English Absolutism


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English Absolutism

  1. 1. English Absolutism<br />
  2. 2. James I<br />Stuart (not a Tudor)<br />King of Scotland<br />Nephew of Elizabeth I<br />Initially agreed to rule according to English law and customs<br />Parliament involved<br />Until…divine right<br />
  3. 3. Tensions with Parliament<br />Disagreements about money<br />Lavish lifestyle<br />Wars<br />Taxes<br />Disagreements about foreign policy<br />James’ solution  dissolve Parliament<br />
  4. 4. Religious Tensions<br />Puritans wanted:<br />“purify” the Church of England of Catholic practices<br />Simpler services<br />More democratic church with no powerful bishops<br />James rejected their demands<br />Chased them out of England<br />
  5. 5. Charles I<br />Inherits the throne from his father, James I (1625)<br />Like his father, he ruled as an absolute monarch<br />Bickered with Parliament<br />Imprisoned enemies without trial<br />Ran the nation into further debt<br />
  6. 6. Petition of Right<br />Debt from:<br />Super-luxurious lifestyle<br />War with France<br />Need of money  called for Parliament to convene <br />Parliament refused to fork over any money until Charles I signed Petition of Right<br />
  7. 7. Petition of Right<br />No funds could be borrowed or raised through taxes & tariffs without the explicit approval of Parliament<br />
  8. 8. Petition of Right<br />2. No free person (Britain had slavery at this time) could be imprisoned without a reason<br />
  9. 9. The Deal<br />Charles I signed the Petition, thereby agreeing to its terms (and getting his $$)<br />Did Charles have any intention of keeping his word?<br />
  10. 10. Dissolution of Parliament<br />Charles immediately broke his word <br />To avoid a confrontation with Parliament, he dissolved it (would stay dissolved for 12 years)<br />Now on his own…with no funds from Parliament<br />
  11. 11. Charles’ Budget Cuts<br />Made peace with enemies (peace is cheaper than war)<br />Downsized government administration <br />Innovative tax increases<br />One goal in mind  rule without Parliament<br />
  12. 12. Charles and Religion<br />Much like his father, Charles was against the Puritans<br />Allowed the Archbishop of Canterbury (William Laud) to freely take any measures to stifle the Puritans<br />
  13. 13. Puritans Under Charles I<br />Forbidden to publish or preach<br />Scottish Puritans were forced to use the Church of England’s prayer books, rituals, hierarchy, etc<br />Rebellion occurred, thus forcing Charles to reconvene Parliament<br />
  14. 14. Twelve Years to Stew<br />Parliament had 12 years to stew and were ready to show Charles no mercy<br />Refused Charles any money until he addressed a very long list of complaints<br />What do you think Charles did??<br />
  15. 15. Buh-Bye Parliament<br />Charles refused their demands and dismissed them (known as “The Short Parliament”)<br />Still, he was without money<br />Reconvened Parliament again, but this time agreed to their demands<br />
  16. 16. Parliament’s Demands<br />Illegal to raise taxes without Parliament okay<br />William Laud – impeached & executed<br />Charles’ centralized bureaucracy – abolished<br />Law that only Parliament could dismiss itself<br />Law that Parliament had to meet every 3 years<br />
  17. 17. Rebellion in Ireland<br />Religious radicals in Ireland rebelled<br />Charles wanted funds for an army to go in<br />Parliament did not trust Charles with an army<br />Proposal from radicals in Parliament – the army should be under Parliament’s control<br />
  18. 18. One Angry King<br />Charles not very happy about this<br />Stormed Parliament with his own army<br />Bold, yet foolish move<br />Parliament issued Militia Ordinance which officially declared the army under Parliament’s control<br />The result????<br />
  19. 19. The English Civil War<br />
  20. 20. Cavaliers & Roundheads<br />Cavaliers = Supporters of King Charles I<br />Wealthy nobles<br />Wore plumed hats<br />Fashionably long hair<br />Well trained in dueling & warfare<br />Expected a quick win<br />
  21. 21. Cavaliers & Roundheads<br />Roundheads = Supporters of Parliament<br />Country gentry, town- dwelling manufacturers, & Puritan clergy<br />Called Roundheads b/c of their hair style<br />Underdogs<br />Leader – Oliver Cromwell<br />
  22. 22. Oliver Cromwell<br />Puritan, gentry, military genius<br />Organized “New Model Army” into a skilled force<br />Defeated Cavaliers<br />Became “Lord Protectorate” after Civil War<br />
  23. 23. The Execution of a King<br />Charles I was put on trial <br />Found guilty<br />Sentenced to death as a “tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy”<br />
  24. 24. Life Under Puritan Rule<br />After Charles I’s execution, House of Commons abolished :<br />The monarchy<br />The House of Lords<br />The Church of England<br />
  25. 25. England a Republic?<br />England declared republic<br />Not all agree – Charles II is the heir<br />Rebellions broke out (Ireland)<br />Oliver Cromwell <br />crushed them<br />persecuted Catholics<br />exiled Catholics to remote parts of Ireland<br />
  26. 26. End of the Commonwealth<br />After Cromwell’s death (1658) Puritans lost control of England<br />New Parliament invited Charles II back as King<br />Charles II met with cheering crowds<br />
  27. 27. Charles II<br />Popular ruler<br />“Man-crush” on Louis XIV (idolized him)<br />Tolerant of various religions<br />Accepted Petition of Right (learned from his Daddy’s mistakes!)<br />
  28. 28. James II<br />Inherits the throne <br />Brother of Charles II <br />Flaunted his Catholic faith<br />Many feared he would restore Catholicism<br />
  29. 29. William & Mary<br />Parliament invited James’ Protestant daughter Mary II & her Dutch Protestant husband William of Orange to the throne<br />
  30. 30. The Glorious Revolution<br />William & Mary arrived with an army<br />No need – James II fled to France<br />Parliament sets up a Limited Monarchy via a Bill of Rights<br />Also affirmed habeas corpus (no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime)<br />Radical concept in the Age of Absolutism…<br />
  31. 31. Homework<br />Read Primary Source document, “Charles I on the Scaffold” and answer the questions on the back<br />