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Mash Up In Between Wars

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Mash Up In Between Wars

  1. 1. BETWEEN THE “BIG” WARS <ul><li>an intermission in which you see previews of the next war </li></ul>
  2. 2. Europe in 1919
  3. 3. League of Nations Members in 1919
  4. 4. Washington Naval Conference 1922 U. S. Britain Japan France Italy 5 5 3 1.67 1.67 Kellogg Briand Pact 1928
  5. 5. France
  6. 6. France <ul><li>Counted on German reparations to pay for rebuild of infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>liberals under Populist Party run gov’t for a while </li></ul><ul><li>inflation and bad economy make trouble for France </li></ul>Severe economic problems 1) war debt to US 2) need to build defense against Germany - Maiginot line
  7. 7. France
  8. 8. France Guaranteed the common boundaries of Belgium, France, and Germany as specified in the Treaty of Versailles of 1919.
  9. 10. England
  10. 13. ART really, what will art say about society after WWI?
  11. 17. United States
  12. 24. China
  13. 25. China
  14. 26. <ul><li>That nationalist feeling the Boxer Rebellion generated stayed with the Chinese people </li></ul><ul><li>The Kuomintang = Nationalist Party was born </li></ul><ul><li>Leader Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen) </li></ul>
  15. 27. <ul><li>They wanted a constitution, civil liberties, and a modern economy </li></ul><ul><li>1911 The Chinese overthrew the Empress </li></ul><ul><li>A 4000 year old monarchy was dead! </li></ul><ul><li>A new China was born </li></ul>
  16. 28. <ul><li>E xcept is wasn’t all good. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Yixian couldn’t keep control </li></ul><ul><li>Warlords came </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Yixian fled to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>KMT (Nationalists or the Kuomintang) tried to control the warlords </li></ul><ul><li>Of all the foreign powers only the USSR would help </li></ul>
  17. 29. <ul><li>The KMT splits when Sun Yixian died in 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>New leader is of conservative right is Chiang Kai-shek. *he controls the army </li></ul><ul><li>The new leader of the liberal left is Mao Zedong </li></ul>Mao Zedong Chiang Kai-shek
  18. 30. Chiang Kai-shek runs the KMT and runs the Communists out. Mao Zedong and his followers begin the Long March
  19. 31. China Oct 1934, the Chinese Communist Army was facing annihilation, surrounded by hundred thousand Nationalist soldiers. 86,000 begin the Long March- 4,000 miles only 10,000 survive
  20. 32. MEANWHILE.... <ul><li>The Japanese begin to encroach on Chinese resource rich territory </li></ul><ul><li>This invasion & the Chiang Kai-shek’s inability to protect the Chinese people will push many Chinese to Mao Zedong’s side. </li></ul><ul><li>In particular, the peasants begin to trust Mao more...and there a LOT of peasants </li></ul>
  21. 33. LATER... <ul><li>Eventually Chiang Kai-shek will flee to Taiwan Island (the other China) </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong will take over China after World War II </li></ul><ul><li>China will become Communist </li></ul>
  22. 34. Japan
  23. 36. Meiji Restoration <ul><li>All things Western </li></ul><ul><li>Modern industrial and military power </li></ul><ul><li>Japan began to expand its own imperialistic empire </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need raw materials/markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>want to show modernity to the West </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 37. Japan & Manchuria <ul><li>Manchuria is resource rich </li></ul><ul><li>Japan has growing industrial economy </li></ul><ul><li>Russian threat in Manchuria was large </li></ul><ul><li>Japan allies with the great British empire to protect Japanese & British interests in the area </li></ul>
  25. 38. Japan & Manchuria <ul><ul><ul><li>Diplomacy fails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan and Russia go to war over Manchuria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russo-Japanese War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strategic port of Port Arthur in Manchuria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese overrun Korea then on to Manchuria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 39. Japanese Attack Manchuria League of Nations condemns the action. Japan leaves the League
  27. 40. Japan & Manchuria <ul><li>Japanese are winning but costs are high </li></ul><ul><li>US President Teddy Roosevelt negotiates Russo-Japanese peace treaty (he wins the Nobel Peace Prize for this) </li></ul><ul><li>This is called the Treaty of Portsmouth </li></ul>
  28. 41. Japan & Manchuria <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Portsmouth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese get Port Arthur </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese get southern tip of Russian island of Sakhalin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese are officially recognized as official power in Korea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it eliminated competition in Manchuria - it was dominated by Japanese now </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 42. Japan & Manchuria Russo-Japanese War of 1905 What is the big deal? First war to demonstrate an Asian country could defeat a European power
  30. 43. Japan & Modernization Problems <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too fast </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. higher industrialization, medical care, cities, population, need for more food </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lots of Japanese emigration to US, Hawaii, Korea, Taiwan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 44. Japan & Modernization Problems <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Economic appetite so large for raw materials that Japan must expand.... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labor unions rise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>urban intellectuals argue for all things Western </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>young people begin to question value of traditional Japanese society </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when Great Depression hit, many blamed the move away from traditional values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 45. Japan & Military <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. growing influence of military </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese leaders difficult time dealing w/ problems & pressures of rapid change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more and more people oppose Westernization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>atmosphere of turmoil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ENTER THE MILITARY </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 46. Japan & Military <ul><li>World War I meant total war which meant military had to draw on total resources of the nation </li></ul><ul><li>With turmoil of 1920s and 1930s, Japan found itself increasingly militarized - military needs, values, and goals shape a nation’s policies </li></ul>
  34. 47. Rape of Nanjing In December of 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army marched into China's capital city of Nanking and proceeded to murder an estimated 300,000 out of 600,000 civilians and soldiers in the city. The six weeks of carnage would become known as the Rape of Nanking and represented the single worst atrocity during the World War II era in either the European or Pacific theaters of war.
  35. 48. Japan Taken Over By Military <ul><li>Emperor Hirohito </li></ul><ul><li>also known as Emperor Showa </li></ul><ul><li>he will rule as Japan moves from a rural country to a militarized state </li></ul><ul><li>he will officially surrender at the end of WWII </li></ul>
  36. 49. Japan Taken Over By Military <ul><li>Hideki Tojo </li></ul><ul><li>a general who will become the prime minister of Japan during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>he will be sentenced to death at the end of WWII for his war crimes </li></ul>
  37. 50. Japan & China War 1937 What is the big deal? This war created negative chaos that weakened European control over China and enabled Mao and communism to come to power and destroy all aspects of European colonialism in China.
  38. 51. Japan Taken Over By Military <ul><li>So answer this: </li></ul><ul><li>How did World War I contribute to the growing rise of military influence over the gov’t of Japan? </li></ul>
  39. 52. Militarized Societies <ul><li>Japan </li></ul>Italy Germany
  40. 53. Spain
  41. 54. Spain Nationalists vs. Republicans
  42. 55. Spain
  43. 56. Spain Dictator Francisco Franco
  44. 57. Italy
  45. 58. Italy
  46. 59. Italy
  47. 60. Italy
  48. 62. Germany
  49. 63. Germany
  50. 64. Germany
  51. 65. Germany
  52. 66. Germany
  53. 67. Germany
  54. 68. Germany
  55. 69. Germany
  56. 70. Germany
  57. 71. Germany
  58. 72. Germany
  59. 73. Germany
  60. 74. Germany