Some of the most powerful nations declined because of economic power shifts - age of exploration
Some other nations grow in power because of economic power shifts- age of exploratio n
What was the time like?
Power to tax
Power to raise armies
Sea power shifts the world’s wealth
Terms to understand
The belief that God chose a ruler to rule.
A monarch who has unquestioned, absolute rule and power.
A ruler who is part of a ruling family that passes down power from generation to generation
Balance of Power
Countries have equal strength in order to prevent any one country from dominating the others.
France- How Did It Become #1?
Mid 16th century
Religious wars broke out all over Europe
Machiavellian thoughts led to ruthless and unlimited destruction
Citizen-soldiers fought for cause of God
Mercenaries then filled in ranks
French Wars of Religion
Henry IV comes to power in France
He does 2 things to ensure unity and peace
UNDER THE BOURBON KINGS, FRANCE BECOMES AN ABSOLUTE MONARCHY
FRANCE BECOMES THE MOST POWERFUL NATION IN EUROPE
FRANCE IS STRENGTHENED BY THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
France becomes #1
It was Henry IV and then Louis XIII who came to power
Their chief advisor was Cardinal Richelieu
Like a skillful puppeteer, Cardinal Richelieu worked behind the scenes of Henry IV and Louis XIII to change French foreign policy.
His main goal was to centralize power around the monarchy and make France the leading power in Europe.
He went against the Edict of Nantes, stripping away the many rights and freedoms given to French Huguenots and other religious groups
Cardinal Richelieu Richelieu
Was, in effect, the ruler of France.
Increased power of monarchy
Weakened nobility by tearing down their castles
Kept their families as “guests” or imprisoned at the royal palace
Weakened rights of Huguenots (Protestant minority) Forget that Edict of Nantes!
* made France the richest and most powerful country by involving it in the 30 Years War
France becomes #1
Richelieu picked his successor Cardinal Masserine (Mazarine) who would watch over the new king, Louis XIV.
He claimed divine right.
Like the sun is the center of the universe and everything revolves around it, Louis XIV believed “ L’etat, c’est moi ” (I am the state).
He centralized government , or brought everything to depend on his rule, run from his palace.
His palace at Versailles became a symbol of his absolute power.
The Mighty Sun King
72 year reign
2,000 acres of grounds 12 miles of roads 27 miles of trellises 200,000 trees 210,000 flowers planted every year 80 miles of rows of trees 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal 12 miles of enclosing walls 50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles 26 acres of roof 51,210 square meters of floors 2,153 windows 700 rooms 67 staircases 6,000 paintings 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings 2,100 sculptures 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden The Palace of Versailles
Louis XIV’s Government
He ruled for 72 years
He ignored the Estates General (French Parliament/ Congress)
He built up the strongest military in Europe, funded, trained, and loyal to the central government .
He spent lavishly, in the arts and architecture. During his reign France became the cultural model for other countries and ballet came to be an important art form.
He neglected the common people.
He revoked the Edict of Nantes
English and Dutch kings fought with him to try to keep a balance of power in Europe .
His wars left the treasury drained.
Louis XIV Government
Appointed close advisors- Jean-Baptiste Colbert
The poor carried most of the tax burden.
Louis XIV’s France flourished in arts and culture, but he left France in financial despair.
Major conflicts between nobles and middle class will lead to the French Revolution.
Balance Of Power In EUrope At This Time France Sweden England Netherlands
Russian Rulers Ivan IV - the 1st Czar Stalin admired him. The rest of Europe believed he was mad. What is certain is that he was one of the most ruthless tyrants in history. A man of God who personally tortured his victims and beat his own son to death; a hardened despot who often behaved like a coward, asking his ally, Elizabeth I of England, for political asylum; a man who believed himself chosen to save the souls of his people, but who brutally put thousands to death in carefully orchestrated purges.
Russian Rulers Ivan IV - the 1st Czar Sought to reduce power of the boyars (nobles) who threatened his power. Increased trade, introduced the printing press to Russia, gained territory
1584-1613: After death of Ivan the Terrible, “Time of Troubles” in Russia
Famine, epidemics, peasant revolts
Michael Romanov elected czar
Russian Rulers Peter the Great Czar- from the Romanov family 7 feet tall Took over when he was 10, but did not really exercise power until 1689. Grew up going to the “German Quarter” and learned of new, western technology. Worked numerous jobs to learn skills Sought to “ westernize ” Russia
Russian Rulers Peter the Great Peter’s goals -Westernize Russia -Strengthen the military -Expand Russia’s borders -Centralize royal power He did this by forcing the landowning nobles, called boyars into service of the government or the military. He also took control of the Eastern Orthodox Christian Church
Russian Rulers Peter the Great
Peter the Great made Russia better by bringing western technology and “upgrades” into the country.
Peter the Great made life worse for the Russian people by
Bring serfdom into Russia
Forcing serfs to work in the army or on public projects
Showing no mercy to anyone who resisted his changes.
He tortured and killed anyone who resisted, including his own elite palace guards –whose corpses he left rotting in the streets.
