France Under Louis XIV To increase stability in countries, gave monarch’s more power = Absolutism = a system in which a ruler holds total power. It is tied to the Divine Right of Kings. Remember DRofK said that rulers got their power from God and were responsible to no one except God. Meant they made laws, levied taxes, administered justice, controlled oﬃcials, and made their own foreign policy. King Louis XIV (of France) is the PERFECT example.
King Louis XIVGo to Youtube: King Louis XIV Rap.
Richelieu & MazarinLouis XIV came to the throne in 1643 (he was four years old).Cardinal Mazarin, the chief minister, took control of thegovernment until Louis was old enough.Mazarin died in 1661 and Louis took complete power at theage of 23. He called himself the Sun King - the source of lightfor all his people.
Government & ReligionLouis set up a royal court at Versailles. It was the Household of the king The chief oﬃcers of the state were located there too. It was the place where powerful subjects came to ﬁnd favors and oﬃces for themselves.
Government & ReligionLouis’ greatest threat came from high nobles and royal princes.(They wanted to play a role in the government).So...he removed them from the royal council.His government ministers obeyed his every wish.People that lived far from Versailles were able to have their localnobles control some of their day to day life. The king was justtoo far away to stop it or to control it. This made Louis XIV mad. He would hire people to spy on them and to make sure that they followed his rules.
Government & ReligionLouis was anti-Protestant and aimed at converting theHuguenots to Catholicism.He ordered the destruction of Huguenot churches andclosed their schools.As many as 200,000 Huguenots ﬂed to England, the UnitedProvinces, and the German states.
The Economy & WarThe cost of building palaces, maintaining his court, andpursuing his wars made $$ a big issue for Louis XIV.Luckily, he had Jean-Baptiste Colbert as the controller -general of ﬁnances. He increased France’s wealth and power by following mercantilism. Decreased imports and increased exports and granted subsidies to new industries.
Economy & WarColbert improved communicationsand the transportation of goods bybuilding roads and canals.Louis created a standing army of400,000. He wanted military glorybeﬁtting of the Sun King.He waged four wars between 1667 and1713. Many nations made coalitions toprevent him from dominating Europe.
Legacy of Louis XIVHe died in 1715. He left France in huge debt and surroundedby enemies.
German StatesAfter theThirty Years’War, therewere over 300German states.382 sovereignstates andsemi-sovereignstates.
The Emergence of PrussiaFrederick William the Great Elector helped tomake Prussia a state.Prussia was a small open territory with no naturalfrontiers for defense so Frederick built a largeand eﬃcient army (40,000 men). To pay the menand maintain army = General War Commissariatto get taxes from the people of Prussia. Watch the rise and fall ofHis son, Frederick III then became King Russia onFrederick I. Youtube!
The New Austrian EmpireAfter the defeat of the Turks at Vienna in 1683,Watch the Battle of Vienna on Youtube.The Austrian monarchy never became highly centralized.Austria was made up of so many diﬀerent national groups,there was not one absolutist monarch.It was a collection of territories held together by theHapsburg emperor, archduke of Austria, king of Bohemia,and the king of Hungary.
Ivan the TerribleIn the 16th century, Ivan IV became the ﬁrst ruler to takethe title of czar, the Russian word for caesar.He expanded the territories of Russia eastward.Known as Ivan the Terrible because of his ruthless deeds:stabbing his own son to death in an argument. (Watch Ivanthe Terrible Man documentary on Youtube).His dynasty ended in 1598 = anarchy or the Time of Troubles.Ended when Michael Romanov was named new czar in 1613.
Peter the GreatThe Romanov dynasty lasted until 1917. Peter the Great wasone of the most well known. He was czar in 1689. He wasabsolutist and claimed the Divine Right of Kings.He traveled and wanted to Europeanize Russia. He usedmany military and technological advances to improveRussia.By his death in 1725, Russia was a great military power andan important European state.
Military & Gov’t ChangesPeter reorganized the army. Employed both Russians andEuropeans as oﬃcers.Drafted peasants for 25 year stints of service to build anarmy of 210,000 soldiers. Made the ﬁrst Russia navy too.He divided Russia into provinces.His personality created an atmosphere of fear instead of asense of civic duty.
Cultural Change and a New CapitalAfter visiting the west, he introduced Western customs,practices, and manners into Russia.Made the ﬁrst Russian book of etiquette.Men had to shave their heads and shorten their coats.Upper class women could remove their traditional face-covering veils and move about society.Both sexes could now mix for conversation and dancing atgatherings.
Cultural Changes and a New CapitalPeter wanted to make Russia into a great state and militarypower and to “open a window to the West”.He wanted Sweden = water port.Won Sweden and it’s ports after a long war with Sweden.Once on the Baltic Sea in 1703, Peter began construction ofhis new capital city, St. Petersburg.Watch the Youtube video: Peter the Great (discovery)