Conflict can be defined as a process in which an effort is purposely made by “A” to offset the efforts of “B” by some form of blocking that will result in frustrating “B” in attaining his or her goals or furthering his or her interests. This definition is comprised of five elements. Conflict must be perceived by the parties to it. If there is no awareness , then no conflict exists. Additional elements are opposition, scarcity, and blockage and the assumption that there are two or more parties whose interests or goals appear to be incompatible . Resources are limited, and scarcity encourages blocking behavior. The parties, therefore, are in opposition . And when one party blocks another’s means to a goal, conflict exists. There is debate over whether conflict is limited to only overt acts. The above definition assumes that conflict is a determined action , which can exist at either the latent or overt level.
Conflct & negotiation final
Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives Define conflict Review the traditional, interactionist, and human relations views of conflict Contrast functional and dysfunctional conflict Outline the conflict process Chapter 12 2
Learning Objectives.Learning Objectives. Study five conflict-handling orientations Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining Identify decision biases that hinder negotiations Explain how to improve negotiation skills Chapter 12 3
What is conflict.What is conflict. Awareness Opposition Insufficiency Blockage Incompatibility 5
ConflictConflict Conflict Defined – Is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. – Or simply disagreement between the two or more persons on any point.
Transitions in Conflict ThoughtTransitions in Conflict ThoughtTraditional View of ConflictThe belief that all conflict is harmful and must beavoided.Human Relations View of ConflictThe belief that conflict is a natural occurrence in allgroups and organization. Interactionist View of Conflict The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.
Functional versus Dysfunctional ConflictFunctional versus Dysfunctional ConflictFunctional ConflictConflict that supports the goals ofthe group and improves itsperformance. Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders group performance.
Types of ConflictTypes of ConflictTask ConflictConflicts over content andgoals of the work.Process ConflictConflict over how work gets done.
Types of ConflictsTypes of ConflictsRelationship Conflict Conflict based on interpersonal relationships. These conflicts are almost dysfunctional.
Stage I: Potential Opposition or IncompatibilityStage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Communication – Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” Structure – Size and specialization of jobs – Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity – Member-goal incompatibility – Leadership styles (close or participative) – Reward systems (win-lose) – Dependence/interdependence of groups Personal Variables – Differing individual value systems – Personality types
Stage II: Cognition and PersonalizationStage II: Cognition and PersonalizationPerceived Conflict Felt ConflictAwareness by one or more Emotional involvement in aparties of the existence of conflict creating anxiety,conditions that create tenseness, frustration, oropportunities for conflict to hostility.arise.
Stage III: IntentionsStage III: IntentionsIntentionsDecisions to act in a given way. Cooperativeness: Cooperativeness: •• Attempting to satisfy the other party’s Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns. concerns. Assertiveness: Assertiveness: •• Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns. Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns.
Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions Dimensions of Conflict-Handling IntentionsSource: K. Thomas, “Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations,” in M.D. Dunnetteand L.M. Hough (eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed., vol. 3 E X H I B I T 14–2 E X H I B I T 14–2(Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p. 668. With permission.
Stage III: Intentions (cont’d)Stage III: Intentions (cont’d)CompetingA desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of theimpact on the other party to the conflict. Collaborating A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties.AvoidingThe desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.
Stage III: Intentions (cont’d)Stage III: Intentions (cont’d)AccommodatingThe willingness of one party in a conflict to place theopponent’s interests above his or her own.CompromisingA situation in which each party to a conflict iswilling to give up something.
Stage IV: BehaviorStage IV: BehaviorConflict ManagementThe use of resolution and stimulation techniques toachieve the desired level of conflict.
Stage V: OutcomesStage V: Outcomes Functional Outcomes from Conflict – Increased group performance – Improved quality of decisions – Stimulation of creativity and innovation – Encouragement of interest and curiosity – Provision of a medium for problem-solving – Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change Creating Functional Conflict – Reward dissent (dispute) and punish conflict avoiders.
Stage V: OutcomesStage V: Outcomes Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict – Development of discontent(dissatisfaction) – Reduced group effectiveness – Retarded communication – Reduced group cohesiveness – Infighting among group members overcomes group goals
Why Intergroup conflict occur.Why Intergroup conflict occur. Interdependence. Difference in Goal. Limited Resource. Reward Structure. Difference in perception. Different time horizons. In accurate perception. The increased demand of specialists. Interpersonal factors.
Conflict Management TechniquesConflict Management TechniquesConflict Resolution Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques•• Problem solving Problem solving•• Superordinate goals Superordinate goals•• Expansion of resources Expansion of resources•• Smoothing Smoothing•• Authoritative command Authoritative command•• Altering the human variable Altering the human variable
Conflict Resolution TechniquesConflict Resolution Techniques Problem Solving. Face to face meeting with conflicting parties for the purpose of identifying the problem and resolving it through open discussion. Super ordinate goals. Creating a shared goal that cannot be attained without the cooperation of each of the conflicting parties. Expansion of Resources. When a conflict is caused by the scarcity of resources, expansion of resources can create win-win solution.
Conflict Resolution TechniquesConflict Resolution Techniques Smoothing Playing down differences while emphasizing common interests between the conflicting parties. Authoritative command. Management uses its formal authority to resolve the conflicts. Altering the human variables. Uses behavioral change techniques as human relations training and alter attitude and behaviors that cause conflict.
NegotiationNegotiationNegotiationA process in which two or more parties exchangegoods or services and attempt to agree on theexchange rate for them.BATNAThe Best Alternative To aNegotiated Agreement; thelowest acceptable value(outcome) to an individualfor a negotiated agreement.
Bargaining StrategiesBargaining StrategiesDistributive BargainingNegotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount ofresources; a win-lose situation.Integrative BargainingNegotiation that seeks one or more settlements thatcan create a win-win solution.
Issues in Negotiation Issues in Negotiation The Role of Personality Traits in Negotiation – Traits do not appear to have a significantly direct effect on the outcomes of either bargaining or negotiating processes. Gender Differences in Negotiations – Women negotiate no differently from men, although men apparently negotiate slightly better outcomes. – Men and women with similar power bases use the same negotiating styles. – Women’s attitudes toward negotiation and their success as negotiators are less favorable than men’s.