Russian Rulers Peter the Great
Peter the Great’s biggest problem was that Russia had no warm water ports . He battled with the Ottoman Turks to try to gain control of the Black Sea, but could not defeat them.
He had, however, defeated Sweden for good cold water ports along the Baltic Sea.
Peter built his capital, the city of St. Petersburg, on the Baltic Sea, giving him a “gateway to the West.”
He forced laborers to drain a swamp along the Neva river, resulting in hundreds dead.
Russian Rulers Catherine the Great
When Peter the Great died, he did not leave an heir to the throne. The Romanov family began to battle for power.
Catherine was born in Prussia, but came to Russia to marry Czar Peter III. She learned Russian an converted to Orthodox Christianity.
Peter III went crazy, and was assassinated by his own guards… who then made Catherine their leader.
Russian Rulers Catherine the Great She embraced Peter the Great’s ideas of westernization and serfdom. She became strong by letting the boyars go without paying taxes and taxing the peasants heavily herself. Many more Russians were forced into serfdom. She defeated the Ottomans to gain control of the Black Sea. In the 1790s she divided up, or partitioned, Poland between Russia, Prussia (Under Frederick the Great) and Austria. By the time they were done, Poland would be gone from the map, not to re-appear as a free Poland until 1919.
Austria and Prussia Prussia Prussia
Austria and Prussia
The Thirty Years War that ended in 1648 was the last of the wars of religion.
In fact the final phases of the war were more about politics and international relations than religion.
The major wars of the eighteenth century were the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War.
These wars were fought with professional armies and involved warfare as a way to further national interest. The areas of conflict for these two wars were colonial holdings and central and eastern Europe.
Mom of Marie Antoinette who will marry French King Louis XVI AUSTRIA - THE GERMAN STATES Still part of Holy Roman Empire Austrian Hapsburgs-family ruled HRE Maria Theresa inherited throne in 1740 from her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. He passed the following: Pragmatic sanction -a royal statement that allowed for a woman to inherit all Hapsburg lands.
AUSTRIA - THE GERMAN STATES Still part of Holy Roman Empire Maria Theresa Her Problems She made war with Prussia when they seized some of her land (Silesia). Despite a lack of knowledge in politics, she was a good enough politician to get help from other nations (Great Britain and the Netherlands).
AUSTRIA - THE GERMAN STATES Still part of Holy Roman Empire Austrian Hapsburgs-family ruled HRE Problems in the empire i. patchwork: ppl, religion, language ii. diversity makes difficult to rule Her solutions i. Strengthened central government ii. Increased trade and industry
Austria’s Chief Rival is Prussia Austria Prussia Families Hapsburgs Hohenzollern Religion Catholic Protestant The Fredericks Maria Theresa Rulers
Frederick William I
More on these guys on the next slide
Prussia Will develop into the biggest, baddest army around!
Prussia Their Rulers In Brief
Frederick William = Great Elector
unified army, tax, transportation, agriculture
1. by now he’s called King of Prussia
Frederick Willliam I
1. tightened up spending
2. extreme army (goose step) The Royal Drill Sergeant
3. all kids must attend school
1. wimp? No, expanded empire of Prussia
Became a powerful Protestant state.
North German Princes called Hohenzollern united their lands after the Peace of Westphalia.
They took the power of the other lords, known as Junkers, but gained their loyalty back by giving them powerful jobs in the army.
They centralized government as an absolute monarchy under Frederick William , who did this by forming one of the fiercest militaries ever seen…
“ Prussia is not a a state which possesses an army, rather an army that possesses a state.
Prussia Frederic William’s son, named Frederick II, who was treated harshly by his father, became a brilliant military leader, and was given the title Frederick the Great. Austria and Prussia had both arisen as powerful states, and competed with each other for power over central Europe for a long time to come.
War between Austria and Prussia - The War of Austrian Seccession
Frederick the Great invades the Austrian territory of Silesia.
Enormous desire to expand Prussian territory.
Silesia rich in natural resources.
Frederick the Great rejected the Pragmatic Sanction which justified Maria’s power.
All over Silesia: War of Austrian Seccession
Diplomatic Revolution: shifting alliances
Had always been GB & Austria vs. Fr & Prussia
Switch to GB & Prussia vs. Fr & Austria
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Officially recognized Prussia’s rise as an important European nation
Maria Theresa was determined to get Silesia back.
She becomes allied to Russia, who’s Empress Elizabeth was an archenemy of Frederick the Great…we now have the tables set for another war.
Frederick the Great, by the war’s end, is able to keep most of Silesia
The Seven Years War was between Austria and Prussia over Silesia and between France and Great Britain (known as French and Indian War in America)
Prussia and their war w/ Austria
RESULTS OF THE SEVEN YEARS WAR/WAR OF AUSTRIAN SECESSION
Prussia gets Silesia and Britain is strongest colonial power.
and potatoes hit the market in new lands controlled by Prussia
A Civil War called the War of Roses
The Tudor family under Henry VII won.
