The forces and expenditure of effort acting on
or within a person that cause that person to
behave in a specific, goal-directed manner.
• Motivation is the management process of
influencing another person based on the
knowledge of “what makes the person tick”
• Motivation are those factors that cause
What is motivation
The Relationship Between Motivation
Motivation x Ability Performance
Basic assumption about
• 1.Motivation is considered as
• 2Motivation affect performance
• 3.Motivation may decline
• 4.Motivation is one of mgt tools to
(unfilled) Tension Drive Search Behavior
(Needs to be fulfilled)Reduction of Tension
The Early Views Of
• 1.The traditional view
• 2.The human relations model
• 3.The human resources model
The Traditional Model
• Is associated with Frederick
Taylor and the scientific mgt.
• Assume that workers are lazy and
could only be motivated by
The Human relations model
• Is most often associated with Elton
• Believed that managers could
motivate employees by
acknowledging their social needs and
by making them feel useful and
The Human Resources Model
• Assume that workers have the
capacity to accept, even seek,
• Managers should create a
working environment to
maximize workers talents and
• Need-Based Models
– Emphasize specific human needs or the factors
within a person that energize, direct, and stop
• Process Models
– Take a more dynamic view of motivation. They
focus on understanding the thought or cognitive
processes that take place within the individual’s
mind and act to affect behavior, as well as cues in
the environment that influence behavior.
Need-Based Models of Motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• According to Maslow, a person has five
– Physiological, security, affiliation, esteem, and
• Individuals have various needs and try to
satisfy these needs using a priority system or
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Abraham proposed that there are five levels of
• 1.Physiological needs e.g need for food and
• 2.Safety and security e.g Freedom from fear
• 3.Social needs e.g affection, affiliation and
• 4.Esteem e.g Power, respect and prestige
• 5.Self actualization e.g Advancement and
Assumptions of the Maslow’s Hierarchy of
• 1.Human needs are satisfied in stages
beginning with the lower level needs
• 2.A satisfied need is not a motivator of
behavior, only unsatisfied needs are
• 3.If higher level needs are not satisfied,
lower level needs will again become
Hertzberg’s two factor theory
• Frederick Hertzberg proposed that
motivation depends on two factors:
• 2.Hygiene /Dissatisfiers
• Factors that causes satisfaction
• Satisfiers are factors in the job
content. E.g Work itself,
responsibility, interest, autonomy
• Factors that causes dissatisfaction
• Hygiene are factors in the job context. E.g
Wages and salary, company policy and social
• Hygiene factors if present will not create
satisfaction, it only prevent dissatisfaction
Slide 2 of 2
- The work itself
- Company policy
- Work conditions
Dissatifaction No dissatifaction
No satisfaction Satisfaction
McGregor Theory X VS Theory Y
• Mcgregor proposed that there are
two different sets of assumptions
about what motivates people:
• 1.Theory X
• 2.Theory Y
• Contends that people dislike work and
will avoid it whenever possible
• They must be controlled or even
threatened with punishment to get
them to work.
• Managers have to be strict and
• An optimistic view of people and
• People accept and even seek
• People are creative , imaginative and
able to exercise self direction and self
Mc Clelland Three Needs Theory
• Said that these three needs are the major force or
motives in work.
• Divided into three
–Need for achievement (nAch)
• The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a
set of standards, and to strive to success.
• Need for power (nPow)
–The need to make others behave in a way
that they would not have behaved
• Need for affiliation (nAff)
–The desire for friendly and close
• The acquired-needs model focuses on three
particularly important or relevant needs in the
– Need for achievement
– Need for affiliation
– Need for power
• The model proposes that when a need is
strong, it will motivate the person to engage
in behavior to satisfy that need.
• Need for Achievement
– The drive to excel, to accomplish challenging
tasks, and to achieve a standard of excellence.
• Need for Power
– The desire to influence and control one’s
• Need for Affiliation
– The desire for friendly and close interpersonal
Likert System Four Management
• Developed by Rensis Likert
• Proposed that there are four types of management styles:
• 1. Autocratic authoritative - Mgt make all decisions.
Subordinates do not have any rights to contribute ideas.
• 2.Benevolent Authoritative - Subordinates are given some
latitude to contribute ideas but mgt still makes the final
• 3.Consultative- Subordinates contributions are encourage.
