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Napoleon bonaparte hero or tyrant?1

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Napoleon bonaparte hero or tyrant?1

  1. 1. Napoleon Bonaparte 1769-1821 1769-1821 1769-1821 <ul><li>Hero or Tyrant? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Napoleon - Who Is He? 1804 Declared himself Emperor of France Brilliant embodiment of French Revolution ideals of egalitarianism and meritocracy The creator of modern warfare At height of his power he ruled 70 million people
  3. 3. Napoleon Bonaparte
  4. 4. Napoleon Bonaparte 1804 -1814 or1815 1789-1791 1799-1804 1791-1792 1795-1799 1792-1795
  5. 5. Napoleon Bonaparte <ul><li>Napoleon Bonaparte dominated European history from 1799 to 1815. </li></ul><ul><li>He preserved what was beneficial in the revolutionary program. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon was born in 1769 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica. </li></ul><ul><li>He went to a military school in France on a royal scholarship. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1785, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the French army. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Napoleon Bonaparte <ul><li>The French Revolution and the European wars that followed it gave him the chance to use his knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>By the age of only 24, Napoleon was made a brigadier general by the Committee of Public Safety. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Napoleon Bonaparte- A Brilliant Military Commander
  8. 8. Napoleon Bonaparte 1796-1797 The Italian Campaigns. He conquered most of Italy for France. He captured 540 cannon and 170 standards In northern Italy, he moved to suppress religious orders, end serfdom, and limit age-old noble privilege. He took Venice- ending 1,100 years of independence
  9. 9. Napoleon Bonaparte Even Napoleon, an example of egalitarian France, recognizes the importance of honor.....
  10. 10. Napoleon Bonaparte <ul><li>He was a brilliant strategist. </li></ul><ul><li>He used deception on the field and off </li></ul><ul><li>During the Italy campaigns of 1797 he created 2 newspapers: 1 for the troops and 1 for France. </li></ul><ul><li>When he returns to France he is a hero </li></ul>
  11. 11. Napoleon Bonaparte 1798 the Directory rules France. Napoleon helps them stay in power.... He wants to destroy England (of course!) but knows the French navy is not equipped to defeat the strongest naval force on earth. So Napoleon turns to Egypt where he hopes to cut off the trade route between India and England. (India, a British colony, provides immense wealth to England...remember the British East India Tea Company; the world’s largest corporation...with its own army)
  12. 12. Napoleon Bonaparte 1798- Napoleon in Egypt He took along 167 scientists, mathematicians, chemists, etc. Their discoveries included the Rosetta Stone
  13. 13. Napoleon Bonaparte Why Napoleon’s Grand Army loves him so....
  14. 14. Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway? <ul><li>Speed and Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Very mobile army - marched 500 miles in 5 weeks to capture Vienna, Austria </li></ul>It was said, the emperor Napoleon won his battles with legs rather than arms. He could calculate the marching speed and distance so exactly that he knew with certainity when his support troops would arrive
  15. 15. Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway? <ul><li>Napoleon was brilliant at divide and conquer </li></ul><ul><li>He could “see the field” and knew exactly where the enemy would march - he often set successful traps and he often deceived the enemy as to his intent or the size of his troops </li></ul>
  16. 16. Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway? <ul><li>French Cannon could shoot an 8 pound projectile (other armies used a 6 pounder) and it was very mobile </li></ul>
  17. 17. Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway? <ul><li>He used guerilla warfare - particularly in the Peninsular campaign </li></ul><ul><li>modern army....! At VMI American civil war generals Lee and Jackson studied this tactic of Napoleon’s </li></ul>
  18. 18. Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway? But the PRIMARY WEAPON of the French forces was Napoleon’s mind Napoleon was a brilliant tactician. Duke of Wellington said, “ Napoleon’s hat on the battlefield is worth 50,000 men”
  19. 19. Napoleon Bonaparte What made Napoleon’s army so terrifying anyway? This could be your next evil headquarters... This is a 30-foot-tall Martello Tower in Suffolk, England. It has one door, 13-foot-thick walls, and was built to keep Napoleon out of England
  20. 20. Napoleon Bonaparte
  21. 21. Napoleon Bonaparte MEANWHILE...... Back in France, the French Republican army is not doing to well fighting the Second Coalition. Over time there are 6+ different coalition forces against France and Napoleon. Coalition Allies against France/Napoleon: England, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Spain (and just about everyone else)
  22. 22. Napoleon Bonaparte 1799-1804 The Consulate The Directory is overthrown in a coup d’etat The Consulate (3 men- 1 of which is Napoleon) will rule until 1804
  23. 23. Napoleon Bonaparte 1801-1802 Temporary Peace in Europe <ul><li>France isn’t yet ready to invade England </li></ul><ul><li>A temporary peace is signed </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon under the Consulate issues significant reforms </li></ul>
  24. 24. Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 1. Civil code of law- Napoleonic Code of Law was clearly written and accessible Its purpose was to reform the French legal code to reflect the principles of the Fr. Revolution. Create one law code for France.
  25. 25. Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon Napoleonic Code of Law 1. All people equal in the eyes of the law: no special privileges for clergy, nobles, etc 2. Feudal rights are ended 3. Trail by jury guaranteed 4. Religious freedom guaranteed 5. Wives could own her own property (with her husband’s permission in writing) Did Napoleon preserve the ideals of the French Revolution, as he claimed, in his domestic policies?
