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Chap 5 MGT162


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Chap 5 MGT162

  1. 1. Topic 6 Motivating Organizational Members
  2. 2. Motivation Defined The forces and expenditure of effort acting on or within a person that cause that person to behave in a specific, goal-directed manner. • Motivation is the management process of influencing another person based on the knowledge of “what makes the person tick” • Motivation are those factors that cause people’s behavior What is motivation
  3. 3. The Relationship Between Motivation and Performance Education Knowledge Education Knowledge Mechanical Skills Psychomotor Skills Mental Skills Motivation x Ability Performance
  4. 4. Basic assumption about motivation • 1.Motivation is considered as something good • 2Motivation affect performance • 3.Motivation may decline • 4.Motivation is one of mgt tools to influence performance •
  5. 5. MOTIVATION PROCESS Needs (unfilled) Tension Drive Search Behavior Satisfied needs (Needs to be fulfilled)Reduction of Tension
  6. 6. The Early Views Of Motivation • 1.The traditional view • 2.The human relations model • 3.The human resources model
  7. 7. The Traditional Model • Is associated with Frederick Taylor and the scientific mgt. • Assume that workers are lazy and could only be motivated by financial reward
  8. 8. The Human relations model • Is most often associated with Elton Mayo. • Believed that managers could motivate employees by acknowledging their social needs and by making them feel useful and important
  9. 9. The Human Resources Model • Assume that workers have the capacity to accept, even seek, responsibility. • Managers should create a working environment to maximize workers talents and potential
  10. 10. Motivation Approaches • Need-Based Models – Emphasize specific human needs or the factors within a person that energize, direct, and stop behavior. • Process Models – Take a more dynamic view of motivation. They focus on understanding the thought or cognitive processes that take place within the individual’s mind and act to affect behavior, as well as cues in the environment that influence behavior.
  11. 11. Need-Based Models of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model Acquired- Needs Model
  12. 12. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • According to Maslow, a person has five fundamental needs: – Physiological, security, affiliation, esteem, and self-actualization. • Individuals have various needs and try to satisfy these needs using a priority system or hierarchy.
  13. 13. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Esteem Affiliation Physiological Security
  14. 14. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Abraham proposed that there are five levels of human needs: • 1.Physiological needs e.g need for food and shelter • 2.Safety and security e.g Freedom from fear • 3.Social needs e.g affection, affiliation and belongings • 4.Esteem e.g Power, respect and prestige • 5.Self actualization e.g Advancement and career development
  15. 15. Assumptions of the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs model • 1.Human needs are satisfied in stages beginning with the lower level needs • 2.A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior, only unsatisfied needs are motivator • 3.If higher level needs are not satisfied, lower level needs will again become dominant
  16. 16. Hertzberg’s two factor theory • Frederick Hertzberg proposed that motivation depends on two factors: • 1.Motivators/Satisfiers • 2.Hygiene /Dissatisfiers
  17. 17. Motivators/Satisfiers • Factors that causes satisfaction • Satisfiers are factors in the job content. E.g Work itself, responsibility, interest, autonomy and feedback
  18. 18. Hygiene/Dissatisfiers • Factors that causes dissatisfaction • Hygiene are factors in the job context. E.g Wages and salary, company policy and social factors • Hygiene factors if present will not create satisfaction, it only prevent dissatisfaction
  19. 19. Two-Factor Model Slide 2 of 2 Motivator Factors Hygiene Factors - Achievement - Recognition - The work itself - Company policy - Salary - Work conditions Dissatifaction No dissatifaction No satisfaction Satisfaction
  20. 20. McGregor Theory X VS Theory Y • Mcgregor proposed that there are two different sets of assumptions about what motivates people: • 1.Theory X • 2.Theory Y
  21. 21. Theory X • Contends that people dislike work and will avoid it whenever possible • They must be controlled or even threatened with punishment to get them to work. • Managers have to be strict and authoritarian
  22. 22. Theory Y • An optimistic view of people and their work. • People accept and even seek responsibility. • People are creative , imaginative and able to exercise self direction and self control
  23. 23. Mc Clelland Three Needs Theory • Said that these three needs are the major force or motives in work. • Divided into three –Need for achievement (nAch) • The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, and to strive to success.
  24. 24. • Need for power (nPow) –The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. • Need for affiliation (nAff) –The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
  25. 25. Acquired-Needs Model • The acquired-needs model focuses on three particularly important or relevant needs in the work environment: – Need for achievement – Need for affiliation – Need for power • The model proposes that when a need is strong, it will motivate the person to engage in behavior to satisfy that need.
