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Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. Motivation CHAPTER 19 0
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define motivation and explain the difference between current approaches and traditional approaches to motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and describe content theories of motivation based on employee needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and explain process theories of motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe reinforcement theory and how it can be used to motivate employees. </li></ul>0
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (contd.) <ul><li>Discuss major approaches to job design and how job design influences motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how empowerment heightens employee motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe ways that managers can create a sense of meaning and importance for employees at work. </li></ul>0
  4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>One secret for success in organizations is motivated and enthusiastic employees </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge is to keep employee motivation consistent with organizational goals </li></ul>0
  5. 5. Motivation <ul><li>Arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee motivation affects productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of a manager’s job is to channel motivation toward the accomplishment of organizational goals </li></ul></ul>0
  6. 6. Two Types of Rewards <ul><li>Intrinsic rewards- -satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action. </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic rewards- -given by another person. </li></ul>0
  7. 7. A Simple Model of Motivation NEED-Creates desire to fulfill needs (food, friendship, recognition, achievement). BEHAVIOR-Results in actions to fulfill needs. REWARDS-Satisfy needs; intrinsic or extrinsic rewards. FEEDBACK-Reward informs person whether behavior was appropriate and should be used again. Exhibit 19.1 0
  8. 8. Foundations of Motivation Traditional Human Relations Human Resources Contemporary <ul><li>systematic analysis of an employee’s job </li></ul><ul><li>economic rewards for high performance </li></ul><ul><li>noneconomic rewards, such as congenial work groups </li></ul><ul><li>workers studied as people and the concept of social man was born </li></ul><ul><li>introduce the concept of the whole person </li></ul><ul><li>employees are complex and motivated by many factors </li></ul><ul><li>content theories stress the analysis of underlying human need </li></ul><ul><li>process theories concern the thought processes that influence behavior </li></ul><ul><li>reinforcement theories focus on employee learning of desired work behaviors </li></ul>0
  9. 9. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs Theory </li></ul><ul><li>ERG Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Two-Factor Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired Needs Theory </li></ul>Emphasize the needs that motivate people 0
  10. 10. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Exhibit 19.2 0
  11. 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Once a need is satisfied, it declines in importance and the next higher need is activated </li></ul><ul><li>There are opportunities for fulfillment off the job and on the job in each of the five levels of needs </li></ul>0
  12. 12. ERG Theory Existence Needs the needs for physical well-being Relatedness Needs the need for satisfactory relationships with others Growth Needs human potential, personal growth, and increased competence 0
  13. 13. Two Factor Motivation Theory Area of Satisfaction Area of Dissatisfaction Motivators influence level of satisfaction . Hygiene factors influence level of dissatisfaction Motivators Hygiene Factors Achievement Recognition Responsibility Work itself Personal growth Working conditions Pay and security Company policies Supervisors Interpersonal relationships Exhibit 19.4 0
  14. 14. Acquired Needs Theory <ul><li>Need for Achievement desire to accomplish something difficult, master complex tasks, and surpass others </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Affiliation desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflict, and establish warm friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Power desire to influence or control others </li></ul>David McClelland 0
  15. 15. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Equity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>focuses on individuals’ perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with others </li></ul><ul><li>motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance </li></ul>0
  16. 16. Methods for Reducing Perceived Inequities <ul><li>Change inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Change outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Distort perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the job </li></ul>0
  17. 17. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Expectancy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards </li></ul><ul><li>concerned not with identifying types of needs but with the thinking process that individuals use to achieve rewards </li></ul><ul><li>based on the effort, performance, and desirability of outcomes </li></ul>0
  18. 18. Goal Setting Theory <ul><li>A motivation theory in which specific challenging goals increase motivation and performance when the goals are accepted by subordinates and these subordinates receive feedback to indicate their progress toward goal achievement. </li></ul>0
  19. 19. Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation Reinforcement Tools Positive reinforcement in the administration of a pleasant and rewarding consequence. Avoidance learning is the removal of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behavior. Punishment is the imposition of unpleasant outcomes on an employee. Extinction is the withdrawal of a positive reward, behavior is no longer reinforced and hence is less likely to occur in the future. 0
  20. 20. Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Partial Reinforcement Fixed-Interval Schedule Fixed-Ratio Schedule Variable-Interval Schedule Variable-Ratio Schedule 0
  21. 21. Job Design for Motivation <ul><li>Job design = application of motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Job simplification = job design whose purpose is to improve task efficiency by reducing the number of tasks a single person must do </li></ul>0
  22. 22. Job Design for Motivation <ul><li>Job Rotation = job design that systematically moves employees from one job to another to provide them with variety and stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Job Enlargement = job design that combines a series of tasks into one new, broader job to give employees variety and challenge </li></ul>0
  23. 23. Job Design for Motivation <ul><li>Job Enrichment = job design that incorporates achievement, recognition, and other high-level motivators into the work </li></ul><ul><li>Work redesign = altering of jobs to increase both the quality of employee’s work experience and their productivity </li></ul>0
  24. 24. Job Characteristics Model Source: Adapted from J. Richard Hackman and G. R. Oldham, “Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 16 (1976), 256. Exhibit 19.9 0
  25. 25. Motivational Ideas for Turbulent Times <ul><li>Organizations are increasingly using various types of incentive compensation as a way to motivate employees to higher levels of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Variable compensation and forms of at risk pay are key motivational tools </li></ul>0
  26. 26. Empowering People to Meet Higher Needs <ul><li>Information - Employees receive information about company performance </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge - Employees have knowledge and skills to contribute to company goals </li></ul><ul><li>Power - Employees have the power to make substantive decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards - Employees are rewarded based on the company performance </li></ul>Four Empowering Elements 0
  27. 27. A Continuum of Empowerment Sources: Based on Robert C. Ford and Myron D. Fottler, “Empowerment: A Matter of Degree,” Academy of Management Executive 9, no. 3 (1995), 21-31; Lawrence Holpp, “Applied Empowerment,” Training (February 1994), 39-44; and David P. McCaffrey, Sue R. Faerman, and David W. Hart, “”The Appeal and Difficulties of Participative Systems,” Organization Science 6, no. 6 (November-December 1995), 603-627. Exhibit 19.11 0
  28. 28. Giving Meaning to Work <ul><li>To meet higher-level motivational needs and help people get intrinsic rewards from their work is to instill a sense of importance and meaningfulness </li></ul>0

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