  26. 26. Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon Influence of the Napoleonic Code of Law Wherever it was implemented (in the conquered territories), the Code Napoleon swept away feudal property relations.
  27. 27. Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 2. Centralized administration Napoleon developed a powerful, centralized administrative machine with promotion based on ability. Opening government careers to individuals based on their ability was one change the middle class wanted. Napoleon created a new aristocracy based on merit in the state service. He created 3,263 nobles between 1808 and 1814. More than half were military officers and from the middle class.
  28. 28. Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 3. Centralized bank and currency
  29. 29. Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon <ul><li>4. Concordat of 1801 with Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Catholicism was declared the religion of the majority of France </li></ul><ul><li>Papal acceptance of church lands lost during the Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic bishops are subservient to the regime </li></ul>
  30. 30. Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 5. Legion of Honor- highest award possible in France Palace of the Legion of Honor, Paris
  31. 31. Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon 6. Higher Education In France, women are considered too highly. They should not be regarded as equal to men, In reality they are nothing more than machines for producing children Public education does not suit women, as they are not called upon to live in public… marriage is their whole estimation
  32. 32. Napoleon Bonaparte Reforms Under Napoleon Higher Education Lycee Education System of France Established by Napoleon in 1801 as an educational reform. Lycées initially enrolled the nation’s most talented students [they had to pay tuition, although there was some financial help available for poorer student]. Lycées trained the nation’s future bureaucrats.
  33. 33. Napoleon Bonaparte These revolutionary ideals that Napoleon established will influence other nations and other people Touissant L’Ouverture
  34. 34. Napoleon Bonaparte 1804 Napoleon declares himself Emperor
  35. 35. Napoleon Bonaparte- The Arc de Triomphe
  36. 36. Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon is still a military man and he wants to increase his empire What makes his army so different? How do the Napoleonic Wars become the beginning of modern warfare?
  37. 37. Napoleon Bonaparte <ul><li>It a different world by the 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>The coalition forces fought in the old European manner- one filled with established social classes, centuries of military habits, and one where noble blood meant you led men. </li></ul><ul><li>The French army fought in the manner of the French Revolution- a more egalitarian, patriotic citizentry where officers rose in rank, no matter their birth, but according to ability </li></ul>
  38. 38. Napoleon Bonaparte Modern Warfare
  39. 39. Napoleon Bonaparte
  40. 40. Napoleon Bonaparte Battle of Austerlitz 1805 Considered Napoleon’s most brilliant battle Considered one of history’s most brilliant battles Napoleon destroyed the Third Coalition in this battle
  41. 41. Napoleon Bonaparte Battle of Austerlitz 1805 Napoleon willingly gave up the high defense ground knowing how poorly organized the Allied forces were. The Allied or Coalition forces were led by the Russian Czar Alexander- Russia was still using the old Julian calendar rather than the European Gregorian calendar. That meant they were 12 days behind the Gregorian calendar. Incredibly, no one in the coalition forces saw this mistake. During the battle the Austrian general Mac was awaiting support from the Russian troops - surely they were near? No - they were 200 miles away.
  42. 42. Napoleon Bonaparte Battle of Austerlitz 1805 Napoleon held some troops behind the hill- knowing the Austrians would take the bait and come forward into his hinged trap They did French Coalition Napoleon ruled the mainland of Europe now! men dead 1305 15,000 men captured 573 12,000 standards lost 1 50
  43. 43. Napoleon Bonaparte All types of soldiers in the French Army
  44. 44. Napoleon Bonaparte The Battle of Trafalgar 1805 The British Navy destroys Napoleon’s navy The British hero Horatio Nelson achieves lasting fame
  45. 45. Napoleon Bonaparte
  46. 46. Napoleon Bonaparte Because of Trafalgar, Napoleon instituted the Continental System to destroy Great Britain Why? Because clearly his navy wasn’t capable enough to invade Great Britain All they could hope to do was to weaken Great Britain by cutting off its trade
  47. 47. Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon wants to defeat the British. He uses the Continental System - a circling of Europe in order to prevent England from trading with the continent. With this plan, Napoleon hopes to break the financial back of the British Empire. It failed. Everyone still traded with Britain
  48. 48. Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon wants to defeat the British. He uses the Continental System Everyone still traded with Britain Even Russia secretly traded with Great Britain. Napoleon finds himself forced to invade Russia
  49. 49. Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon turns to Russia
  50. 50. Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon in Russia
  51. 51. Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon in Russia as memorialized in music, film and everybody’s favorite ringtone.....
  52. 52. Napoleon Bonaparte 1814 Napoleon is exiled...for the first time After losing 500,000 men in the Russian campaign, Napoleon is defeated by the coalition forces. He is exiled to the island of Elba. But he comes back.... and his army, which was sent to capture him, instead turns around, welcomes him, and marches him back to Paris. He takes control AGAIN. This is the HUNDRED DAYS RULE
  53. 53. Napoleon Bonaparte
  54. 54. Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon meets his end at Waterloo Duke of Wellington vs Napoleon
  55. 55. Napoleon Bonaparte
  56. 56. Napoleon Bonaparte So what defeats Napoleon in the end? 1. Continental System did not work - he could not defeat the British 2. The Russian campaign seriously weakened his forces. 3. The very item he spread - nationalism or pride in one’s nation - would become the source of revolt against his rule