His second son was Henry VIII
His daughter was Elizabeth - Queen Elizabeth, who ruled for 40 years - England’s Golden Age
England Under Elizabeth I England flourished culturally (Shakespeare) People were loyal to her Restored Protestantism Social class was important Married to England
England Under Elizabeth I Conflict : Philip II (Spain) planned to invade England and force a Catholic ruler. Mary Queen of Scots was Liz’s heir to the throne and she was Catholic. She and Philip plotted against her. Resolution: Liz had her beheaded. Conflict: Angry Phillip sent the Spanish Armada to invade England. Resolution: 1588 England won!
Spanish Armada in 1588 In the latter part of the 16th century, Spain was the major international power. English 'sea-dogs' had been causing a great deal of damage to Spain's trade in silver. Men such as Sir Francis Drake attacked Spanish shipping off of the West Indies and Spain lost a vast sum of money when the ships carrying silver sunk or had their cargo captured by Drake. To the English, Drake was a hero but to the Spanish he was nothing more than a pirate who, in their view, was allowed to do what he did with the full knowledge of Queen Elizabeth. This the Spanish could not accept.
England Under Elizabeth I Sir Francis Drake is the English Naval Hero of the battle Gravelines
England again, with the religious intolerance.....
Elizabeth was most concerned with the unity of her country
This meant even those Puritans who felt the Church of England (Anglican Church) was still too similar to the Catholic Church in its practices. It needed to be “purified.”
Elizabeth persecuted Catholics and Protestants who were not Anglicans. That meant the Puritans. Many fled to the new world
England again, with the religious intolerance.....
Elizabeth’s rule s of Puritans paying taxes was similar to other rulers of the time BUT the Puritans did not forget....
England Elizabeth and Parliment
Parliment made of
House of Lords
House of Commons
gentry - born into families with land but likely won’t inheret the land
burgesses - merchants and professionals
Elizabeth handled them all skillfully
England When Elizabeth I died with no heir James VI of Scotland became James I of England. The Stuart kings (James I and Charles I) had great difficulty in their relationship with Parliament. The number of Puritan members had increased, which meant religious as well as political conflict. James VI of Scotland who became James I of England....like the naming of “Jamestown, Va”
England When Elizabeth I died with no heir James VI of Scotland became James I of England. The Stuart kings (James I and Charles I) had great difficulty in their relationship with Parliament. The number of Puritan members had increased, which meant religious as well as political conflict. Charles I of England....like the naming of “Carolina”
England Charles I of England.
Was forced to sign the Petition of Right which limited his power.
Ignored the Petition of Right and vowed to never call Parliament again.
Puritans fled to the American Colonies (the Great Migration)
Tried to force Anglicanism on Scotland (which was Presbyterian)-led to rebellion
England Charles I of England.
Called Parliament into session to get money to put down rebellion.
Parliament wanted to voice their complaints so he dismissed them again.
He was forced to call on them another time for money.
This Parliament met for 20 years- The Long Parliament .
Disagreements led to civil war in England
England The situation of religious conflict finally led to the English Revolution, the beheading of Charles, and the Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell. and he was a boring fellow!
England This solution did not workout We’ll continue that story another day....
Spain Phillip II Phillip II-1556-1598 Hapsburg family Son of Holy Roman Emperor-Charles V Catholic Most powerful Spanish monarch in history Enemy of all Protestants Sent the Spanish Armada to invade England
Spain Phillip II Age of Spanish Greatness Inherited lands including Netherlands, parts of Italy, part of the Americas Insists on strict conformity to Catholicism and strong monarchical authority
Spain Phillip II
Spanish Netherlands were richest part of
Tried to strengthen control over Dutch noblemen. They were Calvinistic. Philip II tried to crush their resistance under
William the Silent – prince of Orange
Finally truce called but these Dutch provinces began to unite and call themselves:
United Provinces of the Netherlands. – core of modern Dutch state
Phillip II’s Palace El Escorial
Phillip II’s Palace El Escorial
Spain at Phillip II’s death Reign ends 1598 At that time Spain had most populous empire in the world Controlled almost all of South America Controlled settlements in Asia and Africa Seemed to be the greatest power on Earth In reality, bankrupt, armed forces out of date, and inefficient gov’t
Spain at Phillip II’s death The defeat of the Spanish Armada led to the decline of Spain as a world power. Spain suffered from inflation due to the influx of gold and silver from the Americas. Philip’s son and grandson carried on his rule (Philip III, and IV) Charles II, Philip IV’s son was the last of the Spanish Hapsburgs. Other European monarchs plotted to take the Spanish throne
The Age Of Absolutism
Absolute monarchies with centralized governments began to rise to power in Europe.
The dominant forces in Europe were England, France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia.
Religious divisions were evident Protestants (England + Prussia), Catholics (France + Austria), and Eastern Orthodox Christianity (Russia).
Competitions formed between certain nations.
-England v. France- in the new world
-Prussia v. Austria over the German States
Alliances were formed between these powers constantly to preserve a balance of power in Europe. These alliances would also shift depending on the goals of the leaders involved.