a person may tender his or
her resignation of request a transfer to
Implication of the equity
Implication for the equity theory for
managers is that employees do
evaluate their perceived equity of their
rewards compared to others’.
Smart managers should try to ensure
that there is fairness in the distribution
of rewards to keep employees
The Expectancy Theory
A process theory simply states that
people are motivated to work when
they believe that they can achieve
things they want from their jobs. Such
expectation depends on their ability to
perform the task, given their effort and
the attractiveness of the reward.
that effort will
lead to desired
Expectancy theory is base on a
relationship between effort and
performance. A great individual effort
should lead to high performance, which
should result in the desired out. If the
outcomes that available from high effort
and high performance and are not
attractive, the individual motivation will be
will produce the
Implication for Managers
Managers need to find out what
rewards under their control have the
highest value (valence) and link
reward to the employees performance.
If effort is low, managers might provide
coaching, leadership and training to
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