  26. 26. Acquired-Needs Model • Need for Achievement – The drive to excel, to accomplish challenging tasks, and to achieve a standard of excellence. • Need for Power – The desire to influence and control one’s environment. • Need for Affiliation – The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
  27. 27. Likert System Four Management • Developed by Rensis Likert • Proposed that there are four types of management styles: • 1. Autocratic authoritative - Mgt make all decisions. Subordinates do not have any rights to contribute ideas. • 2.Benevolent Authoritative - Subordinates are given some latitude to contribute ideas but mgt still makes the final decisions. • 3.Consultative- Subordinates contributions are encourage. • 4.Participative - Team or democratic styles
  28. 28. Process-Based Models of Motivation Expectancy Model Equity Model Goal Setting Behavior Modification • Motivational model suggesting that work motivation is determined by the individual’s perceptions: - The relationship between effort and performance. - The desirability of various work outcomes that are associated with different performance levels. Expectancy Model
  29. 29. Expectancy Model • Components of Expectancy Model – Expectancy • The belief that a particular level of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance. – Instrumentality • The probability assigned by the individual that a specific level of achieved task performance will lead to various work outcomes. – Valence • The value or importance that the individual attaches to various work outcomes.
  30. 30. Expectancy Model Effort Performance Outcomes: Rewards Valence Instrumentality Expectancy
  31. 31. The Process Theory • Assume that motivation= expectancy x valens • Valens refers to the quality of the rewards • Expectancy refers to the workers expectation that behaviors will lead to a certain outcomes. E.g if they work hard they expect to be rewarded
  32. 32. The Reinforcement Theory • Assume that motivation has nothing to do with rewards or needs.But motivation is simply a learning process.I.e How past experience influenced future behaviors
  33. 33. Behavior Modification • Behavior modification is the application of reinforcement theory that rests on two underlying assumptions: – First, human behavior is determined by the environment. – Second, human behavior is subject to observable laws and can be predicted and changed.
  34. 34. Behavior Modification • Implication of Behavior Modification Assumptions – Since people repeat behaviors that are positively reinforced and avoid behaviors that are punished, managers can influence employee performance by reinforcing behavior they see as supporting organizational goals.
  35. 35. Reinforcement Strategies • Positive Reinforcement – The administration of positive and rewarding consequences following a desired behavior. • Avoidance – Strengthens desired behavior by allowing escape from an undesirable consequence. • Extinction - The withdrawal of the positive reward or reinforcing consequences for an undesirable behavior. • Punishment - The administration of negative consequences following undesirable
  36. 36. Reinforcement Strategies Behavior Supports organizational goals Hinders organizational goals Positive reinforcement Avoidance Extinction Punishment
  37. 37. The Equity Theory • Based on the assumption that motivation is dependent on the individual evaluation of the equity or fairness of the rewards received. i.e If workers perceived that management are unfair their motivation will decline
  38. 38. Equity Model • Equity model focuses on an individual’s feelings about how fairly he or she is treated in comparison with others. • The model makes two assumptions: – Individuals evaluate their interpersonal relationships just as they evaluate any exchange process. – Individuals compare their situations with those of others to determine the equity of their own situation.
  39. 39. Equity Model • Maintaining Equity – Equity theory suggests that maintaining one’s self- esteem is an important priority. To reduce a perceived inequity, a person may take one of the following actions: • Change work inputs either upward or downward to an equitable level. • Change outcomes to restore equity. • Psychologically distort comparisons. – Ways of reducing a perceived inequity: • Change the comparison person he or she is using to another person. • Leave the situation (e.g., quit the job or transfer to another department).
  40. 40. Goal Setting • A process intended to increase efficiency and effectiveness by specifying the desired outcomes toward which individuals, groups, departments, and organizations work. • As a motivational tool, goal setting can help employees because goals serve three purposes: – Guide and direct behavior toward supportive organizational goals. – Provide challenges and standards against which the individual can be assessed. – Define what is important and provide a framework for planning.
  41. 41. Motivational Challenges For Today’s Managers • 1.Participative management • 2.Recognition programs • 3.Money as a motivator • 4.Rewarding team performance
  42. 42. Participative management • The need to encourage employees involvement in the workplace beyond the scope of their job. • Employee recognition is a powerful element to motivate employees and elicit positive behavior.e.g offering tangible and intangible in recognition of excellence
  43. 43. Money as a motivator • 1.Money is a motivator when a “significant amount of money is involved” • 2.Money is not a motivator • A) The amount of money is too small to make a difference B) Productive behavior has not been defined C) Poor or no measures of productive behavior.
  44. 44. Rewarding team performance • The need for managers to develop effective mechanism to reward team performance.
  45. 45. Contemporary Motivational Approaches • Participative Management – Encompasses various activities in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors. – The use of participative management involves any process where power, knowledge, information, and rewards are moved downward in the organization. – When companies increase the amount of control and discretion workers have over their jobs, they are empowering employees and may improve the motivation of both employees and management.
  46. 46. Contemporary Motivational Approaches • Money as a Motivator -Does money motivate employees? • Expectancy Model - Asserts that money motivates people if it is contingent on performance and satisfies their personal goals. • Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model - Would argue that money is a hygiene factor, so it does not act as a motivator.
  47. 47. Prescription for Greater Motivation • Tell people what you expect them to do. • Make the work valuable. • Make the work doable. • Give feedback. • Reward successful performance.