• 4.Participative - Team or democratic styles
Process-Based Models of Motivation
• Motivational model suggesting that work motivation is
determined by the individual’s perceptions:
- The relationship between effort and performance.
- The desirability of various work outcomes that are
associated with different performance levels.
• Components of Expectancy Model
• The belief that a particular level of effort will be
followed by a particular level of performance.
• The probability assigned by the individual that a
specific level of achieved task performance will lead to
various work outcomes.
• The value or importance that the individual attaches
to various work outcomes.
The Process Theory
• Assume that motivation= expectancy x valens
• Valens refers to the quality of the rewards
• Expectancy refers to the workers expectation
that behaviors will lead to a certain outcomes.
E.g if they work hard they expect to be
The Reinforcement Theory
• Assume that motivation has nothing
to do with rewards or needs.But
motivation is simply a learning
process.I.e How past experience
influenced future behaviors
• Behavior modification is the application of
reinforcement theory that rests on two
– First, human behavior is determined by the
– Second, human behavior is subject to observable
laws and can be predicted and changed.
• Implication of Behavior Modification
– Since people repeat behaviors that are positively
reinforced and avoid behaviors that are punished,
managers can influence employee performance
by reinforcing behavior they see as supporting
• Positive Reinforcement
– The administration of positive and rewarding
consequences following a desired behavior.
– Strengthens desired behavior by allowing escape
from an undesirable consequence.
- The withdrawal of the positive reward or reinforcing
consequences for an undesirable behavior.
- The administration of negative consequences
The Equity Theory
• Based on the assumption that motivation
is dependent on the individual
evaluation of the equity or fairness of
the rewards received. i.e If workers
perceived that management are unfair
their motivation will decline
• Equity model focuses on an individual’s
feelings about how fairly he or she is
treated in comparison with others.
• The model makes two assumptions:
– Individuals evaluate their interpersonal
relationships just as they evaluate any
– Individuals compare their situations with those
of others to determine the equity of their own
• Maintaining Equity
– Equity theory suggests that maintaining one’s self-
esteem is an important priority. To reduce a perceived
inequity, a person may take one of the following actions:
• Change work inputs either upward or downward to
an equitable level.
• Change outcomes to restore equity.
• Psychologically distort comparisons.
– Ways of reducing a perceived inequity:
• Change the comparison person he or she is using to
• Leave the situation (e.g., quit the job or transfer to
• A process intended to increase efficiency and
effectiveness by specifying the desired outcomes
toward which individuals, groups, departments, and
• As a motivational tool, goal setting can help
employees because goals serve three purposes:
– Guide and direct behavior toward supportive
– Provide challenges and standards against which the
individual can be assessed.
– Define what is important and provide a framework for
Motivational Challenges For Today’s
• 1.Participative management
• 2.Recognition programs
• 3.Money as a motivator
• 4.Rewarding team performance
• The need to encourage employees
involvement in the workplace beyond the
scope of their job.
• Employee recognition is a powerful element
to motivate employees and elicit positive
behavior.e.g offering tangible and intangible
in recognition of excellence
Money as a motivator
• 1.Money is a motivator when a “significant
amount of money is involved”
• 2.Money is not a motivator
• A) The amount of money is too small to make
B) Productive behavior has not been
C) Poor or no measures of productive
Rewarding team performance
• The need for managers to develop
effective mechanism to reward team
Contemporary Motivational Approaches
• Participative Management
– Encompasses various activities in which subordinates
share a significant degree of decision-making power
with their immediate superiors.
– The use of participative management involves any
process where power, knowledge, information, and
rewards are moved downward in the organization.
– When companies increase the amount of control and
discretion workers have over their jobs, they are
empowering employees and may improve the
motivation of both employees and management.
Contemporary Motivational Approaches
• Money as a Motivator
-Does money motivate employees?
• Expectancy Model - Asserts that money
motivates people if it is contingent on
performance and satisfies their personal goals.
• Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model - Would argue
that money is a hygiene factor, so it does not
act as a motivator.
Prescription for Greater
• Tell people what you expect them to do.
• Make the work valuable.
• Make the work doable.
• Give feedback.
• Reward successful performance.