Nature of Motivation
Importance of Motivation
Historical Perspective on Motivation
Need Based Perspective on Motivation
Processed Based Perspective on Motivation
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Learning Based Perspective on Motivation
Reinforcement Theory and Learning
The Nature of Motivation
Is the set of forces that causes people to
engage in one behavior rather than some
Are the following people
Students who stay up all night to study.
A worker who hangs-out all day.
Doctors making follow-up phone calls to
Students who don’t go to school, to play
Teacher giving free tutorial classes during
his vacant time.
The importance of Motivation
Managers strive to motivate people In the
organization to perform at high levels. This
means getting them to work hard, to come
to work regularly, and to make positive
contributions to the organization’s mission.
To reach high levels of performance, an
employee must be motivated, is able to do
the job effectively, and must have all the
necessary resources to do the job. This
relationship can be easily remembered as:
Where: P = Performance M= Motivation
A= Ability E= Environment
Thus, a manager should strive to ensure that all
three conditions are met.
The Motivational Framework
Deficiencies Search for ways
to satisfied needs
Choice of goal-
punishment Reassessment of
Need-something an individual requires or
Motivated behaviors- usually starts when
a person has one or more needs.
Need deficiency- usually triggers a search
for way to satisfy the need.
Historical Perspective on
Historical views on motivation although
not always accurate, are of interest for
several reasons. For one thing they
provide a foundation for contemporary
thinking about motivation. For another the
are generally based on intuition, an
appreciation of their strengths and
The Traditional Approach/
One basic premise of this approach is that it is
assumed that employees are economically
motivated and works to earn as much money as
they can. Other assumptions are, that the work is
unpleasant for most people and that the money
they earn is more important to employees than
the nature of the job they are performing.
Developed a method for structuring jobs that he
called scientific management.
one of the first writers to address work motivation.
The Human Relations
This approach assumes that employees
want to feel useful and important, that
they have strong social needs, and that
these needs are more important than
money in motivating employees.
This supplanted scientific management
during the 1930s.
The Human Resource
The human resource approach assumes
that people want to contribute and are
able to make genuine contributions.
Need-based perspective on
Need-based perspective represents the
starting point for most contemporary
thought on motivation. The basic premise
of need-based models is that humans are
motivated primarily by deficiencies in one
or more important needs or need
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Developed by psychologist Abraham
Maslow in the 1940’s and is the best-
known needs theory.
Developed by Yale psychologist Clayton Alderfer. It
extends and refines Maslow’s needs hierarchy concept,
although there are several important differences between
ERG stands for three basic need categories:
E existence (necessary for human survival)
R relatedness ( need to relate to others)
G growth ( self-esteem and self- actualization)
In contrast to Maslow’s approach, ERG theory suggests that
more than one kind of need may motivate a person at the
same time. Another difference is that ERG theory includes a
satisfaction-progression component and a frustration
Satisfaction- progression concept
suggests that after satisfying one category
of needs, a person progresses to the nest
Frustration-regression concept suggests
that a person who is frustrated by trying to
satisfy a higher level of need eventually
will regress to the preceding level.
Dual- Structure Theory
Originally called the ‘two-factor theory’.
Developed by Frederick Herzberg and his
associates during the late 1950’s and
To use this theory in a workplace,
Herzberg recommended a two-stage
process. First, is to eliminate situations that
cause dissatisfaction, second is to
motivate the people in the workplace.
The Traditional View
The work itself
Pay and Job Security.
Other important needs
Need for achievement
Most frequently associated with the work of
Arises from an individuals desire to accomplish a
goal more effectively than in the past.
Need for affiliation
Need for human companionship
Need for power
Desire to control one’s environment, including
financial, material, informational, and human
Processed-based perspective are
concerned with how motivation occurs.
Rather than attempting to identify
motivational stimuli, it instead focuses on
why people choose certain behavioral
options to satisfy their needs and how
they evaluate their satisfaction after they
have attained these goals.
Equity Theory of Motivation
Equity theory is based on the relatively
simple premise that people on
organizations want to be treated fairly.
Equity- belief that we are being treated
fairly in relation to others.
Inequity- belief that we are being treated
unfairly compared with others.
Forming equity perceptions
1 they evaluate how they are being treated by
2 they form a perception of how a another
person is being treated.
3 they compare their own circumstances with
other people and use this comparison as the basis
for forming an impression of either equity or
4 depending on the strength of this feelings , the
person may choose to pursue one or more of the
Expectancy Theory of
The basic expectancy model was first
applied in the workplace by Victor
The basic premise of this theory is that
motivation depends on how much we
want something and how likely we think
we are to get it.
The models general components are
effort, performance and outcomes.
Effort to performance expectancy
A persons perception of the probability that
effort will lead to successful performance.
A persons perception of the probability that
performance will lead to certain other
Anything that might potentially result from
Is the relative value of the outcome to the
The Porter-Lawler Model
Porter and Lawler used the expectancy theory to
develop a novel view of the relationship between
employee satisfaction and performance.
If rewards are adequate, high levels of
performance may lead to satisfaction.
Performance results in two kinds of rewards:
intangible, a feeling of accomplishment, a sense
Tangible outcomes such as pay and promotion
Is a relatively permanent change in
behavior or behavior potential that results in
maintaining motivated behavior
How Learning occurs
Traditional View : Classical Conditioning
Developed by Ivan Pavlov in his experiments with
A simple form of learning in which a conditioned
response is linked with an unconditioned stimulus.
The contemporary View: Learning as a Cognitive
It assumes that people are conscious, active
participants in how they learn
It suggests that people draw on their experiences
and use past learning as a basis for their present
Reinforcement Theory and
Also called operant conditioning, is
generally associated with the work of B.F.
It suggests that behavior is a function of its
consequences. Behavior that results in
pleasant consequences are more likely to
be repeated, and those that result in
unpleasant consequences are least likely
to be repeated.
Consequences of behavior
Types of Reinforcement:
Reward or other desirable consequence
Negative reinforcement; the person is given an
opportunity to avoid an unpleasant consequence.
Decreases the frequency of behavior, especially
behavior that was previously awarded.
An unpleasant, or adverse consequences of a behavior.
Schedules of reinforcement
Rewards behavior every time it occurs.
Reinforcement provided on a predetermined,
Varies the interval between reinforcements
Number of behavior required for reinforcement
varies over time.
Occurs when people observe the
behavior to others, recognize their
consequences, and alter their own
behavior as a result
OB Mod is the application of
reinforcement theory to people in