Your SlideShare is downloading. ×



Published on

For my e-portfolio.

For my e-portfolio.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide
  • Bullet 1: Don’t be deceived by the word “Archive” in the title—this isn’t what archivists, as we know them, work with. Bullet 2: They “aim to facilitate the efficient dissemination of content.”Bullet 3: OAIshares the objective of supporting access to scholarly materials. Instead of traditional archival materials, OAI serves as a networked repository of scholarly papers. When created, it served as a way to make e-prints, or grey literature, available.Bullet 4: This is their way of saying that they don’t really have technological mechanisms and economic assistance to offer; rather, they offer their framework and their assurance that once the proper technology and standards are created, their organization will adapt its mission and organization to better suit whatever may happen.Bullet 5: “Low-barrier” means that lots of people can use it—it applies to many different institutions and situations. They “believe that exposing metadata is plausible route to such a goal.”
  • Bullet 3: Technical experts met to discuss two major interoperability problems: end users were faced with multiple search interfaces making resource discovery harder, and there was no machine-based way of sharing the metadata. They wanted, ideally, to create a universal service for author-archived scholarlyresouces, but decided that the first step would need to be to identify or create interoperable technologies and frameworks for the dissemination of e-prints. They came up with an architecture they called UPS, but quickly changed the name because they didn’t want to be mistaken for the United Parcel Service. With some changes, it became OAI-PMH 1.0.Bullet 4: 1.0 was released in January 2001 and an update (1.1) was released just a few months later, in June 2001. There were some minor updates dealing with the XML. 2.0 was released in 2002 and is not compatible with the earlier versions. Instead of using oai_marc schema, they switched to MARCXML.
  • A helpful image from’s tutorial. XML was their standard from the beginning, but notice the changes in the “ABOUT” row. This shows, succinctly, the evolution of what the creators thought OAI-PMH would be used for. As we know, institutional repositories have not received the response that was hoped for, even though some (invested) people still shower it with praise.
  • Bullet 1: Not to be understated. In an environment of limited funding and experts, this is invaluable.Bullet 2: Our favorite! Interoperability makes your resources visible to others and thus, metadata from different places can searchable on a single interface. (We’ll play with a single interface soon.) But don’t mistake “CAN” for “ABSOLUTELY DOES.”
  • Bullet 1: Data Providers administer systems that support the OAI-PMH as a means of exposing metadata; they do not necessarily offer access to full-text.Service Providers use metadata harvested via the OAI-PMH as a basis for building value-added services; there are no live searches, they only search the metadata that is already there.Bullet 2: Remember, libraries using OAI-PMH are not actually required to register, so this list is wildly incomplete.
  • An OAI aggregator is both a Service Provider and a Data Provider. It is a service that gathers metadata records from multiple Data Providers and then makes those records available for gathering by others using the OAI-PMH.
  • Bullet 2: Resource is outside the scope of OAI-PMH. It is whatever the metadata is about. Item is “a constituent of a repository from which metadata about a resource can be disseminated. That metadata may be disseminated on-the-fly from the associated resource, cross-walked from some canonical form, actually stored in the repository, etc.” Record is metadata that is in a specific metadata schema.
  • Bullet 1: Both identifier and datestamp are required, and nonrepeatable. setSpec is optional and repeatable.
  • Bullet 1: There are no recommendations for the implementation of Sets.
  • Bullet 2: Harvesters are not required to use each request type, but the repository must allow for each request type. The purpose and parameters of each of these request types are available online, but for the sake of time, I will not explain them individually.
  • Bullet 2: It is one of the most used digital resource management tools used in the library world because of the following two advantages.Bullet 3: Which can increase the use of a collection, something that all libraries desire.Bullet 4: And those field names do not need to conform to any standard
  • OAI offers guidelines in an online document called “OAI-PMH Implementation Guidelines,” but it hasn’t been updated since 2005.
  • *(URI) - URI is the acronym for Universal Resource Identifier. URIs are strings that identify things on the Web. URIs are sometimes informally called URLs (Uniform Resource Locators), although URLs are more limited than URIs. URIs are used in a number of schemes, including the HTTP and FTP URI schemes. Related to Semantic Web.
  • Transcript

    • 1. OAI & OAI-PMH
      Albulena Bruncaj
      LIS 882
      Metadata for Internet Resources
    • 2. What is OAI?
      The Open Archives Initiative
      OAI is a framework that deals with interoperability standards for digital resources
      Traces its roots to the open access and institutional repository movements (e-prints)
      It is “explicitly in transition”
      Their goal is to define a “low-barrier” framework for cross-repository interoperability
    • 3. OAI-PMH – A Brief History
      The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
      The framework provides a technical mechanism for harvesting metadata from repositories
      Santa Fe meeting (1999)
      Cross-searching multiple archives based on Z39.50 or harvesting metadata into one or more "central" services in a bulk move of data?
      OAI-PMH 1.0/1.1 followed by OAI-PMH 2.0
    • 4. History (continued)
    • 5. OAI-PMH
    • 6. Why use OAI-PMH?
      Easily and rapidly deployed because it is XML and HTTP based
      Can use a single search interface
    • 7. Who Participates?
      Two classes:
      Data Providers
      Service Providers
      1357 registered OAI-PMH repositories —
    • 8. Multiple data & service providers
    • 9. Aggregators
    • 10. Repositories
      As defined by OAI-PMH, a repository is a network-accessible server that exposes metadata to harvesters
      Three entities related to this accessible metadata:
    • 11. Records
      header (mandatory)
      Datestamp (YYYY-MM-DD)
      setSpec elements
      status attribute for deleted item
      metadata (mandatory)
      XML encoded metadata with root tag, namespaces
      repositories must support Dublin Core, may support other formats
      about (optional)
      rights statements
      provenance statements
    • 12. setSpec
      Sets are optional
      Enable a logical partitioning of repositories, but they are not necessarily hierarchical
      Not necessarily exhaustive of content
      Helps facilitate selective harvesting, however
      Publication type
      Document type
      Content sets
    • 13. The Fun Part!
    • 14. Requests & Reponses
      Both use HTTP
      Request types (also called the “verbs”)
    • 15. Organizational Decisions
    • 16. DSpace
      Free, out-of-the-box software that enables access to digital content
    • 17. CONTENTdm
      CONTENTdm is a software used for the management of digital collections
      Widely used
      Metadata in CONTENTdm can be harvested through OAI-PMH
      Allows collection curators to extend basic Dublin Core schema to include locally defined fields
    • 18. CONTENTdm – Tension
      At minimum, simple Dublin Core is required
      CONTENTdm offers an easy way to make their metadata (and thus, digital collections) available while simultaneously providing curators with the means to create local, non-standardized metadata
    • 19. Issues with OAI-PMH
      Libraries face the challenge of creating metadata that both meets the requirements of local practices in granularity (e.g., putting certain content in fields not harvestable by others) and wanting to share their digital collections widely
      Is there any solution? Or are we all left to figure out our library’s balance on our own?
    • 20. Questions?
    • 21. Bibliography
      An overview of OAI OAI-PMH. 12 Nov. 2010. Retrieved from
      Han, M., Cho, C., Cole, T.W., and Jackson, A.S. “Metadata for special collections in CONTENTdm: How to improve interoperability of unique fields through OAI-PMH.” Journal of library metadata, 9(3/4), 213-238.
      OAI. 12 Nov. 2010. Retrieved from
      "OAI-PMH online tutorial." Open Archives Forum. 12 Nov. 2010. Retrieved from
      Zeng, M.L., and Qin, J. (2008). "Metadata repositories." In Metadata (224-232). New York: Neal-Schuman.